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Vol. VII.— No. 1. 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Ni). VIII 

Bv Hkkky C. Spencer. 

0«pyTigli'«l, Jauiuuy, 1663. by Spflnw 

luk. Correct piiaition of snns Bod hands. 

a movemcut exercise, which 
may 1)0 prirfitiiblj traced lightly, with the 
liry pt'U, anil thea practiced freely with ink, 
forming atii! juioiDg the letters throughout 
the combitiatioQ with combined tnovemeot 
and inaltieg the cotnpound sweeps left and 
right with forearm movement. Put vim 
iiitii this exercise, and continue until ynu can 
f.vecme it easily and well. Observe that the 
loops are tlie same in width as the small o's, 
and On the same slant. 

Copy 2 requires study be'fore practice. 
Ruled slant lines upon the page, and head- 
lines, each an i-space above the base- line, will 
assist in securiug correct slant and hight. 
Again, study the relation between short and 
extended letters: See how the first and se- 
cond strokes of t and its dot, apply in j; 
how the tliird, fourth and tifth strokes in n 
form also the first part of y; how the first 
four strokes of a a|>ply in r/; how the first 
and second strokes of « apply in e and the 
0, lengtlicned to 2* spaces, forms the lower 
half of /. Also, see in the monogram how 
all extended letters, both above and below 
the ruleil line, depend upon the loop as their 
principal stem. OI>serve that > has no shade, 
that y, g, i and / are each sUghtly shaded 
on theirsecond strokes. Make all the strokes 
of the letters with prompt movements, 
watched by a critical eye quick to detect 
fault! ■ ■ ■ 
the 1. 

right, c 

fault most 

■ loop letters is, slanting the loop 

■ If, as is often the case, this fault 
iult of turning the hand o"er to the 

>r, because the third and fourth fin- 
gers are not drawn hack under the middle 
of the hand away from the first and second 
fingers, to allow them unobstructed play in 
making descending strokes, the only remedy 
is to correct the position— to thus remove 
the cause of the defect. 

Copy .3, gives word-practice on the let- 
ters just taught. Other words giving such 
practice may also be written. Such words 
as the following : jusl, justitx ; yours truly; 
faith, faithful; amaie, amazing; good, 
goodness, etc. 

Bo careful that you do not make yonr 
loops too long 

which is a serious fault, one that gives writ- 
ing a confused, tangled appearance. 

Copy 4 teaches figures, signs and punc- 
tuation marks: 

The figures are of even greater import- 
ance than the letters, because they are so 
often employed to show important results. 
They should always be unmistakable. If 
a letter in a word is uncertain, its character 
may be determined by its connection; but 
It is not so with figures— they are independ- 
ent characters. 

The figure 1, if commenced on the left 
with a short oblique stroke, aa is often seen, 
is liable to be mistaken for a seven or a 
nine; and a naught, 0, made with its right 
side shortened, is liable to be mistaken for 

The copy shows all the figures, except 
the six, to be one and one- half times the 
i-space in hight. It shows the six to he 
half a space higher, and the seven and nine 
to be half a space longer below the base line. 

Analyze the figures naming their con- 
stituent elements— the straight line, right 
curve, and left curve; also, study forms and 
proportions, and observe that each has a 
slight shade. 

Learning to make the figures correctly 
may be greatly facilitated by placing trans- 
parent-paper or tracing-linen over the copy 
and writing upon that, guided by the cor- 
forms beneath. Then the pupil may 
the figures upon his transparent-paper 
away from the copy, and correct by placing 
them over the copy, and amending them to 

Copy 5. The Pioures in Squahes. 
Practice in writing the figures in squares 

j has h?en found excellent for the purpose of 
securing proper hight, spacing, and vertical 
columns. Draw a square four medium ruled 
spaces in hight, which is just one and one- 
half inches. Be careful to have the four 

sides equal. Divide the square by vertical 
and horizcmtal lines into fourths, then into 
sixteenths, then into sixty-fourths, accord- 
ing to model. With pen and ink write in 
the figures like the copy. The bight of all, 
except the six, should be three-fourths the 
hight of the squares. The six should be 
the full hight of a square, and the seven and 
nine extend below base line one-fourth of a 

Copy 6. Letters Simplified 
save time is to lengthen life," some 
truly said. In this copy we show how the 
labor of writing may be materially dimin- 
ished and much valuable time saved to the 
writer. This is done, mainly, by omitting 
the first upward stroke in upper loop letters, 
and in other letters that have top angular 
joinings at the beginning of words, as in a 
l>, c, d, f, g, h, i, j, k, I, 0, p, t, u, w ; alsoi 
by omitting the last curve from lower loop 
letters occurring at the end of words, and 


3'i C 170143 embracing lo 

Mind 2oqp crosEmgs 
^> C Hie Fi^uioE 

from short letters where their essential char- 
acter ia not affected thereby, as in /, g, o, s, 
y, z, final in copy. 

The final d in and, r in her, p in peep, t 
in tint, in copy, are modified in form to ae- 
curA greater simplicity. In the figures a 
saving of strokes is made in the 3, 3, 5, 7; 
and S is somewhat simplified by beginning 
with a shorter left curve, descending and 
completing with the usual compound curve. 

Thus you have, in a nutshell, the method 
by which time and labor can be readily 
saved iu wriliug the small letters and figures. 

Study and practice will soon put you in 
possession of the art thus simplified. 

In lessoDs to follow we shall teach the 

The Scrap-Boo k. 

Bv A. Sherjian. 
Yes, my son, it is possible in almost 
every case to judge correctly ol a penman's 
ability from a single page of his work, for a 
master-hand in tiny dt-parlment of art will 
show itself iu its m'ery pruductiou. Through 
one combination of simple colors, one fin- 
ished period, one burst of melody, glows 
the genius of u great painter, orator or mu- 
sician. Our opibioos are not formed en- 
tirely from the merit of the effort itself, but 
also from an invisible something in even the 
least work of a master, which seems to say, 
"The power that made me was not ex- 
hausted in my production, but is capable' of 
infinitely more than yuu see in me." This 
is an indication of what is called reserved 
power, and it is always shown in real works 

We see this clearly illustrated in the art 
of penmanship: for the penman whose work 
does not iudicato that he has skill and power 
in reserve will not be accounted great j and 
such a one is he who prepared the speci- 
men on the first page of your scrap-book. 
It is prepared, in the fullest sense of the 
word, like too mauy specimens, till it has 
lost the beauty that is the result of ease and 
freedom. We, perhaps, might have for- 
given him fur prcsentiug so meagre a va- 
riety of capitals and so few loop letters, if 
he had not attempted to improve what he 
had written by fixing the shades, smoothing 
the lines, and tinishiug it generally. He has 
yet to learn that it is the highest art to con- 
ceal art, and that no matter how great the 
productioD, half the charm is lost if it seems 
to cost an effort. 

But here are a few lines from a penman 
who mixes brains with bis iuk, and work 
with his genius, till every letter that flows 
from his pen ia the euibodiment of grace and 
beauty, and every word on his pages seems 
not only proud of itself, but happy that it 
should be born in such good company. 
With what ease it all appears to have been 
done ; but that ease is the result of hard and 
/^ ' patient study. 

■ they 

/^ ; .^^e^,^. ^Vz^^.^^- ^a^j^. .Ji^A^ 



and long 
tinued ef 
But little 

that li 

ten by one 

Yes, it ia 
m— in fad, 

to believe vastly more is possible. Diiplay- 
lioei are few, axul $o aptly used and perfectly 
mnde that they eeeui a Dcccasary part. 
Every atroko on the page indicates reserved 
power; aod wo8ay,aliiiii9i 
can dn even better ibao this. 

The next Bpeciuien was wri 
of the "movement" penmen, 
written with remarkable frcedi 
freedom is ita principal and only noteworthy 
characteristic. These penmen take more 
pride io the manner in which ihey execute, 
than they do in the work ilseU; coDscqnent- 
ly. they are faiiious only to those who see 
them write. One common feature in tlie 
work of these penmen is the iadiacriminate 
cuaQeeiinp of any or all capital letters, and 
they might he properly called the Capital- 
Connectors. If they had chargo of the 
cbristeniog of mankind, wo would all have 
at least six initials to our names, that they 
might show their maiveluus skill by writing 
them all without once taking up the peu, 
and even after they had tiuished the eixtii 
letter their pens would slill go swooping on, 
seeking new worlds to coiKiuer. In this 
specimen, my son, your name is written in a 
wonderful manner. See the billowy waving 
lines surrounding that unpretentious little S, 
and what au effort the G is making to climb 
up on the back of that great spreading C, 
whoso encircling arm entirely surrounds tlie 
microscopical siliall letters of the euruHme. 
It is a marked pt'culiarity of the Capital- 
Connectors, that with the most colossal 
capitals tliey always use the tiniest 
email letters. 

That " Dear Sir" is a study, a be- 
wildering study; for it is so thoroughly 
connected aud skillfully wrillou that it 
has almost lust its ideutity ; but in the 


. tht 

id culm 

udbplurgoofall. At first 
sight the rolling, mazy mass fairly 
makes one dizity, and il is only by pa- 
tient ell'ort that the tangled lines can 
bo made to tell us who it was that made 
them; but it was written, small letters 
aud all, without taking up the pen, and, 
stranger slill, like space in which the 
plaaeta revolve, it has, apparently, no 
begiuniug nor no end. Yes, all good 
penmen connect capitals to a certain 
extent, but only those letters whose 
form permits an easy, a graceful join- 
ing. The Capital-Couuectiug Period 
in the life of a penman is aualogous to 
the Hair Od Period iu the life of a 
man ; sometlnug to be expected, the ' 
result of which is serious only when ! 
the attack becomes chronic. 

My sun, remember this : he ia ao- j 
cuuulod the greatest speaker who says '~ 
the most in the fewest wcrds ; aud he is 
Hccouuted llio greatest artist who produces 
the required etlect with the fewest strokes. 
{To be continued.) 

Br C. il. Peibce, of Keokuk, la. ■ 

New things attract. Novidty excites curi- 
osity. Strange things awukeu ihu imagina- 
tion. Wo weary of repetition. No one 
loves drudgery. "Pauuliarity breeds cou- 
lempl," familiarity also begeta love. We 
may see aud admire a thiug iu a moment ; 
we may learn a new truth iu a few seconds; 
but skill in the use and application of truth 
is gained only by familiarity aud repetition. 

AU practical truths reiiuiro repetition. 
Precept must bo upon precept, liue upon 
lino ; hire a little aud there u little. Every 
useful lifi) is oue of constant repetition, and 
repetition of little things. 

If you liko you may call a useful life a 
life of drudgtry ; some even call it slavery. 
Nothiug is truttr than the old adago : " No 
excelleuco without labor." No one ever 
ripi'S high iu anything without labor. 
"Precept must be upou jirecept." It is a 
law of life — of nil lile. Coustaut repetition, 
hero a little aud there a little, is the only 
way to advance. The idle and careless 
cannot rise. The diligent, industrious. 

persevering do rise. Great thiogs are ac- 
complished little by little, and only so. He 
who neglects little things will never attend 
to great things. He who wastes pennies 
will never save pounds; neglecting dimes 
and neglecting dollars are the same in kind. 
Do one thing at a time and do that one 
thing well, if you want to succeed. Learn 
one thing at a time, And learn that one 
thing well, if you want to be wise. Do one 
thing and do it well, and you have done 
something ; try many things and fail iu all, 
and you have done nothing. Such doiug 
implies repetition. Repetition implies famil- 
iarity; and familiarity, that the thing is old, 
dry, aud perhaps uninteresting. 

Frivolous, idle people want and seek new 
things; they do it because they want to be 
amused, entertained. 

Good teachers repeat often; they teach a 
few things and teach them well. They 
teach old lessons. An old lesson is dry, 
poky, stupid to- the average miud. You 
must uot forget that " there is nothing new 
under the suti," or above it either as far as 

There is no thorough knowledge gained, 
no real skill obtained, no growth anywhere 
except by repetition-, aud repetition is a sort 
of drudgery, a phase of slavi^hness, and 
must beget weariness. 

The laborer, tlie business man, the artist, 
the professional, must each alike repeat and 
jepeat the same thing again and again to 

in amusemenL-< the same is true. No one 
can be an expert at a game without long 
aud careful practice.' 

Theoretical knowledge is not enough ; 
applied knowledge is quite as essential, and 
that comes by |)ractice alone. A man may 
be a genius, but genius cinnot get on with- 
out labor. Genius implies ability ; it may 
help to give one inspiration — but to disppuse 
with labor, it cannot. Genius shows us the 
need of patient, persevering effort; and even 
the man with suialler gifts— what might oot 
be called genius at all — will oftentimes sur- 
pass a real genius or one of greater gifts, 
just because he submits to a careful train- 
ing, pursues a diligent course of application 
and makes good use of the talent he has. 

The fact is, that many a man who has the 
name of being a genius, is no genius, but 
only a careful, diligent, uuremittiug worker. 

The man of small gifts has the good 
sense to apply hiinielf, aud by application 
he succeeds; while the man of greater gifts, 
the genius, lacks the good sense to apply 
himself, and of course he does and must 
fail. Every great man is a great worker. 

The reason why an expert can do a 
thing easily, quickly and well, is because 
he has dooe the same many many times be- 

Study, precept upon precept; thought, 
line upon line ; labor, here a little and there 
a little, is the only way ever to shine as a 
doer of great, good and useful deeds. 

Sen, Gaylord on the Situation. 
Br W. P. Cooper. 

against the c 

returned from 

,id Uncle Beo, setting his staff 
muter, as he entered the store, 
In the clerk, "I have just 
) that commercial 



A fin. 

The above cut via» photo-engraved ft om copy executed by C N Crandle teaclur of penmanship ( 
the Western Normal College and Commercial In»titute Bushnell III 

know, to understand and have skill in his 

The difference between lh*> ignoramus 
and tlie scholar, the amateur and the ex- 
pert, is that the one has trained the mind, 
the hand, the eye, the oar, each and every 
faculty of the body, or some one particular 
gift, by long continued practice, till the 
thiug done once has by repetition become 
second nature, a pun and parcel of himself, 
and reppiition has made the whole thing 
easy aud natural. 

Why is one man skilled, au expert in 
business, at a given kind of labor, or some 
artistic handicraft t Just because he begins 
at the bottom, learns thoroughly by careful 
repetition each little thing, and by con- 
liuued, perspveriug repetition gains skill in 
application aud manipulation. 

Another man may know just as much, 
but he is not an expert; and he is not, just 
because he lacks experience, training, the 
skill that comes only by practice. 

What makes one man a scholar and an- 
other man not oue t It ia not knowledge. 
It is a long-continued, careful training 
of the percepiive and reasoning faculties 
until one can see quickly, see correctly, com- 
pare accurately and judge with precision. 
The scholar has a well- trained set of men- 
tal faculties, white the man of knowledge 
has only a brain crammed with ideas. One 
is an expert, the other an amateur. Even 

sily and well, is by 
i by long-continued 

ourselves, working 

Great souls feel the need and know the 
value of labor, so do not dispense with it. 
Small souls do not appreciate the need and 
value of labor, of close and careful applica- 
tion, so they fail and must fail. Dull, dry, 
poky as routine may be, it is withal a 

Our nature is such, and the world we live 
in is such that the only road to knowledge, 
to skill, to be an artist in anything, to do 
anything really good, ea 

practice, is by making i 
by making it a part of 
and weaving it i 

Practice makes the thiug instructive; 
hard at first, it becomes easy by repetition. 

After a while we go straight and do the 
right thing, iu the right time, in the right 
way, just because it is hard uot to do so. 

There are not many great things for any 
of us to do in a lifetime, but there are many 
little things to be done. 

We may learn the truth in a moment, 
but with patience, through weariness, by 
many repetitions we get skill in execution.- 

The crowning effort will greet you, not 
because attention was paid to any oue thing, 
but because you were sharp and sm^rt 
enough to blend everything into one bar- 

Sample cepies of the Jodbnal, 10 < 

upon the whole— a fine concern that. Th<i8e 
professors are well qualified, energetic and 
efficient. They evidently understand every- 
thing about 'hi'ir business, aud they spare 
uo pains to put their pupils ahead, and 
they," said Uucle Ben, emphasizing the word 
they, "sir, themselves work early aud late. 
They deserve encouragement and something 
more — they should reach success. But in 
this as other businesses, there are ditQcultiee 
in the way, difficulties, perplexities, obstruc- 
tions. Yes, pir, I have looked about; I 
think I comprehend the situation." 

"There are grand fellows at some or 
those desks : noble fellows ; I could pick out 
chaps worth their weight in gold in any 
office, any counting-room — sharp, quick, 
critical and correct." " Yes, sir," repeated 
Uncle Ben, iu a voice' loaded with terrible 
emphasis: "They are critical, temperate, 
reliable and correct- That is the sort want- 
ed here, there, everywhere. Those fellows 
need no urging ; they are on hand at eight 
in the morning. They leave when the halls 
close, aud not before. Not a note, principle, 
paragraph, explanation, o'* suggestion es- 
capes them. If they crowd their teachers 
I a little with business, they treat these 
masters with the most profound respect. 
They know their value to themselves, 
aud they have faith in their words." 
■| "But in that school there are other 
fellows — other fellows of quite another 
sort; iu fact, many sorts. They are not 
from any special craft or quarter. They 
hail from all localities. These young 
men are, first of all, our countrymen — 
Americans to the manner born. They 
have health, muscle, physical stamina, 
brains, quick eyes aod ready ear."*, and 
plenty of means ; but they want back- 
bone, steadfast energy and firmness of 
purpose. They require urging, need 
watching, long for flattery, ask too many 
graces, beg too many privileges, fag the 
professors with repeated importunities 
too often, and, most of all, they lack 
attention, perseverance and application. 
They abound too much in fits aud starts, 
in stops, absences and rests. Some of 
these fellows are spoiled boys, loaded 
with the pernicious fancies, whims, cap- 
rices of princely names." 

"Or, they have rocked ofl' the golden 
days of many seasons iu the well-feath- 
ered aud watlded cradles of Hamilton, Yale, 
or other princely endowed institutions. These 
are not all alike, are not all affected in the 
same way. They till up the benches, but are 
poor stock. The windows are too near their 
desks. They see too much of the outside 
of the college, too many pretty faces, fast 
horses, gay equipages, fine fancy articles of 
dress, etc., etc. Their minds are absorbed 
with foreign matters, (rifies, fictions, stale 
and unprofitable trash. All of these draw- 
backs are not the fault of the original mate- 
rial, but they are the unhappy drawbacks 
of accident— of national, local aud home 
foolishness and nousense. I say it is a great 
pity that all of this sort of college stock 
could not be revivified and converted to use." 
"This thiug is possible. I wish," said 
Uncle Ben, after a moment's pause, "I wish 
that I could reach the capable cars of all 
of these fellows myself, a few times. I be- 
lieve that I could impress their really bright 
minds, naturally, with the true status of the 
situation. I shimid love to welcome them 
to a place in the front line. Indeed, I have 
in my life given the light hand of fellow- 
ship to a great many of these very fellows, 
after all drawbacks. The college is a good 
thing, aud I heartily wish it success, and I 
am ready to help aud encourage these en- 
terprises on as I have in the past. I have 
had grand elf iks :rom these very concerns, 
and I may want them again." 

Robert C. Spencer. 

By S. .s. Packard. 
It would have bceo the graccfu! and 
proper thing for the eldest 8od uf the author 
of SpeneeriHo Pecmausliip to have iiihrritcd 
and iut<"n9i(ied the pat**rDal qualiliee; tu 
have realized, id the work uf his own hands, 
the hif^bcr ideals t^i which hia father's genius 
pointed. But Robert, though a dutiful son, 
and having a proper sense of his derived 
jjjreatneBs, dincovered earlj in his career, that 
while hi? iDteltcct could grasp the principles 
of " pure Spsncerian,'' and his muscles exe- 
cute the straiehi lines and fiuives which enter 
into giMiiI writing, lie lacked the artistic 
ternpcraiiirni, if uot the plodding patience, 
necessary lu make a proficient pea-artist. 
Hy the tiuie he had arrived at man's estate, 
he was a good, strong, plain penman, his 
writing possessing a tnrce and character sel- 
dom acrpiired at that age, and was 
(piiilified to teach the art. At the 
age of twenty-three he became as- 
sociated with Mr. Rice, as teacher 
of penmanship in the public schools 
of Uuffiilo, succeeding that gentle- 
man as the Superintendent of Writ- 
ing. In 1853 he joined Mr. Rice in 
a commercial school in BufTulo, 
which, the following year, was 
merged into the Bryant & Stratton 
enterprise, being the second link, as 
Cleveland was the first, of the re- 
nowned "cliain" of Colleges. In 
the Fall nf I85(> he went to Chicago 
to assist Mr. Uriah Gregory in hia 
attempt to compete with Judge 
Digby V. Bell, who for six years 
had been building up a vigorous in- 
stit'ition in that smart town. About 
this time, Mr. Stratton concluded 
that a "chain" ..f Nati-.nal Com- 
mercial Colleges withitiil a link in 
Chicago would bo too much like the 
play of IIhii.M with-.iit the Prince 
of Denmark, and so began at onco 
to move on the enemy's works. 
Gregory hr.d conceived the brilliant 
idea of placarding Rohert as the 
great exponent of Spencerian Pen- 
manship. Stratton "saw" the chal- 
lenge, and " went one hotter," in the 
productinn of the veteran author 
hims'lf; and a geuulue biisin,-^s 
competition was waged between tli.' 
two schools, father and sou b. in- 
played against each other, with :tll 
the warmth and zest of ihose pin- 
noei- days. Finally, the family hni - 
mony was restored by the iu.lucii.ui 
of Robert into the principalslii]. ■ 
the Bryant & Stnittou sohoid. J 
success of the Chicago ont(i(Mi ■ 
was iiniuediate aud positive, cmh' 

ally absorbing the IWM other srI 

In the Fall of I85I), Mr. Spiim r 
went to St. Louis, to establish jin- 
otlier link of the rapidly lengthen- 
iug chain. He remained here for. 
four yeare, and finally, in ISli'S, weLt 
to Milwaukee, ostablisliing there, in 
connecti.m with Bryant & Stratton, 
the school of which he is now 

During all these many years Mr. 
Spencer has been a nu>st faithful 
worker in the educational field. Althoueh 
bv rho- 

not at his service. Of the old Bryant & 

and influential member, as also of its suc- 
cessor, the International Business College 
Asenciatiun. of which he was a president. 
When the Penman's Convention — subse- 
<]uently merged in the Business Educators' 
As80'-idti»u of America — held its first ses- 
sion in New York. Mr. Spencer was the one 
spoken "f for the presidency, but being 
absent, Mr. Mayhew of Detroit, was called 
to fill ihe chair. At the meeting in Cleve- 
land, in 1878, he was mentioned f.-r the 
position, but graciously withdrew in favor 
of Mr. Peirce, of Philadelphia. In 1870. at 
the meeting in Chicago, he was choneu 
[resident, which position he held at the 
Cinciunati Convention in June last ; and no 
one who was present at that convention will 
soon forget the signal ability and judicial 

Drill — Drill. 
By W. p. Cooper. 

The columns of the Journal on the sub- 
ject of drill have been sufficiently explicit, 
but inasmuch as every professor or ama- 
teur knows that there is no such thing as 
fixing or converting knowledge without 
review, if we again urge the consideration 
of matters already quite thoroughly discuss- 
ed, it will be nothing of surprise to the 

We spoke quite fully, in the December 
number, of Stem Capitals and their legiti- 
mate drill — muscular movement. We have 
said that there are persons who can produce 
all capitals, large and small, with whole arm 
movement. This power is secured partly 
by tenacity of drill, and partly it is reached 
through a natural muscular and mechanical 
ability possessed by but very few persons. 

nd hundred dol- 

J that is 
are told 

each oval s 
is filled ; s 

nd fr.M 
ability aud temperament, devoted 
specialty of business or commercial edu 


he has takei 


interest in general education, aud in phil- 
osophical aud humane movements. Dur- 
ing a large share of his siyourn in Milwau- 
kee he has been an active member of the 
Schocd Board. He was also one of the or- 
iginal promoters of the Wisconsin Humane 
Society, and its first secretary, and has been 
president of the Wisconsin Phonological 
Society, devoted to the odncalion of deaf 
mutes upou the German or articulation 


Mr. Spencer has always stood well with 
iM- workers, and there has been no time in 
the hi8t.»ry of business cidlege associations 
when the highest posiUons of honor were 

fairness « ith which he tiiacharged his duties. 
Mr. Spencer is getting to be one of the 
*' old fellows," having passed his fifty-third 
year, but he does not show it either in per- 
sonal looks or in actions or tastes. It is 
much easier to call him "Bob" than any- 
thing else, and he always responds to the 
familiar name with great sweetness aud zest. 
His twinkling black eye moves backward 
and forward, when in conversation, with the 
alertness of thirty years ago, and bis sonor- 
ous laugh, when he catches the pidnt of a 
joke, is just as infectious as it was before 
his bead was so bald, or it became necessary 
for him to look at the worid through eye- 

^ Now is the time to subscribe for the 
Journal, and begin with the year and new 

Whole arm movement is hard enough to 
acquire, hut muscular movement is one hun- 
dred per cent, more difficult to fix and con- 
vert, and it is worth as much more when 
possessed. A right line is easy enough, so 
is the left, so is a vertical line, but the stem 
curves or stem oval is far harder to get, and 
a great deal harder still the direct oval, as 
found in 0, E, H, M, D. We may in- 
deed get the movement in O alone, quite 
sure, "by practice in direct ovals," but in 
the shifts in miscellaneous practice it grows 
(ar harder to hit. It is very \\ke\y in E the 
worst, and iu the old English U the easiest. 

We will here say there is such a thing as 
getting the ability to produce fixed ; that is, 
BO you will never lose the power to produce; 
but to get the power to produce the direct oval, 
large, medium, or small, and always on the 
^•ine and where you please, always, is hard 

enough. It is worth a 
lars— that is, with hand or musci 
ment ; still, to get it is possible, , 
enough ; and further to aid you 
this power, wo will give a few mc 
tions. You will remember that \ 
that while practicing ihi'? mo\ 
rest the arm two or three inches below the 
elbow This rest is more properly a semi- 
rest or movable rest ; that is, it is not a 
fixed and immovable rest at all. You will 
observe by trial, that a point uuder the arm 
here describes, only on a smaller scale, each 
character produced by the pen upon the pa- 
per, from first to last. 

The exercises furnished, in the past num- 
bers of the Journal, to perfect this feature 
of the drill, are all good for practice. Here 
is a very good one: commence a lino with 
0, twice medium size, lap the ovals as you 
i-half, reducing a trlile 
aecossively until the line 
Iso increasing the speed 
of motion throughout the line. 
Practice this exercise ten or twelve 
minutes, repeating the pr.iclico in 
other lessons, until you have mas- 
tered the drill. Try, after this drill, 
the oval in coils, until you produce 
the perfect flourish almost every 
time. Try the other letters of the 
direct movement set, one after an- 
other, as a part of each drill, until 
these two are all mastered. Then 
make up a drill of these and stem 
capitals made alternately, always 
passing from slow to fast and from 
large to small, avoiding by all 
means all jerking and unsteady 
movements. Having fixed the 
forms in the mind, but using no 
permanent rest of either arm, or 
third and fourth fingers, and using 
the wrist on the curves naturally 
;ind freely. If in obedience to these 
directions, you still repeat the dia- 
grams, looking sharply to the cor- 
rect structure of characteristics, you 
will — that is, if you indulge in no 
careless practice — ultimately secure 
the power above indicated in its 
power which, as 
have been often told before, is 
t he greatest instrumentality of mod- 
irn penmanship. 

It would always be well to prao- 
'ice certain kiuda of flourishing in 
liirect movement, to familiarize and 
I prfect this muscular power. One- 
halt (f the flourishes in pen-work 
tan he better produced by the pen 
in the natural, rather than the re- 
versed position. A good flourisher 
will always use both; both posi- 
ti )Ds (f the pen aud every move- 
ment direct or reversed. 

\ ou will never see the day, write 
or flourish as well as you please, in 
which you may not he benefited by 
Kcurring again and often to drill 
['lactice. In all of this practice, 
I'liice yourself square front to the 
table, h(dd the pen easily and 
firmly, place the feet easily and 
firmly upon the floor; fortify the 
firmness of the body and muscles 
ilight and decided support and stay 
rest on the left arm, aud bring your whole 
moral brain power and ability to the sup- 
port of the work. Work to succeed, work 
to win, work to improve, correct or perfect 
some power, letter or movement. Work 
methodically and courageously, and the skill 
desired will be and remain yours. But 
when yon are tired, stop. When attention 
lags, and the mind gets lazy and careless, 
stop. Burn up all trash about your table, 
save your best marks, and run your eye 
critically over these at another time. 

We shall if desired to do so, show you in 
another number how to force flourishing 
into the service of drill, how to ht orna- 
ment alone or use it, how to get form, and, 
above ali,hciw t<( get that speed aud dispatch 
which few possess, but even the educational 
b — bugs and business men esteem so highly 

h! : 

Bat io this eTolatiooarj labor, we ask you 
to go Tery ofteu to these other emioeDt roas- 
ten. Put up some of Ames'* beet pen sheela 
ID your rooms, and as well as borrow from 
oth«n, CTMte for yourself. 

Writing in Country. Schools. 

By G. N. S. 
In the December number of the Journal 
is an article headed as above, by C. G. Por- 
ter. I read his remarlis wilh much interest, 
and, being a teacher io a country school and 
somewhat intereBted in the art of writing, I 
would like to make a few observations on 
the same subjuct. Mr. Porter is dissatisfied 
with the present condition of our country 
schools as regards writing. So am I. He 
does not sgrco with the scholar who thinks 
if he can write legibly, that is good enough. 
I do. Remember, I am epciking of country 
schools only. He also says it is not to be 
supposed thit a echoul-teacber should be a 


Of . 

No pen-i 

can be found teaching school for $25 per 
month. Hence, the iuipoBsibility of pro- 
ductug Sue pcQmen. Siuce, then, the first 
degree of proficiency is unsatisfactory, and 
the second unattainable, I would like to 
know just where Mr. Porter thinks the line 
should be drawn. How good a penman 
should we look for in such cases! I think 
the student may consider himself very for- 
tunate if he can learn to wriie a rapid legi- 
ble hand. My reasons fur thinkiDg so are 
these: Jiret, the desks in our schoolhouses 
are so narrow aud of such improper heights 
that it is with ditliculty a good ]>enman can 
write on them. Position is simply out of 
the queeliuo, especially for the student, who 
knuws nuihiug about it. Second. These 
schools are made up of scholars who have 
always been used to doing heavy manual 
labor. I ask if it is possible to train the 
muscles of the wood-chopper or fence- 
builder to do anything beyond plain writing, 
if that, in three or four montlis' time. Ex- 
perience and reason say not. Third. Sup- 
pose a teacher devote tliirty minutes each 
day to the wriliDg-leeson. This is as long a 
time as be can give — frci^ueutly, longer_ 
Prof. Peirce tells us one hour a day is insuf- 
ficient in business colloKOs lo acquire a hand- 
writing suitable fur book-keepiug, in two to 
six months' time. What, iheu, can be ex- 
pected from half that auiouut of study in a 
country school! Fourth. The change of 
teachers «illi each term, would of itself dis- 
courago many, aud produce poor results. I 
agree «iih Mr. Porter, that a higher grade 
of pennmusbip should he required in teachers 

than exists at present. In this 
it wouhl be very appropriate 
ship, in place of poumauship. 
age teacher can aud does writ 
than the average business i 
educating our youth for busi 
say legibility aud rapidity a 
the student should 
the art," let him g 

country (Mo.) 
.0 say scholar- 
Yet the avcr- 
a better hand 
lan. We are 
less. Then I 
e enough. If 
I a great " love for 
good bu! 

lege, or subscribe for the Penman's Art 
Journal, or both. I approve of leaching 
correct position, as nearly as possible; peu- 
holdiug, and the forms of letters and move- 
ment exercises ; but it is useless to expect 
very good results. I agr>o with Mr. Porter 
that writing is as important as other 
branches of study. But it is au art, and 
more dUhcult lo learn thau the others, aud 
hence we cannot expect the sauio results as 
ID them. Ttiero are many things I could 
say on this subject, but fear of hocomiug 
tiresome and the desire to hear others, fur- 
bid. I would like to hear from Mr. Porter 
again, as I am only a novice. I am a great 
admirer of good ponmauship, and think the 
Journal is a perfect gem, aud of inestima- 
able value lo the aspiring penman. I take 
olber papers on peumauship, but it excels 
them all. In addiuon to this, I indorse all 
that has been said in its praise by others. 

Sample copies of the Jouoka 
n raoeipt of price — ten cents. 


SiKDd forih purtiayed to 1if«. 
Tl)« Antogrnph (peaks for all t 

i promUed gain. 

TLroogh alage by stage of low or ( 
OrgaiD. andloM, andclmnge, 

■ prlmnl soarce, 

I Anger tipa (o pledge 

or lovp, or grief, or gold. 
> ioiight of prophelio ^iew 

lod growth, 
nm himgeH— 


Educational Notes. 

[Communicfttions for this Department may 
be ftdilrfBued lo B. F. Kelley, 205 Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational items solicited.] 

Georgia's school population is 507,801. 

Edinburgh University has 3,237 students 

There are in Atlanta, Ga., four colleges 
for colored students. 

The moment a man ceases to bo a syste- 
matic student, he ceases to be an cfi'cctive 
teacher. — Avierican Journal of Education. 

The average daily attendance in the pub- 
lic schools of New Orleans is 16,142, the 
number of pupils, registered being 1U,946. 

Hon. John Evans, Ex-Gov. of Colorado, 
has given $40,0U0 to the University of 
Denver since the beginning of the enterprise, 

Nevttda pays the largest monthly salary 
to both male and female public school teach- 
ers; the former averaging .$101 j the latter 

The Sacramento School Board offer a 
prize of $20 to the young lady graduate 
who shall wear the cheapest dress on Com- 
mencement Day. 

The Texas School Fund, which can never 
be diverted, now amounts to the magnifi- 
cent sum of $114,000,000, including land 
worth $110,000,000. 

At the meeting of the National Pedagogic 
Concross of Spain, at Madrid, there were in 
attendance 827 male and 50.5 female teach- 
ers. An address was made by the King. 

The percentage of illiteracy of the native 
white population in the Stale of New York, 
as given by the bulletin lately issued by the 
Census Department, must be considered 
quite too utterly ulter, it being 2.2. 

Since the war, three men— Peabody, Slater 
and Tulane— have given $5,100,000 for the 

promotion of education in the South. The 
distribution of these funds is to be almost 
equally divided between white and colored. 
— NasfivitU Advocate. 

Dr.Robert Morris, of Kentucky, said that 
ID Syria teachers receive ten cents a month 
for salary. The schoolhouae is mother 
earth ; the pupils are boys only, sitting 
cross-legged on the ground. The i-ourse of 
instruction consists of learning the Koran 
by heart. — The Age. 

In Italy during the year 1879, 48 per 
cent, of the bridegrooms and 70 per cent, of 
the brides were unable to sign their names. 
In England, 86 per cent, of the men mar- 
ried during that year, and 80 per cent, of 
the women were able to sign their name, 
but with a large per cent, of these a know- 
ledge of writing extended no farther. 

In a Chicago school recently the children 
were asked to give a sentence wilh the word 
"capillary." A little girl wrote : " I sailed 
across the ocean in a capillary." When 
asked what she meant by that, she turned 
to Webster's Dictionary and triumphantly 
pointed out this duPinition : "Capillary, a 
fine vessel." Further investigation showed 
that more than twenty scholars had made 
the same blunder. — Detroit Free Press. 

But .7 of one per cent, of the uative white 
population of Massachusetts, from ten yr-ars 
of age and upward, are unable to write. 
This is the best showing of any State or 
Territory. The per cent, for Alabama is 
25.0; Arkansas, 25,5; Georgia, 23 2; North 
Carolina, 31.7; Tennessee, 27.8; New Mex- 
ico, 64.2; Nevada, M; New Hampshire, 
1.1; Connecticut, 1.0; Wyoming, 1.7. Wy- 
oming has the smallest percentage of per- 
sons who cannot read or write, when the 
whole population is considered. 

In Syria and Palestine, in 1881, there 
were 30 societies or individuals conducting 
302 schools ; of which 120 were of the Am. 
Pres. Mission, 45 of thn Church Miss. Soc. 
of London; 80 British Syrian schools; 10 
under Friend Missions. These schools had 
7,475 male and 7,I4J> female pupils. In 
Beirut alone there were at non- Protestant 
schools, 8,183 pupils, of whom 1,250 are in 
the Jesuit schools. Of Protestant mission- 
aries there are 81 male and 110 female 
foreign laborers ; 581 native laborers ; 
preaching stations,140; organized churches, 

Educational Fancies. 

[ In every iuetance where the Bource of any 
item used in this d»>partmetit is known, the 
proper credit is -given. Alike couriesy from 
ulhers will be appreciated.] 

Kerosene is bad grammar; you should 
say Kero was seen — with her fellow. 

Archimedes invented the slang phrase, 
" Give us a rest," when he offered to move 
the world with bis lever. 

An express- wagon driver in Lynn, Mass., 
is master of seven languages. He is evi- 
dently ready for his team to balk. 

Professor: "How is power applied to 
this machine t " Junior : " It is turned by 
a crank." Professor: "Just step forward 
and illustrate." — Ex. 

'Twas but a simple pin on a chair, and 
the little boy did grin like a bear when the 
teacher took a scat, and in a manner very 
lleot fiew several feet in the air. 

" Why should you celebrate Washington's 
birthday more than mine t " asked a teacher. 
"Because he never told a lie !" shouted a 
little hoy. —Educational Eeview. 

Is anything more stubborn than a muleT 
Certainly, for marked as is a muley stub- 
bornness, there is a " mulier," and that our 
Latin dictionary tells us is a woman. 

A Sunday-school teacher asked a pnpil 
how many sacraments there were. " There 
ain't any more left." " Why, what do you 
meant" "WeU, I heard that our sick 
neighbor received the last sacrament yester- 
day."— .&ea2if« CoUegt JountU. 

Professor in Mechanics : "What is the 
strongest force in nature t" St"dent: "The 
force of habit." Compelled by the same 
force, the professor recorded a zero. — Ex. 

" My son," said a tutor of doubtful moral- 
ity but severe aspect, putting his hand on 
the boy's shoulder, "I believe Satan has 
got hold of you." " I believe so, too," 
replied the boy. 

Master : " What does Condillao say 
about brutes in the scale of beinfft" 
Scholar: "He says a brute is an imperfect 
animal." " And what is a man t " " Man 
is a perfect brute." — Ex. 

" In what condition was the patriarch Job 
at the end of bis life!" asked a Sunday- 
school teacher of a quiet-looking boy at the 
foot of the class. " Dead," calmly replied 
the quiet-looking boy. 

" Speaking of shad, would you say the 
price has gone up, or has risen T" inquired 
a schoolboy of the fishmonger. "Well," 
replied the scale-scraper, " speaking of shad, 
I should say it had roes." 

Scene in Latin A. — Professor B: 
"Conjugate the present subjunctive ol sum." 
Student: " Sin, sis — I have forgotten the 
third singular." Professor B: "Very well, 
sir, you raay sit." — Academy Trio. 

Teacher: "John, what are your boots 
made off " Boy : " Of leather." " Where 
does the leather come from ! " " From the 
bide of the ox." " What animal, therefore, 
supplies you with boots and gives you meat 
toeatf "My father." 

A man spends eighteen cents for lager, 
ten cents for tobacco, twenty cents for cigars, 
fifteen cents for street -car fare, and loses 
$1.50 at poker; he then permits his wife to 
purcliase a button-hook for three ceuts, and 
figures that her extravagance will ruin him 
in three years. What is hia capital! 

Said the teacher : " 'And it came to pass, 
when the king heard it, that he rent his 
clothes.' Now, what does that mean, ray 
children — 'he rent his clothes'?" Up 
went a little hand. "Well, if you know, 
tell us." "Please, ma'am," said the child 
timidly, " I s'pose he hired 'em out." 

Send Money for the "Journal.'* 

Persons desiring a single copy of the 
Journal must remit ten cents. No atten- 
tion will be given to postal-card requests 
for same. 

Card for the Public. 

To purchase pictures for ho 
tation is evidently a commendable thing; 
but to always judiciously select is not so 
easy, or always possible. 

A few chromos, a few steel — say, histori- 
cal—engravings, an "oil" picture or two, 
as meaus will warrant; to these may be 
added, a few portrait- pieces, a home pic- 
ture or two, and albums for photos, art 
selections, etc.; and, finally, you should not 
fail to send for and display, with these se- 
lections, a few of D. T. Ames's grand illus- 
trations of penmanship. 

What shall we commend f Why, first, 
the Eagle and the Antelope sheets. These 
illustrate flourishing wholly. Then comes 
that wonderful gem, the Lord's Prayer, in 
Ames's best manner; and then the Centen- 
nial card or sheet. All of the above speci- 
mens are miracles of art — not equaled in 
this line in the Old World at aU. The man- 
ner is neither bought, stolen, borrowed, or 
imported, but equal it if you can. 

You will, having filled the above list, 
want more. Their possession will, first of 
all, delight yon and your friends; next, 
they will force you to improve your pen- 
manship, whether you will or not; and, 
lastly, they will do all of this without a 
sense of either labor, trouble, or expense on 
your part. W. P. CoOPsn. 

Writing is the one art of which every- 
body ihould be a master. 

vs: 1 .loi Hvvi 


Akticlk I. 

By D. T. Ames. 

(bought a 

while anothpr covered three pages with subject in iXs general aspect, treating upon 

awkward, ungrainmatical composition, I those things which are essential to all de- 

where half a page properly composed would partinents of letter- wri ling— stuh as the 

have eufficed. One touched off his writing | selection of material, 8t)lo of composition, 

To be able to write a letter— elegant and 
appropriate — in all the numerous depart- 
mcDls of correspondence, is a most dcsirahle 
and useful acconiplishment to eitber lady or 
gentleman. A letter reflects largely the 
character and attainmenls of its author. 
One slovenly, careless or awkward in hia 
writing is very likely to be so in other 
thiDg8,while the degree 
and quality of his mind 
as well as education, 

amiability of character, 
are sure to be made 
manifest iu any extend- 
ed CO rreapoD donee. 

Not only is such an 
accomplishment a most 
poteot agency for opca- 

ment and success iu a 
business point of view, 
but it is a most pleasing 
and fruitful source of 
friendly and social en- 

with a profusion of flourishes and other 
superfluities ; another waited loug for a re- 
sponse that could not be given from' his 
omission to name the street and number of I 
his residence. And so to the end of the j 
list, each writer has, through faults of omis- I 
sion and commission, or the excellencies of i 
hia communication, proved or disproved to 
the satisfaction of a would-be employer, 
hia capability and fitness to render satis- 
factory service, and has accordingly gained ' 

and method of arrangement of the several 
'parts of a letter, superscriptioD, etc., with 
proper illi 

A Strange Tradition. 

Among the Seminole Indians there is a 
singular tradition regarding the white man's 
origin and superiority. They say, when the 
Great Spirit made the earth he also made 
three men, all of whom were fair-complex- 


It I 

seek the 

I through ad- 
tsinour daily 

paperf", directing appli- 
cants to address iu their 
own handwriting, and 
by the character of such 

plicanls are judged, aud 
fairly, we dare say, in 



ads iu the! 


communications, almost 
unerringly, the tdlent, 
attainments and general 
character of their 
authors. Such letters 
reveal— jfrsi, as a mat- 
ter of observation, the 
artistic skill and litera- 


of the 

writer; secotid, by in- 
ference, his general tjiste 
aud judgment. The in- 
ference is drawn from 
all the attendant cir- 
cumstances: from the 
selection of writing- 
material to the super- 


post age -stamp, 

one hundred Applicants 
for a position ; one is 
chosen ; just why, he The above h 
will not know ; while The wor 

ninety-nine will be left 
to wonder why their application was u 
cessful. Some were bad writers, some 
bad spellers ; one made a fatal revelali 
hia lack of good taste and judgmec 
selecting a large-sized letter 
sheet of paper, which he folded many times 
and awkwardly to go Into a very small-sized 
envelope, upon which the superscription 
was so located as to leave no place for a 
postage-stamp upon the upper right-hand 
comer, where it should be ; it was therefore 
placed at the lower left-hand corner, aud 
head downwards. The pust-office clerk, 
from force of habit, of course striHeB with 
his canceling -stamp upon the envelope 
where the poatage-stamp should be, thus 
disfiguring the tuperscriplion. Another 
wrote, with red ink, a large iprswUng hand ; 

veral cuti, prepared at the ojjicc of tJu -Journal," for CtilUcr's •' Cyclopwdla'of Social and Commercial informatio. 
of ahout 700 pages of uteful and valuable information,, elegantly pnnted and bound, by P. F. Collier, New York. 

was found to contain spades, hoes, and all 
the implements of lahor; the second un- 
wrapped bunting, fishing, and warlike ap- 
paratus ; the third gave the white man pcua, 
inks, and paper, the engine of the mind — 
the means of mutual, mental improvement, 
the social link of humanity, the foundation 
of the white man's superiority. 

By W. p. Cooper. 
We are glad to learn that the matter oi 
autographs is beginning to receive a little of 
the long needed atten- 
tion. In this great and 
wonderful country the 
time of crosses for 
signatures, is nearly 
passed. The Greeley 
and Wade Bohemian 
alphabet Is nearly 
played out. An ox- 
cart and a stone-boat 
and a cat- track super- 
scription, still here and 
there worshiped with 
Buddhist devotion, we 
hope will soon be 
things that were, and 
nnt what the present 
either tolerates, craves 
or needs. 

One envelope now 
in about twenty goes 
properly backed into 
the office. One law- 
yer of a Bar, one priest 

in a college, one pupil 
in a high school, we 
can now commend for 
properly written docu- 
ments, letters, etc., 
etc. A very revolu- 
tionary and encourag- 
ingcondltlon of things. 
Thanks to Father 
Spencer, deceased! 
thanks to the nationa 
of the whole phalanx 
of writers and pub- 
lishers for this move 
ahead. There was a 
time when to write 
one's namerespectaWy 
would have evoked 
banishment. Looking 
over carefully and cri- 
tically, yet in a Chris- 
tian spirit, the array of 
names, great and 
small, on the registers 
aud documents every- 

say that there is still 
a chance for Improve- 
ment, and especially 
with the young, the 
gifted, the brilliant 
and the gay. If we 
have an arietncracy of 
dollars, we also have 
one of learning; and 
we may or should have 
one of art. We should 

or failed to gain place and favor. 

In view of the great importance of this 
subject, and its very intimate relation to 
good penmanship, we have deemed it a fit- 
ting theme for a series of articles or lessons 
in a penman's paper; and especially so in 
view of the fact that thousands of this jour- 
nal's readers are yet pupils in our public or 

[ private schools, and are, therefore, favorably 
circumstanced to profit most fully by such a 
course. It will be our earnest endeavor to 

j render the articles as interesting and practi- 
cal as possible. They will be accompanied 

I with umnerouB lUustrailons and examples, 
photo - engraved from carefully - prepared 
pen-and-ink copy, illustrative of every de- 
partment of correspondence. 

In our next article we shftll preeent the 

ioned, and that after making them he led 
them to the margin of a small lake and 
hade them leap in and wash. One obeyed, 
and came out purer and fairer than before; 
the second hesitated a moment, during which 
time the water, agitated by the first, had 
become muddled, and when he bathed, he 
came up copper-colored ; the third did not 
leap until the water became black with mud, 
and he came out with his own color. Then 
the Great Spirit laid before them three 
packages, and out of pity for hie misfortunes 
in color, gave the black man the first choice. 
He took hold of each of the packages, and 
having felt the weight chose the heaviest ; 
the copper - colored man chose the next 
heaviest, leaving the white man the lightest. 

■ Chlr 

When the paokagei 

' opened, the first ' leanung 

men under proscription, Irish bog-trotters, 
Dutch boors and Bohemian tramps, the de- 
sired accomplishment of a name without a 
letter, and a signature without a shape, and 
try ourselves, each and all of us, to have 
that mystical combination, the child of our 
own handy creative ability, called a name 
or sigi ature, tolerably well written. 

Penmen now, we see, begin to propose 
to teach bj diagram the people, and 
especially the young, how to write the 
name as well, or nearly as well, as It 
should be done. Twenty cenU for a 
name, or twenty cents for one thirt- 
collar or ruffle for your neck, this is not bad. 
But hark — neighbor, while learning to write 
properly your own name, you are logically 

also your oorrespondeut's 

or your frieod'a. Is not this eDcooragiDgt 
You are not bd artUt, but you want an au- 
tograph aod a i^ood one. You forward your 
way of doing tho thing; the master sees at 
a glaoco your lack aod your capability to 
produce; in ehort, reads you up artistically, 
and diviues the very fashion of autograph 
you need. lie coDdA one in character, but," 
bu8inp(8-like and pratrtical, he gives you 
further — a choice between others. He does 
not aim in what ho sends to glorify bimseir, 
but to suit your case and also please your 
tasto and yonr correspondent's acumen and 
fancy. Ho, themrore, the master, should aim, 
in Lis samples, to give you 
eal, a busincss-Iilte and a: 
that you, in a few evenings, can master and 
write anywhere and everywhere, legibly and 
well and quickly too; and this is what you 

1 signature, 

1 this dir 

Bt C. n. pKincK, of Keokuk, la. 

The exp" "tion of superior work of auy 
kind with the pen necessitates a position 
that will give the greatest power. 

There are many, many minor points to 
look after in the execmiou of good writing, 
hut all may justly be considered under 
" Form," " Poailion," " Movemeut." 

Form may be cnimidered under five heads, 
viz., "Size." " Shapr," "Slant," "Shad- 
ing," " Spacing." 


nder four heads, viz.: 


" Forearro," " Finger," 

" Ciiinhination.' 

" Position gi 

C8 power," if it is propprly 

taken. Practice 

makes perfect if it be in- 

tolligent. The 

fa havo it the greater part 

of the time, ht 

wever, and so reduce the 

Btntomonts almost to utter nolhiiigness. 
You caunol get the desiied power in any of 
the many many incorrect positions. You 
winnni imiirove your writing by incessaot 
practice, if it bo not of that intelligence 
requisite and necessary to advancement. 
Tliero is but one right way to inany many 
wrong ones ; and left to your own selection, 
without the proper judgment or intelligence, 
you invariably fall into the wrong way. 

Position is only one of the essentials to 
good writing, but, as such, " must weigh in 
the balance and not be found wanting. " 

Position: Wholearm Movement. let. 
Of the person— body; feet; arms; hands; 
lingers ; wrists. 2d. At desk or table, sit- 
ting or standing— Front; Right; Right 
Oblique ; Left Oblique, ad. Of Pen. 4th. 
Of Paper. 


. Mo' 

Position : Finger Moveuient. 

Positiou: Combination Movement. 

The Bpino should be kept straieht— not 
vortical— and, as the support of the body, 
must bo permitted to bend but slightly, 
OS the groattr the curvature the weaker 
must be the positiou. Another serious ob- 
jecliou is, the shoulders aro thrown forward, 
contracting the chest, which in time will 
produce disease. 

The position for the execution of pro- 
grammes " B " and " E " h not necessarily 
the same as " A," " C " and " D." In 
other wonls the position for forearm is not 
necessarily the same as wholearm. They 
may bo the same without any serious iu- 
conveuieuce, but to say that they must be 
the same would not be in keeping with the 

A good position of tho body ; wholearm 
is not the same with different perfons, and 
not necessarily the same with any indi- 
vidual; i. e., good work may bo done 
wholearm with tho btidy varying in iuclina- 
«ion fnim forty-five to eighty-fh-o degrees 
from perpendicular, the diflerence iu execu- 
tion not being perceptible. AVhile this can 
bo done, I would charge all amateurs to 
strike a happy medium uuiilgood work 
is established, then vibrate to suit your 

A good position for tho feet is to have the 
kft foot in tJie general direction of Uie body, 

a little forward, with the right thrown on the 
right of chair with the heel resting on the 
lower rung, thus ginng a very great sup- 
port to the Bpiue. If a desk or sto'd is used, 
merely have the right foot under the body. 
When desirable, the feet can change posi- 
tion, which always gives rest. Unless 
something of this kind is done, the weight 
of the body upon the spine will give pain 
across the small of the back. Observe 
book-keepers, and you will readily see that 
my theory is well-founded, because they in- 
variably do like the Dutchman's heu— sit 

Thi'* I term a live position, because the 
feet are plaeed so as to give the student tho 
greatest possible power thus producing 
work with dash grace and 

The position of the arm and forearm 
should always form an acute angle — pos- 
sibly a right— and should rest within easy 
distance from the body. I caution amateurs 
not to get either arm too far from the body, 
and by a}! means keep the forearm on a 
level, and not with the elbow ntised in air, 
as is generally the case. 

The bandit should turn a little outward 
— at least it appears 8<> — and keep the side 
of hand next the b tdy straight with fore 

add very materially in giving a smooth 

stroke — and the general direction of paper, 
a little to the right of a straight line with 
the right forearm, and not straight with the 

The position for finger movement should 
be erect, but by no means necessary iu order 
to produce good results. This is the child's 
first power, and has been treated at length 
in October Journal, 1881. 

In tlie position for Forearm and Combi- 
nation movements the body must assume a 
more erect carringe than for wholearm, in 
order to allow the muscles of the forearm to 
move with that ease consistent with good 
results The hi it results are secured with 
the greatest ease and do not forget that 
friction IB a primiple of ii 

in original pen-and-ink dtaign (gSxSS). executed at the office of tlui "Journal." Capita have 
been finely pnnted (ISxSS, and 11x14) on BriBtol-hoard. and the smaller size on bond paper, for folding. A copy w 
'jiven, free, as a premium with (he "Journal." Price o/ larye size, by mail. bO centt ; small size, So cent^. 
Sen^ for Agent's Circular. 

indicative of character. Besides, the arm, 
swinging as it does from the shoulder— with 
that speed necessary to produce a smooth 
yet firm stroke in case of shade— the body 
must be braced, as docs any machine, while 
this action is going on, else a waver or a 
move ot tiie shoulder must change the centre' 
of motion and thereby produce a variety of 
inc«>rrect results. 

A good set of capitals, or any other work 
of like character, cannot be executed while 
miug a dead position. The muscles of 
entire body must be tensioned a little or 
the work wUl show a Himsioess too commun 
among many of the so-called results. 

Sit as though yoii meaQt busiuan, j 

Remark. The fingers considered with 

The wrists are properly kept straight 
with the forearm and not allowed to drop 

As to position at de-sk, I would recom- 
mend the front fur sitting, at least until you 
get some tangible results, and the left 
oblique for standing. See article, August 
Journal, 1881. 

The pen is held as per instructions in the 
" Pierceriau " System of Penmanship, which, 
by the way, differs somewhat from that of 

The paper, to consist of a single sheet, ' 
resting on a good blotting-pad — that will j 

The body should incline a little forward 
and to tho left, with support on left foot and 
left forearm. This will give the desired 
freedom of the right forearm and secure 
every possible advantage. 

While in these movements, generally, the 
feet can be placed together, or with one 
over the other if desired, should you wish 
to give extra expression to any work upon 
an enlarg.'d scale, you must govern yourself 
similarly to that in whcdearm. 

Peculiarities of Position.— As in other 
things, we here find peculiarities or charac- 
teristic features. No two sitting precisely 
the same. No two holding the pen pro- 
oisely the aarnei owing doubtless to various 

ooDditions, among which might be men- 
tioned the tliffereDce id sUtare and gfoeral 
make-np. The diirdreoce id furtnatiuQ of 
haodfi, etc. 

Wfi differ iu taste, style of dress, maooer 
of tliioking, et*-. We are even so particular 
that we caonot wear our hats just as the; 
are placed on our heads by other hands. 

A professional teacher cac give general 
ideas of how to do everything pertaining 
to this most benutifol art — the amAteur caL 
usrially dn more— yet if the student fails to 
do that which is recugnized as his part of 
the play, failure must bf the ultimatum. 
Or, if the student is easily satisfied, and bis 
HS|.iratioD8 meagre, then ordinary results 
will be in keeping with ordinary ideas, 

The physician may do his part nobl; aud 

Questions for the Readers of the 


Bv Prof. C. H. Peihce. 

1. Why are there so iitany failures in 
teaching penoiansbipf 

2. Why do so mauy abandon, early, the 

:). What will increase the dignity of the 
profession t 

4. Certain capitals are made too straight, 
others too Blaming, by A'bs of professionals 
and iVrt ofamHteurs. Is there any remedy? 
IS generally considered, 

pupils f 

ere whim f 
How would you teach 
What is' the usual ca 

represented, by some 

18. Why do amateurs produce different 
incorrect results at each attempt of execu- 
tion T 

19. Wlmt determines the handwriting of 

leadiog sys- , ihe misunderstaodings arising from his illeg- 
j ibility. 

20. No two write alike even onder like 
pressure. Is this a matter of choice f 

21. The A, N and M contuiniug stem 
are very difficult to form well, and are not 
used in general »Titing by the mass. Why 
are they called standard capitals! 

22. How are the copies of our leading 
systems prepared — with pen or pencil t Is 
each part prepared singly, or is the whole 
ot any copy handed to the engraver just as 
we see it in the copy-books t 

Michael Anoelo. — In his case there 
was sometimes a peculinrity which it is not 
desirable that auybody should imitate. So 
long Hs ho kept within the bounds of real 
drawing, his work was full of grandeur; but 
he sometimes, iu the exuberauco of an over- 
heated iinagiuatioQ, passed beyond drawing 
altogether, and exorcised himself in the 
flourishes of calligntphy. A bald and rapid 
pen-sketch of his, representing tliree reclin- 
ing fie'ires, is distinctly executed with the 
dualling curves and flourishes of the callig- 
rapliiet. It looks as if it had been done by 
some clever xrriliug-inaster, as a flourishing 
translation of a study by a learned artist. 




,?_- 5 

The above cut is photo -engraved from an original design executed at the office of the "Journal," and is given as a specimen of pen-drawing and lettenng. 

The above design has been printed, in fine style, on Bristol-hoard, tvriting and bond paper ; sise, llx 24. The BrisM-board ts for framing, and 

• the paper for rolling or folding. It is also printed upon a fine qualitg of Bristol- board, for framing, 17x22. Tliis design is 

believed to be the most artistic and tasty f-rm yet published for a Marriage Certificate. Single copies of size 11x14 

mailed for 50 cents; 18x23, $1. Free as a premium mth the •'Journal." Either size given. 

woll ; yet, if the patient cannot do his, death 
is inevitable. 

Again I repeat, " I 
if it be properly taken 

Study carefully the 
improve in a general way, you will lind 
Position keeping pace with all the rest of 
the essentials to good writing. 


8. Why do so many fail in attempting tc 
do their best f 

9. What are the advantages of combina- 

10. Why are extended 
capital letters ea 

I Extra Copies of the "Journal" 

j will be sent free to teachers and others who 
j desire to make an effort to secure a club of 
1 subscribera. 




Tban UtB lan-ycT liluuel 

laiabn-f'f JottrnaL 

11. What 
capitals T 

12. What has determined 
system of writingt 

J 3. What determines the slant of each 
capital, supposing the standard forms be 
taken ? 

14. What is tlie difference between an 
amateur and a professional f 

15. Can any professional penman execute 
a set of capitals with ink as perfectly and 
satisfactorily at a single dash as when 
several efforts are given each letter t 

16. Is it objectionable to check the 
hand suddenly at the finish of a capital 
letter t 

17. Why are A, N and M so given, aa 

The extraordinary illegibility of the late 
Dean Stanley's handwriting is known to all 
friends, and has been supposed to arise sim- 
ply from haste and carelessness. Certain 
correspondents have lati-ly sought to prove 
that the Dean was unconscious of his sins iu 
Ibis direction, but a statement from his old 
friend Max Muller goes far to disprove their 
theories. Mullor complained to him one 
day of a difficulty experienced by himself iu 
writing, and well known to all who wield a 
pen many hours daily, being called by some 
doctors, Schreibekrampf, or writers' cramp. 
" Ah, don't you know," Stanley hasteutd to 
aiiswer, "I have had something like that all 
my life. I cannot control my fluger.", and 
t' at is why my handwriting has always been 
80 wretched." So far from being unconscious 
the Dean bimself told numberless stories of 

M. Angelo, in tins design, appears to have 
been intoxicated with his own fa<'ility and to 
have lost the self-control without which 
there can bn no truthful modulatiou of line. 
— Hamerton's Graphic Art. 

Remember, that if you renew, or send in 
your subscription to the JounxAL, before 
February 1st, you will set a TTt cent book 
free, or a SI book for 25 cents extra. 

A Munich professor has invented a brace- 
let that will remedy the affliction known as 
" writer's cramp.'' The penholder is fast- 
ened to the brai-elet in such a manner that it 
ran be usrd to write with ease and without 
brlneing the lingers into use at all. The 
band can rest i-n the table, moving easily 
ah)ng as the letters are traceil, and it is said 
that little practice is rorjuired to give ex- 
pertuess in the use of the invention. — Bos- 
ton Iranscrtpt. 


Piiblinh^d Monthly at »t p»i- Y» 


glnjiU tuMrtiOD, 30 emtM jm lln» nonpwrril. 

. no" 




Ail»i«rtl»»nimiH lor one Knd ibiw month*. pajraW* In 
w1ti>iii<» : for ■!■ monttu and one vmr. i>n>-nble qanrterlr 
Id kdtanoB. Nu derUlioQ from lb« itboTe mtM. Revl- 


Inir nnil ultnifllvi' I>i ap^nrq, iinl mil)' llif polronnir* of 
tiai lliiilr wimpaT »fi<l ii'-tive ivi-o|iemlion lu Mrre«|>ond- 


Tn ntl whn rmrilt |1 before Feb lit. we will nuiil tlie 
JOtiRiAl. "nf VPiir and n <vipy (bouod in nnper) of 
"AmM*> KanillH-nk of Artisdo Pntnanship i or, for 
II 95. n cnpr hnnnd In nlolh. For $i the " Hand-book," 
In flolh, nnd tlin "fllnndATd Pmotlonl Penmnnallip." will 
both In- miiil"il nlili (be first copy ol the JOUmAL. 

In |i)i.rt- .>t ilio iilMivK prumhim* we wll) mnll. fy«o. to 
nnv ii<il.»('iib.'r, rxrnltlinir tl, ti obolc« of ellhor of tlie 

Till- Ci-ntPti.ilnl Picture of ProgTW" 22828. 

•■ FlouriMi-il Kiiglo 34x32. 

■■ D.-iinillndSruK. 24x38. 

•• I^«d'. P-nycr. IOjiM. 

•• Onrfl^M Memorial -ISiM. 

" Pnmlly Rwnnl 18x22. 

" Morriago O»rtino«te 18x23, 

to twel%-e pages, and, eeveral limes, sixtceu 
pages have be*"n found necessary to coDlaio 
the matter which eeemptl to {JemaDd a place 
io it« ludumos. That we shall suou find it 
iieceiwarj to make the issue regular at six- 
teen pages Is very probable ; eolarged as it 
is to twelve pages, (and probably an io- 
crcsse to sixteeo), without change from its 
originally low price of subscription, is cer- 
tainly a pledge tu its patrons of a liberal 
cf)nrse in the future. 

We believe that nowhere else are com- 
bined 80 many circamstances favorable to 
the publicatidn of a model penman's paper 
as in the meiropolitao city of the new world, 
and io the present publication offices of the 
Journal; and it is our purpose to avail 
ourselves of these circumstances to the fullest 
extent possible for maintaining the Jour- 
nal, as it is Duw recognized tr* be, pre-emi- 
nently the chief of penmen's papers. 

The "Penman's Art Journal" 
and "Teachers' Guide." 

On the first day of January the subscrip- 
tion-list and the goodwill of the Teachers' 
Guide, published by J. D. Holcoml-, at 
Cleveland, Ohio, weie transferred to the 
publisher of the Penman's Art Journal ; 
hence the addition to its former title, which 
will he observed upon this issue. The Guide, 
as conducted by Mr. Holconib, has been 
well edited, interesting and siiicv, and has 

We have fre(|uently and'cheerftilly'com- 
mendfd the merits of the Journal, and 
now thai it is to visit our friends in place of 
the Guide, we bespeak tor it a hearty wel- 
come. It is an able exponent of a uiucli- 
needed educational reform, and teachers, 
especially, should give it the benefit of their 
influence and support. 

We trust that all the readers of the Guide 
who are not already familiar with the Jour- 
nal will thanit us for bringing such an ex- 
cellent publication to their notice, and that 
they will forward their subscriptions to 
Prof. Ames, the publisher, as soon as our 
obligations to them are cancelled. 

Thanking our subscribers for their gen- 
erous support of the Guide, and hoping 
that this change will meet with the approval 
of all, we remaiu, their friends, 

J. R. HoLCOMB & Co., 

Lal« Piibll»liere n/ Ttachtrs' Guidt. 
Cleveland^ Ohio, Jan. 1st, 1SS3. 

Report of the Convention. 
The Report of the Convention held last 
June at Cincinnati, Ohio, by the Business 
Educators and Penmen of America, is now 
ready for distribution. It constitutes a vol- 
ume of 130 pages, and will Ue very inter- 
esting and valuable to all persons interetited 
in any departmeut of business education or 
penmanship. It is to be regretted, how- 
of the m<ist intereMing dis- 

opeuing of an account in the name of the 
subscriber, the making out and sending of a 
bill, which, if done with all, would rcqaire 
a number of assistants, to pay whom would 
lead to bankrupttiy, and if credit is given to 
one, why not to all who request itt So far 
as ability or willingness to pay is concerned 
there are very few of our subscribers with 
whom we are acquainted that we should be 
unwilling to trust for many times the price 
of a subscription. There are some we 
know, and all strangers, we should be un- 
willing to trust — who is to disoriminatel 
Certainly not a mailing plcrk. Hence, we 
shouhl he personally burdened with all suoh 
responsibility and detail ; besides, much un- 
pleasantuess would arise from the discrimi- 
nations we should be obliged to make. 
We must, therefore-, in all cases decline to 
recognize requests for renewals or subscrip- 
tions when unaccompanied with the cash. 

Charles Chabot, 
English E.\cert in Handwriting. 
A London daily newspaper, in a recent 
editorial on the death of Mr. Chabot, the 
expert in handwriting, says : " Brothers 
frequently write singularly like each ..tlier, 
and any one who has paid the slightest at- 
tention to the subject cannot fail to notice 
the broad peculiarities which the calligraphy 
of certain people possesses in common. 
ThfTA is no mistaking the plain, expansive, 

nfriptlons to the 1'RX»1A«'6 AUT JOl'lWAL, 
for «iiy of our jniblicaUon*, wJU be ' ' 
Pfoniplly MWuded to by tbe 


n Bouvprio Street, [Fleet St.], 

London, Eiiglund. 

Niiilpe will be (jiven by poaiaLiuird to siib«riibet« Ht 
pHi^r mill, in all cutim, I* itupped until the eulwi'riplioD 

New York, January, 1683. 

Our New Year's Greeting. 

I'l entering upon a new, and the seventh, 
year of its oxiMeuco, the Journal greets 
it« many thousands of ri-adors with its best 
wInIh s fur their prosperity and happiness. 
The pii!»t year has been one of unusual 
pT(*|nriiy throughout the land, and in it 
tin- Journal has enjoyed a large share 
— it-* subseribors now numbering nearly 
three-fold those of last New Year, while 
every indication for increase during the 
pH's-ut year is superior to that of lUo last. 
The itrouiptuess with which renewals are 
bcinu made, and in most instances accom- 
panied \vitti one or more new names and 
ttie tiii'st Mattering messages on behalf of 
tin' Jiu'rnal, isut the eame timeencourag- 
iuc Hud inspiring to its editors ; and to all 
liy wh..,n suoh favors an- bestowed, the 
Jot'iiNAi. bears the most i-aruest reciprocji- 
ii"i, and rhauks. Prospects bright for the 
Journal are equally so for its patrons, for, 
projinriiiuiato to the liberality of their sup- 
port, will be the uieans in tlie hands of its 
publishers for eubiincing it» beauty and ex- 

During the past year the regular size of 
ihtf JjjaSAL ha bjoa euUrj{«J from oinht 

enviable place among its contempo- 
rary educational periodicals. Its mergence 
in the Journal adds at once many thou- 
sand names, cbietiy of active teachers, to the 
already very large subscription-list of ihe 
Journal. The addition of its title to that 
of the Journal we deem to be very appro- 
priate in view of the fact that a very large 
proportion of each i.«sue of the Journal 
has been devoted to practical iustrurtion in 
writing and to other departments of educa- 
tion and business. It will be the special 
efibrt of the editors of the consolidated paper 
to so conduct it that, while it shall be alilte 
interesting and valuable as a representative 
of the penman's art, and as a guide to good 
and efficient teaching, its general educational 
and literary merit shall be such as to com- 
mend it to its many patrons, and enable it 
to hold an honorable rank among the 
educational periodicals of the day. 

The "Teachers' Guide" Consoli- 
dated with the "Journal." 

To the Subscriben of the Ttnchers' Guide: 
In accordance with previous announce- 
ment, and for sufficient reasons already pub- 
lished, the subscription-list nf the Teachers' 
Guide has beeu transferred to that of tlie 
Penman's Art Journal, the publisher of 
which assumes all of our (.bligatioas to sub- 
scribers. The Journal will be mailed, 
reguUriy, without extra charge, t*t our sub- 
bcribora until their uubscriptionfl expire, 

cuBsions and blackboard expositions of wri- 
ting and methods of instruction could not be 
given in the report, partly from their very 
nature, and partly from the absence of the 
reporter from the special afternoon aud 
evening sessions ot the penmen; but it is, 
to say the least, an interesting aud valuable 
report. The price per copy has been fixed, 
by the. Executive Committee, at -50 cents; 
on receipt of which, copies will be mailed 
from this office. 

Ending Subscription. 
It is our invariable rule to give notice, by 
postal-card, to each subscriber at the expir- 
ation of his term of subscription, and to die- 
continue the JouKNAL at that lime unless the 
subsrriiJtion is renewed, and iu no case is a 
renewal made, or a name entered as a sub- 
scriber upon our bcH.lts, until the subacrip 
tioD-price is paid. Many cards are received 
retiuestiag that the JtxiRNAL bo not discon- 
tinued, aud also icfiuests that the Journal 
be umilfd to the sender, a« a subscriber, 
»m a promise to pay. To any person 
having a knowledge, or auy just con- 
ception, of the immense labor and deuil 
of conductmg a paper with so largo a 
circulation as that of th« Journal, it 
will bo very apparent that strict and uni- 
form rules must bo observed, else a disas- 
trous increase of lub-.r aud confusion would 
result. The renewal or taking of a subaorip- 
M..n without payment vrould ne<MJMitat« tha 

cleasly formed letters of those who have 
beeu taught to write in the schools of Am- 
erica. The admirable handwritings of the 
Scandinavians are so much alike that ex- 
perts will be able to pick out from a hun- 
dred examples almost every one esecuii-d 
by a Dane, a Noiwegi-m, or a Sw-ede. The 
Italian handwriting is also so marked that 
it is one of the ' stylos ' affected by writing- 
masters, aud the pretty, scratchy characters 
of a Frenchman, with their flourishes and 
sudden redundances, inevitably suggest the 
gay, volatile, tickle character of the race to 
which he belongs." 

Mr. Chabot was one of the most cele- 
brated of experts ever employed in the 
English courU; he gained bis first notoriety 
in a will case in which his chief .point was 
that, in examining a large nunjber of docu- 
ments admittedly written by the testator, he 
had in no single case found the letter "o" 
connec**d with the other letters, whereas in 
the disputed will it was sometimes su con- 
nected and sometimes not. 'J'he will was 
broken. He was also emidoyed by Hon. 
Edward Twisleton in the examinaliou of 
the handwriting of the famous Junius let- 
ters, and its comparison with that of the 
several suspected authors of those letters, 
with the view of discovering their true 
authorship. The result of Chabot'« inves- 
tigation WH9 published by Mr. Twisletou in 
a quarto volume of 300 pages of letter-press, 
and 207 Hthographio plates, ooastitutia^ the 
uoil eiteiuiT» and ezbaoitire traatiM apoo 

expert ezamiaations of bandvritiog ever 
published. It wonld eecm by that report 
that Mr. Chabfjt succeeded iu establishiDp 
beyoud a doubt the id«'ntity of tliP wriljog 
in the Junius letters with that of Sir Phtlip 
Francis. j 

Binding "Journals." 

Wo believe that no subscriber to the 
Journal, who has once seen our Cominoo- 
sonse Binder, will ever do wiibout it. By 
its ase the Jouhnal is not only perfectly 
preserved, but as convenient for reading or 
reference as a book. Each binder will hold, 
securely and well, four volumes of the 
Journal, and each Dumber is added with- 
out difficulty or loss of time. Owing to tlie 
recent nuinoroUH orders, wo have been able 
to reduce the price from $1.75 to $1.50, at 
which the Biurier will hereafter be mailed 
post-paid. By its use the value of the Jour- 
nal IS more than doubled to any subscriber. 

clobs; ih'j come from him large and often ; 
there are few teachers t<i whom the Jour- 
nal ia more indebted for subacribcrs than 
to him. The number and size of clubs 
since January 1st has been quite unprece- 
dented with the Journal. To all the 
senders we return our thanks, and regret 
that each cannot have the honor of sending | getli 



'Journal " fo; 

A person for the first time glancing at a 
copy of the Journal, and observing the 
ntal designs 

ihe King. 

of the vices of a badly fonned liandwriting. 
It is the imly first-class publication giving 
a full hhranj of practical icritmg, while oui 
new " Hand-book of Artistic Penmanship " 
is devoted exclusively to ornamental poo- 

Both of these complete publications, to- 
th the Journal, for one year, are 

I sent by mail on receipt of $2. 


H. T. Loomis, one of the proprietors of the 
Spencerisn Buainese College, Cleveland, Ohio, 
and one of the moat accomplished penmen and 
teacliera of the West, was married, on Decem- 
ber 26tli, to Mi?fl Lida Stradley, at the rfsi- 
dfnce of the bride in Rochester, Ind. We 
abstract the following from the Rochester Sen- 
tinel, which contained a long and glowing 
report of ihi 

■'Mr. Loomis i 
ance and addrep! 
has won. Wnrdi 
be out of plact! in 
BO well and favorably known. Shi 

jd by her womanly virtues, gentle 

tUe bride would 

This is the month for the Eagle and 
Stag. Will Brother Gaskell please note the 
change of time for the satisfaction of his 
inquisitive correspondent. 

and lady liktf deportmeiil. The school in whicb 
she was a teacher has lost one of its best iu 
elructors, and society one of its cherished mem 
bers, by her departure, but all join in wiBhin- 
her a long continuation of the pleasures of lif 

The Highest Monument in the 

The Washington Mouument, which has 
been so long in process of erection at Wash- 
ington', D. C, has now reached the height 
of 300 feet, and is to be carried 250 feet 
higher— making a total, when finished, of 
.550 feet, which will exceed the height of the 
great pyramid iu Kgypt (at present the 
highest human monument in the world) by 
eighty-nine feet. The monument is being 
constructed of massive marble blocks, seven 

Gilded Domes. 

The domes of the great churches io Mos- 
cow and St. Petersburg are said to bo plated 
with gold nearly a quarter of an inch thick. 
The dome of the Isaac Cathedral in St. Pe- 
tersburg represents a value of $45,000,000, 
and that of the Church of the Saviour in 
Moscow, $15,000,000. 

Query. — How many more smiles do these 
tJO,000,000 of dollars iu gilded domes win 
from heaven than they would if judiciously 
expended in teaching the ignorant and semi- 
civilized masses of Russia how to read and 
write; or, in other ways for relieving thetn 
from their grinding poverty and hardship t 

How to Remit Money. 

The best ancl safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage -stamps. 

Philadelphia, Jan. 4th, 18 
Editors of the Journal : 

While the Journal 

3 doing its utmost 
■ Ito elevate the art 

tain others are 

doing quite the 
reverse. For in- 

stance, I have 

received a circu- 
lar from two 
particular pen- 
call their UHmes) 

«* . , . . ' '"','',"'," "^ °"' "^ '^"' "'''^"""^ '■"''^ alphabet, wAW appear in Ames'a Hand-book of ArtUtui Penmanfhip- 

S.-paffebook.giv*r,ff all the pr^ncipU, and many drnff.,, f.r jlounMmj, with nearly, thirty standard and artistic alphabets 
. paper covtrs, {S5 rent* extra in cloth), to ever;, person remitting $1 for a subscription or renewal 
'rice of the book, bi/ mail, in paper, 75 cents; in cloth, fl. 

r eubjeetsof gen- 
eral interest; but the primary efforts of its 
conductors will be in behalf of practical 
writing, for where one patron can derive ad- 
vantage from any kind of fancy penmanship, 
one hundred or more will bo benefited by 
plain practical writing, and our motto will 
ever be— The good of the many rather than 
the few. 

The King Club 

For this montli comes from Bryant, Strat- 
ton & Sadler's Business College, Balti- 
more, Md., seut by W. H. Patrick, the 
accomplished penman of that institution; 
the club numbers ninety-eight. The Queen 
Club comes from the La Crosse (Wis.) 
Business College, and is sent by H. C. 
Carver; it numbers ^yVF/>»i-. Mr. Carver 
ia a recent graduate of Musselman's Gem 
City Business College, Quiucy, 111. Ho is 
an aooomplished penman, and evidently a 
popular teacher. In the November number 
of the Journal, page lOa, was reproduced a 
epeoimen fro.,, his pen. with which, by 
some oversight, he was uul credited. The 
third club iu si,e uumbors fiftyom, aud 
was sent by L. Aeire, teacher of writing at I 
Archibald's Bu..ines8 College, MinneapoIU, ' 

Mina.^ ^Mr. A«ir« i 

1 old luuid at Msdiag 1 ing to la&m 

that belong to the lovely and good, and may 
clouds of sorrow never darken uer pathway in 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to say so and teli 


The sale of this unrivalled "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" since its issue dur- 
ing the past nine months has, beyoud ques- 
tion, never been equalled by any chiro- 
graphic publication in this country nor in 

It is in elegant porlfulio style, and em- 
braces complete work on elementary writ- 
ing, book-keeping forms, and business cor- 
respondence. It is con.-eded by the I 
penmen and business educators to be the 
only reliable A^inatructor for those desir- 

feet long by three feet six inches wide, 
which are lifted into their place at the top 
of the work by a steam elevator. 

There will be a staircase extending to 
the top. Costly blocks of marble have been 
aeut by various foreign governments, which 
are being placed on the inner facing of the 

The Hand-Book. 


to the unusuiil pressure upon our 
time during the holidays, we were not able 
to complete the plates of the Hand-book 
quite as soon as we anticipated at the time 
of its announcement ; but the work is on the 
press. Bound copies will bo ready to mail 
inside of ten days, when all orders will be 
promptly filled. 

Our Premiums. 

Inasmuch as the Journal will, this 
month, be mailed to many thousand persons 
who have no knowledge of the character or 
style of the premiums, one of which is 
ery subsf-riber, we have 

you neg- 
lect this oppor- 
tunity to 
from four to 
eight dollars a 
day you must be 
a fool." The 

! full of this stuff. What 

hiuk of themf 

A. Bush. 

circular alluded 

does the Journ 

We do not know what circulars are al- 
luded to by Mr. Bush, but we will say, in 
answer, that we often see circulars which 
justly merit such criticism as Mr. Bush 
gives. It is our conviction that if such ad- 
vertisers could know how greatly tliey lower 
themselves in the estimation of all sensible 
people by such " clap-trap " and " bragga- 
docio," we are sure that they would omit it. 
Who writes himself a champion might as 
well say to the world, " Behold an ass ! " 

ading given free 

) nd themMlvi 

added four extra pages for the purpose of 

inseningcuu— reduoedaiae— ofaporUonof i ing money are sealed 

^'"^ ' poitTBMter we will aui 

Send $1 Bills. 

We wish our patrons to bear i 
in payment for subscriptions we do not de- 
sire postage-stamps, and that tbey should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a d^dlar. A 
dollar bill is much more cooveuient and safe 
to remit than the same amount in 1, S or 3 
cent stamps. The acUal risk of i 
money is slight — if properly direi 
one miscarriage will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and where letters contain- 
in presence of the 
inw ftll the riak. 

I mind that 


J. S., Upper Saii(lii-ky. Ohio, incloses 
specimens exhibilinif ^tpM impruvcmcnt io 
tiifl writing fruiii practicing »fter the cttpicR 
and iriHiruction given in the Journal, aod 
submiU the fulluwJDg question : In the 
front position at the desk should the upper 
right comer of the paper be oppoE^ito the 
chestt Arts. — There may be a tiifficulty in 
determining just nh ch orner of t) e paper 
iiK referred to as the upper exce] t in 
connection with the Ilustrat n referred to 
{No. 2, in lU July 
number). In all p a 
tions at the desk the 
paptT should ho 1 eld 
parallel, and th rule 1 
Hues at right angles U 
the arm. 

H. M. F. N., Ca 1 sle 
Pa. — "What 8 tie 
proper method of deter 
mioing the actual m 
provoment made dur ng 
a periiid of, say f ur 
weeks' practice 1 av ng 
preserved a spec en of 
writing at beginn g f r 
Rompariflon at close of 
term. 2d. W uld tl e 
introdiietion of oVlq o 
penholders in pr arj 
and grammar echo Is bo 
ail advantage or a detr 
iiient to them t Ans — 
let. At close ot lessons 
1) specimens r tteo 

and securing patrons for plain writine ; it is 
in itself in demand, and remunerative for 

I card-writing, engrossing, drawing, etc. -id. 

I Many of our brst penmen and teachers of 
writing passed their early years upon a 

' farm, which wo do not think to have been 
to their disadvantage, as, if their fingers 
and muscles were somewhat hardened, they 

ber, I8p2, which contains ihe first lesson. 
The Journal, from May t« January, 1884, 
wilh a choice of two from seven premiums, 
will be mailed for $1.50. 

J. E. K., Prescolt, Canada.— Does your 
"Hand-book of Artistic Penmanship " give 
copies and instruction in practical writing. 
Ans.— 'So; hone whatever. It is designed 
as an aid in artistic pen work and lettering, 
exclusively. The "Standard Practical prolonged labor and endurance. 4th. Which 

Books and Magazines. 

"Hand Uuk of Takigraphy," by D. P. 
Lindsley, 252 Broadway, New York, is a 
book of 172 ]2mo. pages, iu cloth, $2. So 
far as our limited knowledge of shorthand- 
writing enables us to judge of works of this 
kind, it is a meritorious publication. It is 
ficely printed and bound. The author claims 

PeniiiaDship," which we mail for $1.00, 
the best guide to practical writing pub- 
lished. That and the Hand-book will be 
mailed together for$1..^0. The Journal 
included, one year for $2.00. 

G S Glenwood Mo — 1st Can anyone 
bee ne a good pen nan I y pract ng from 
a CO npend u t "d What s the use of 

J also strengthened and better fitted for that Takigraphy possesses many advantages 


most profitable depends chiefly upon the 
peculiar characteristics of each individual. 
If a person is a good teacher of writing, and 
has a taste and genius for getting up classes, 
itinerent teaching pays well ; otherwise, not ; 
but good wr t ug and teach ng pay n 
connect on w tl d str ct schools u any pen 
organ ze classes a ne ghbor ug schools 


form length and cou 
position, as als si ut 1 
have been first spe 
mens — and all de g 
nated by numl er u 
stead of the nai e of tl e 
writer — 80 that tl ere 
may be no part al ty ex 
ercised by the exa n 
ing committee Tl e 
specimens shuull tl eu 
be compared — Ji st n 
respect to corre ue h n 
forms of letters seco i" 
grace of 

3 of I 

third, proportii ns ipac 
ing, slope, shade etc 
Ans. 2 —We v. ul 1 n t 
commend the 1 1 q 
holder for use f 1 am 
era, and especiall> u tl 
lower grade of scho I' 
The oblique holder 1 
uo advantages er t 
straight holder f pr p 
orty held ; but 
writers find it 
tical or quite d lb ult to 
maiutaio the hand in a 
position sufficiently 
turned toward the per- 
son to bring the nibs of 

the pen Hat or — ■ — — — 

upon the paper, the obliipie holder is in- 
troduced to obviate this difficulty, and is 
serviceable only for that purpose. 

E. P. B., Richmond, Va., asks several 
questions respecting the use of the oblique 
holder, which questions are substantially 
answered above, except as lo the nmnner in 
which the oblique holder should be held, 
which is the same as for a straight holder. 

E. H. D., Toledo, 0.— How many more 
lessons in the course by Prof. Spencer, aud 
can I get the back numbers of the Journal 
from the bcginniug of the course t Atis— 
There are to be eight more lessous, making 
a course of sixteeti in all, and you can have 
your subscription begin with tlie May uum- 

•om a pen and- ink draieivtj S4xS0, exfcuUd at the < 
r been prinUd, by photo- litkoffr aphy tpnn fine pi -u paper 19xS4, one of which i 
with the "Journal." Copies mailed to othei-i than $ubicrihert for 60 cc 

ornamental penmanship t 3d. Can a boy 
who has done hard work upon a farm be- 
come a fine writert 4tb. Which is the 
most profitable employment : teaching wri- 
ting (itinerant), or teaching district school ? 
5lb. Do you judge from my writing that I 
could become a fine penman f Ans. — Ist. 
A person may become a good writer by 
practicing carefully from good copies -at 
home, without a teacher; but, if practicable 
to do so, it would be economy, of time at 
least, to take lessons of some experienced 
teacher; a few timely criticisms and sug- 
gestions from such a teacher might save 
months of bard, and often discouraging, 
practice. 2d. Ornamental penmanship has 
many uses: it aids in attracting attention 

and towns, evenings, and often make re- 
j spectable compensation beyond their salary. 
I (Jib. We judge that, with a little of the 
right kind of instruction and practice, you 
I might become a good writer. You need to 
give attention to movement, and we think it 
would pay you to get the '* Standard Prac- 
tical Penmanship," as it is the beat aid 
known to us for self- learners. 

W. R. C, Garfield, Kansas.— Which is 
best — a large or email penholder f Ans. — 
A medium-size, unpolished holder is the 
best. Answer respecting oblique holder 
given above. 

Education embraces the culture ot the 
whole man with all Ms faculties. 

■ the various systems of plu 
which is shown by comparisons io this work. 
"Vick's Floral Guide for IS^H" is the 
most exquisitely and profusely illustrated 
floral publicatitm that we have ever exam- 
ined. What it does not represent, or tell 
about t'^ cult vat on n the floral or horti- 
c Itural 1 no s scir ely worth inquiring 
af e It 13 pr nted on the best of paper, 
olored plates 
of flo vers and vege- 
tabl 3 aud full of useful 
uformation. Those 
wlo B'nd 10 cents for 
t cannot be disappoint- 
e 1 as the plates alone 
are worth the amount. 
Address, as in past 
years James Viok 
Rod ester, N. Y. 

Crittenden's Com- 
ne a Arithmetic and 
Bu ness M^inual," de- 
B gned for the use of 
h gh schools, acade- 
n es commercial col- 
leges teachtrs, mer- 

By John Groes- 
constilting ac- 

it, and principal 
of Crittenden's Phil- 
adelphia Commercial 
College. Containing 
410 1 6 mo. pages. 
Eldr Ige &. Brothers, 
P ladelphia, pul)li.«h- 
e 3 It is splendidly 
pr nted and bound, 
wh le in its arrange- 
ment and manner of 
treat ng its various sub- 
jects t is clear, concise 
and admirable. It ap- 
pears to eontaiit just 
al out the matter de- 
6 rable for an arithme- 
t c designed as a text- 
book for advanced pu- 
p Is and a book for 
reference in a business 

The Art Amateur for 

Jan ary fairly overllowe 

M tl tlosedcsigns,illus- 

tra ous and practical 

f^r art- 

and home deoora- 

which make this 

able magazine a 

uany cultured Ameri- 
can I useholds. A su- 
perb portrait of the 
famous English etcher, 
Francis Seymour Ha- 
I den; some striking 
charcoal and pencil 
sketches by Walter Shirlaw; a very inter- 
esting collection of miniatures by Cosway, 
and a double-page of Salmagundi Exhi- 
bition sketches, are notable features of 
this number. The il lustrations of Volkmar 
faience, artistio furniture and pianos, tapes- 
try, needlework and jewelry are especially 
good. Practical articles on fan painting, 
miniature painting, china painting, and art 
needlework are given, together with valu- 
able " hints for the home" and "answers 
to correspondcnis." In the supplement 
sheets are full-size designs fur a panel of 
cherubs' heads; apple-blossom decoration 
for a vase ; birds and piue-needles for a cup 
and saucer; an ivy and owl decoration of 
tilee for a fire-place facing; a 

lAiryer cop\ 


for UiB Br.vmit &. S 
lepe, ill tlie Firen 
aocfl BnlUli 
with appropi-iali 


G. W. Michael, wlio for 
Bome tinio pan has conducted "" " 

a pcmmiuKhip Bchool- at Delaware, 0., has 
traii«ftfrred hia school to Oberlin, O. Mr. Mi- 
chael ie eiiihusiaetic, and apparently succeBsful 
in the prosecution of hia profeaaion. 

(9 photo engraied fo a jeu and %nk drau »g x ^a executed at the Jo trnal 

^ hren jmnfed, hij photo- hi hograiihij, upon Jine plate pajier, 19x;i4, one of which is given a 

iiim icith the "Journal:' Copies mailed to others than subscribersr for 50 cents each. 

Specimens wortliy of noi« have been re- 
ceived an follows: 

J. C. Millet , Ii-ksbnrg. Pa., a auperior epeci- 
men of practical wriliiip, drawing, and letl«r- 
ing; J. W. Swank, Wiwhinytoii, D. C. an 
elegantly wrilk-u letter, accompanied by a well- 
deaerveil and highly complimentary uolioe 
from the Washington press ; from the St. Louis 
Mercantile College, a letter; A. N. Palmer. 
Cellar Kapids, Iowa, several skillfolly exe- 
cuted specimens of flouriahiag and card- 
writing; A. E. Dewhursi, Utiea, X. Y., a 
ftouiished bird; R. M. Nellie, Central City. 
D. T., a Sou. i^hed bird ; W. I. Moore, Epping. 
N. H., a leller; P. H. Cleary, VernoD, Mich., 

photograph of a pea-drawing, entitled, "Uncle 
Tom'a Cabin "; L. A. IX Han, penman at the 
Davenport, loWa, Business College, a flour- 
i«hed stng with lettering; W. H. Patrick, peu- 
niim at the Bryant, Stratton & Sadler's Buflt- 
ness College. Baltimore, Md., a letter; H. C. 
'Cnrver, La Crosse. Wis., a letter; L. Aeire, 
Archibald's Business College, Minneapolis. 
Minn., a letter; H. C. Clark, Titusv.lle, Pa.. 
Business College, a letter; L. B. Lawsoii, Red 
Wing, Cal.. a letter, and club of twelve sub- 
scribers; C. N. Crandle, Bushnell College, 
Bushnell, 111., sends flourished bird and letter. 

of llie greatest utility, ai: 
(|1 a year] places it wilL 

fur uaample copy."- A'o( 

e or aubicriptiOD 
rioBt everybody. 

ohirograptiin a 

Complimentary from the Press to 

the "Journal." 

The foUowiog are a few of tho many flat- 

inland lewou. in 

tering nonces from the press, received dur- 

ing the past year ; 

10 Ilie de.irable au 

-TheJouiWALUa ..el,e.r«ge p,p„. pri„,«, ,„ ,ho 

CV(i,(/a.) Comm, 

" No papM com 

It u Bbly edire<l by D. T. Amta. the lending jH^n-orlist ot ' 

I'tw England Sift- 
OS nearly an tdeal paper 

JeavoriDg lo Improve their hand- 
it aid in Ihli JoVRSAL."~FranJt 

plain penmi 

f Wnah- 

e bighly tht 
:. tlirpogh i 

a privilege it nuuld be togetber 

e JOUUMAL. irhlvb 
ye». a good light a 

I should Kubtcrib« for 

rhe trueet teat ofcivilizaiioD ia not the 
sua, nor the size of cities, Dor the crops 
,0, but tbe kind uf men the country turns 
, — Emerson, 

•2 "f ''Z 

X flj o 

I i ! 

3 o- 
3 3 

,? >3 N- 

^ rt o 

if i 

~4, - ' ^4g^^]s^ / -£^ 




A. January. 1883. 

TotliullfiiilPrtof Ilie 



Intf y 

yuuwlU luvor u*iTl 


ipUoD, upoa ibe fol- 

Thp prio» «r our paper ha> 


. BD<1 *hn11 ooDtinuo 

C>^."'!h'„; ;'"::^ 


r lonueuce and euod 
■end It. po*t.poid. to 
Ive mombe of lf83. 

1^"'" .. ' i. 

.. ';'; 


(to fa lb» JttBiiaiy. 




and priLBt awnrfed 



KMriv* (fa* foUotriDg 

Umvtrsal /*ni* 

Photo or Edilur 

. - . . .25 

Toial muth 


Sawykk B 

BOS., IcDpoHer 

and Publliber*. 


Ottawa. Caiuida- 


Thwugh lUit mon 

ih IiTi 


to any penoD". ad- 

drew. Incloring flflM 


also lb 


I«e ODly 

fur pre 


I will, upon COM 

Uiug Ih 

fir ftiitogrraph MDI. prepnre 

thM* n-lih on «>■• lo 

bcir tu 

• «i»l 

ability to derelope a 


a. To bum u]> otli 

f people 

• nutoffrapbio ^■sgariei uwy 

b« I'ommmdabk, bu 

to produc* > 

ur own tignaturv ur 

thml of fripod or wm 


d well 

may be a great deal 

•cUrr wd lM>llvr. 

3. But ODt> iwraoD 

mure i 


•aa i<n>AMC* a de>ooat 




KingOTiUe. Oblo. 

lulncriirtSoo. ti W. Clubbfid wUh 

1 TV uie. Sample lOo A. E. Ukwuubst. li; I'av 



LAPIUNUM iSlom-Clolhi. 

Black Diamond Slating, 

Th: ISr,l l.i,i«i,l Sl,,li„.i [,r:tl,„„t ,ic,plwn)Sor 

Wall, .Old IVooilrn m«^Uaar<lt. 

MnhA the rinMt and most dunible tnrface. FiuIIy 


Pint,tl.25; Quart, f!!; Half-Oiilloii,t3.50! OaUoD.tfi.SO. 

Flat Dniili (4 inchM) SO wnta. 

One qiiorte mily txivoiv 50 aqiiare feet with three ooata. 

tlie number tuually applied. 

Vied and givei J'trfect Salitfaction in 

ColQiiiljla Oolleffe ISchooI of Mines) - Netv Yorjt Cily. 

$1,000 to $10,000 Life Insurance Benefit in case of Death. 
. $10 to $25 Weelcly Indemnity in case of Accident. 




Hon. EDWAJtD D. LOVERIDGE, Pres't of Bank ofCuba, N. Y. 

E. C. Hazard, firm of E. C. Hazard & Ca.,\riiolesa].! Grociira, New York, 

Geo. W. Lewis, Ebi].. Bridgeport, Conn. 

E. H. PoTTEn, Esq., film of Dodge, Totter &. Co., Bankera, 

New York. ^.■■ 

Lemuel H. Wilsox, Treaa. N. T. &. Atlanlio R. K. ^ ' 

Co., New York. ^ •j'^ -f 

Lewis A. Osboux, New York. <\ f\ \ 



E. D. W 

M.D., New York. 

Unirmlly nf MiuiMipi>i Oxfitr.! 

Loug UlHiid lluspilal Medical Colle^ ■ Druiiklyi> 

oliiinifa! New Yi>i 
ColTt^H ISxnliunse: ! 
Equlluble Unifii am 

iiioe ExobnnRni Ken- Vo; 
rk Iron and Slelal Exobiingi 
ce ExcbHUgo. 

lively). Pntenwn, N. J. 
flii-liinff. N. Y. 
Ml Venion, N. Y. 
P..iiglikeei-»ie. N. 1 
Waverly, K. Y. 
HnrHbril. Ct. 



I ■ ■ ■ - ;; '4^'-^i ;: • ' ■ - 


Plniu. Willioul Shelf. 

• I ]e«t;4 iDcLu 

3 Ruledformiuio " " 

Jiii it untTersalli 
Trial fur hlarkboa 


■« 205 Broadway, New VopI 



Geo. W. Lewis, President. 
LEWlsA.OSDOElN.r.-/'.,^- Genl Manage 
Lemuel H. Wilson-, Treaturer. 
G. T. Potte'ii, Secrctarif. 
Examining Finance Ccmmittee. 
Edu-ahd D. Loveridge. E. H. Pottek, Esq. 
Medical Director ; E. D. ■Wheeler. 
Counsel: Winfield, Leeds &. Mouse, 130 Broadway, New Yoik. 


upon Satisfactory Proof of Ctaim, 


One Advance Assessment from Every Member 

Satisfactory Terms made with good parties to act as Agents. 



A Tfoji- of Surpassing Beauty, Comhinimj Instruction in 


By a simple, /uscmalmg and rgective system of illustrations and explanations, 

a hmwledye of tlie ahove brandies may he acquired by the student, 

with comparatively little labor on the part of tlit teacher. 



Better than the Best of its Predecessors, 

The work lias receired the highest endoraeicent of many of the most eniin( 
teacher., who have pronounced it " heller than the beat of its predeceeaors." 
The completed hook appeared September lOlh, ISBS, and 1ms been aliead.v 

Adopted ^y Leading Business Colleges «»■! Commercial Schools 

Ihrooghout the couuliy. Circulars containing a large number of ringing leslimoniala, and 
givnig a description of the book-melhods, contents, price, etc., will he mailed to teachers and 
achoola on application. 

A Reference-Book and Key Free of Charge 

Will be furnished to sdioole adopting the work (and to achoola only), bj the use of which the 
book can be introduced at any time without inconvenience. Addreas, 


Business Universify. 

Learn to Write. SCRIPT RULERS. 

BliickCiirdBoai-Tl. *!x28, forwhitulnk..." U 

Blnck Cui-ds ])cr 100 15 

Black Cards per Uiousaad, by oxpi-ess S 00 

pcTBhuflt, gulre. 

Wliiit'B dr'lng-paper, hotriirosB, 15x2lJ'.i"*l5 /l^ 

" 17x22, 20 2 00 

" !.' \\ *^^' ^ ' ** 

Sl'x.Vii 1 74 W ou 

Bliinlc Bristol Board Cards, per 100 as 

" " " 1000 1 00 

" " " 1000, by ex. 1 SO 

WinsorAMowton'BBnpreuD, Ind. Luk.eUck 1 01 
Oruaiiiental Card)., V2 tlesi^s, per [Kuk uf 25 o&nU. 

l»y'nail 20 

Fnur porki, 100 oaKU ao 

1000 '■ !I""!"'!I"'.''..'..V... ,...,.!!;!'.! < 50 

Eiijtr.*»iiiK Pen* for loUerirK, jiei iiw '..','.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. OA 

Crowqiiill Pen. very fine, for dmwtog, doi 75 

WillianiB-.ttDdPaPkard-iOem. 5 00 

SI '• 3*f* i' 

Hill's Manual -; 


Broadtray, Netr ) 


Marlon vi He, Oooiida^a Coanty, New York, 

" ' " SubMeriptitm Asent.Ani 

HAND-nOOKfl OP IMC Rkcipbb. 
CoUwtioD No. 1 ■• (50 RMir*al Conlonn- Black. 18 

- -, . "...-., •JdeUble.f 

iihetio. 6 kind*; ■ ■■ - ■ 

(100 Rwiptw) Coolents: Blaok, 32 

, , , , . Drawing. Carbou. India 

una Jitpsa Inks, lok-iwwdcr, Inks r« DitLrkina naokairea. 
PniiiiDg ink, Sleocil Ink*. Stumping and CauueJiDg I^ka) 
for btiifa niMal and rubbu «tain|i«, Ruling ink, AnlUna 

The Book-keeper 



Published Fortnightly. 

The Leading Accountants of America 

Devoted to all matters of special interest 
to Accountants. Bankers, Merchants, 
Manufacturers, Counting-room 
AtUchcs. instructors of Ac- 
counts, and all persons 
having to do with 
the keeping of 
of account. 
\ncicni and modern systems of Book- 
keeping reviewed and exemplified. 
Practical problems and questions discus- 
sed and elucidated, 
subscription. $2.00 per annum. Single 

copies, 8 cents. 
Specimen copies sent free to prospective 
An Agent wanted in every city in the 
United States and Canada. Full com- 
pensation guaranteed. 

The Book-keeper, 
29 Warren Street, New York. 
Post-OfTicc Address. P. O. Box 2126. 



iPuUm Iformal CoUtgr. and Commercial Inttilm 


SiDd for Prtp«-1l 



co^nmv sriKMH, iUMtK.Ki:i:ri\fJ, 




tmbmclnKll)t>Tlitx)i-yi>iid PmoUceof i 

tnd ii(liii)i<.-(l 


* ut ) 

lilglivi'irntiloBfjf pubtlennilpr 

Nww Yoilt 

.--. I(y 

U. UuvAHT ot Chicago. 

•oTk now bflom lli« imbllc 


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1 p«ok ol 2S cuda leot poat-pald, .... SO cU. 

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pen itself always acts upon both«, on the up and doufn strokes, and besides, by ihe-obliqui 
principle, without cramping the position of the hand, the pen is thrown at \he proper angle ' 
the letter. 

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,19 AND 121 William Sthket, New York. 

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YoitK, N. Y., AS Skcoxd-Class a 

B Edit 


Vol. VII.— No. 2. 

Lessons in Practical Writing. 

Nt>. IX. 

Bv Henry C. Spencer. 

Oopyrifbiad, F«Uriiarj-, 1863, by Speooer Ilruthen. 

And jour lellen louh frigblfiilly. 

—Old Copy. 

Music puts pupils in a proper frame of 
mind fur writing. Indoeil, it so addresses 
iljclf t(> tlio liead, heart and hand ns to 
tnaUo pleasant every employment with which 
it ia associated. 

In iho ^ood old days, when youug men 
and maidens, from all parts of our country, 
gathered in summer classes at the famous 
Spencerlao Lng Seminary, in Geneva, 0., 
to be instructed by Piatt R. Spencer, the 
originator of the Sponcerian system, music 
and poetry were summoned to lend their 
dplightful aid to the task of learning. Oft 
the strains of Auld Lang Syne, in tenor, 
base aud treble, swelled out harmoniously 
from that rural temple, as they sang the 


Tho Pen. (ho Pen, the bmve oh 
WhicJi ilomped oiir thnngUU 

Tbrniigh tl« bold Iraohiga oft ug 
Our Ibuugbta will freshly i>i>u 

In ■ohool-diiy nceoes nnd eooinl I 

Light s 

:he lubonng ii 

.«d gla, 

This ode is now sang by the young men 
and women who. in large numbers, are 
learuiug the Spencerian in their school 
witliiu sight of the grand dome of our na- 
tional capitol. Perhaps it would not be 
amiss to call it our National Ode to the Pen. 
We recjuost those who study and practice 
theao lessons to copy the Ode as handi 
as they can, io a free-tlowing ham 
preserve it as a sample of their penmanship. 
Tub t\vbnty-six Capital Letters, 
and the t-urvos of the small letters, in script, 
also the rurv^s in Italic print, are based on 
tho oval f.irm ; white the curves of the capi- 
tals of vertical llouud Writing, German Text 
based upon the circle, 
al, first, in a diagram, 
which shows it in 
comparison with 
tho circle. It will 
lie observed how 
tho tlul toned sides 
of the oval come 
within the circle— 
tho diameter from 
left to right being 
diminished; while 
the end*, more boldly cuiTcd, project out- 

^ide the circle, because of the slanting pusi- 
tion, which increases the diameter from top 
to ba<e. 

Tho diagram is dcsigneil, also, to be 
practised for the acquirement of skill. It 
may be produced ns follows : Fix p.dnts for 
the four corners, and draw a square, three 
ruled spaces in bight (width, of course, the 
same); draw tho vertical and horizontal Hues 
through the middle; take the correct wiit- 
ing position, raise the elbow and forearm 

To employ wholearm movement, assume 
the usual writing position, with forearm 
resting lightly on its muscle forward of the 
elbow, then raise the elbow slightly to bring 
the umscle free from tho desk, and let the 
hand glide on tho nails of the third aud 
fourth Engers, moved by the action of the 
whole arm from the shoulder. This ii 
boldest, freest movement the penman 
ploys, and i*not only useful in strikiuglarge 
off-hand capitals, but is also a mean 

(Mi^^^ ,/y-t^C^^ C^g^i^^y (Z/:;^^./- 

slightly above the desk, and, with the hand 
steadied upon the nails of the third and 
fourth fingers, sweep round, forming tho 
circle, by the movement of the wholearm, 
acting npon its center, the shoulder joint. 
Repeat tho sweeps, rouud and round, cor- 

' the V 

No better preliminary practice for eye, 
arm and hand can be given than this upon 
the circle. 

Now, for the oval. Trisect the upper side 
of the square, and, from a point 1\ of the 
spaces to the right of the left-hand corner, 
draw an oblique straight lino to lower left- 
hand corner, aud this will be the main 
slant, 52°. From upper right-baud corner 
draw an oblique straight line jiarallel to 
first; from the upper left-hand corner draw 
a diagonal to lower right-hand corner, and 
bisect the halves of same, to mark the 
width of oval. Now, in correct position, 
with wholearm movement, move round and 
bring pen to paper, beginning the oval at 
top, between the slanting linet, sweep down 
on tho left, and up on the right, and con- 
tinue, correcting curves, as you proceed, 
until you produce the true oval. 

Copy 2. Practice the direct-oval aud 
the direct-oval letters, Grst, with whole-arm 
movement, making them two ruled spaces 
io bight. 

training and developing tbo leaser and more 
limited movements of arm and hand, in 

In striking a letter, the movement should 
begin before the pen is brought to paper. 
For example, in making the lirst form in 
this copy, the direct-oval, which begins, as 
tho arrow indicates, with down stroke on 
the left, the ready penman will begin by 
moving upward and over from tho opposite 

FoBEARBt Movement, which is simply 
wholearm movcineut modified by allowing 
the forearm to rest lightly upou its large 
muscle forward of the elbow, may now be 
employed in striking these large forms in 
Copy 2. But it is better in this practice to 
reduce the size to H ruled spaces in hight. 

Balance the arm nicely upou tho muscle 
and turn the oval letters out quite rapidly. 
Shape, shade, and smoothness, are tho three 
essentials to be secured in this practice. 

Copy 3, presenting the letters medium- 
hand size, or \ of an iucb in hight, now 
clnims attention. 

The forearm movement must bo con- 
tinued as tho principal movijment, and the 
fingers allowed to attend and slightly assist. 
Study the form, proportions aud consecu- 
tive strokes of the capitals, carefully, at this 
stage of the practice, thus: 

Capital 0. Hight, 3 i-spaces, with S 
u-spaces ; distance between left curves t 
space. Strokes : left curve, right curve, 
left. Shade the first left curve. 

Capital D. Hight, 3 i-spaces; width, 
2 u-spaces; distance between left curves, 
J space ; hight of stem, 2i i-spaces ; hight 
of loop, } i-space. Strokes: compound 
curve, compound curve, right curve, left 
curve. Shade on stem. 

Capital C. Hight, 3 i-spaces ; width 
of large loop, and tho spaces to its right and 
left, each J of a u- space. Stroke: left curve, 
right curve, left, right. Shade the third 

Capital E. Combines C and 0. Main 
hight, 3 i-spaces; length of whole top por- 
tion on the left side, 1 i-space; length of 
lower portion, 2 i-spaces; width of whole 
to|i, % u-space; width of lower oval, Ii 
u-space. Strokes: left curve, right, left, 
left, right, left. Shade the fourth stroke. 

See the diagram showing the relation of 
0, U, C. Praclico it. 
Tho letters are to bo practiced in pairs to 
ure uniformity. They are composed 

side, with pei 
touches paper 
Wholearm i 
slow when first del 

the wing" before it 

may be somewhat 
Qg a form, but as 
lly unsteady, they 
should soon give place to prompt, quirk 
movements, which will produce truer curves 
and smoother shades. 

The slant of an oval letter may be tested 
by drawing a straight lino through its mid- 
dle from top to base, marking its long 

It will be observed that the capitals 0, 
Z>, C, £, made large in Copy 2, with whole- 

than the same capitals have in Copy 3. 
And why t Because, with the ponderous 
wholearm movement, it is easier to finish 
with the upward stroke, passing across the 
middle of the oval than to stop at a given 
point, with the down stroke. I 

ubstitute straight 

1 fault to 
in capitals, for 
ow turns, for fuU 

promptly and regularly in making 
strokes of each letter f do 
not jork tho liand. Begin the movement 
before bringing the pen to paper. 

Copy 4. Practice tho abbreviations and 
words hero presented; criticise and correct 
your faults. 

Copy 5 presents practical modifications 
of the capitals 0, i), C, E, which aro com- 
mended for praclico and adoption. 

In addition to the coi)ies given, practice 
on the following phrases, words aud abbre- 
viations is suggested : Ont ilaij after date; 
On demand ; Dr. ; Due on demand ; Dear 
Cousin ; Cr. ; Cash on account ; Compli- 
ments of; Express; Exchange; Expense. 

Tliose who faithfully study and practice, 
will win success in the art of penmanship. 

Our next lesson will embrace the reserved 

Remember, you can get tho Journal 
one year, and a 75-ceni hook free, for $1 ; 
or a $1 book and the Journal fur §1.25. 
Do your friends a favor by telling them. 

A Penman's Alpine Tour, 
Bv Marv E. Mautin. 

A pretty Alpine village staoHing among 
grass; meadows, wilh pyramidnl massea of 
hills ruing nobly behind. Beyond it— «lp 
on alp, crae on crag— for mauy a mile, rise 
the glaciers and peaks of tho Alps. That 
SDoir-clapped cone is the Weisshorn. Mod- 
estly sheltered beneath this giant warden if 
the queen of the Pennine Alps — Monte 
Bota. Farther east is that sharp pinnscln. 
tho Malterliorn. 

The sun is einhing low— giving a broad 
arch of glowing orange to the western sky, 
and letting it melt into a cool purple and 
blue in the vault above. The lower dells 
havo darkened into purflo shadows, and the 
whole chain of snow-cftpped mountains 
glitler in the otening sunlight until they 
look like molten gold. The white spire of 
tho village church cBtches up the reflection, 
and from it and many windows the snn 
sciDtillatea like millions of diamonds. 

This was the picture that broke upon the 
vision of Cliftttu Dean, an American, and 
ft penman, wlm had risen to the topmost 
round of the la.Uler in his profession. He 
was on his way to a village farther up the 
valley. He was con- 
templalii>g whether he 
could reach his desti- 
nation before night, 
and 80 lost in thought' 
that in « small knot of 
persona ho was acci- 
dentally jostled, and 
dropped from his lips 
tho cigar ho was smok- 
ing, lio looked up 
annoyed, but tho low 
voico of the stranger 
soon told him it was 
an accident. There 
was somolhing very 
Bwcet about tho " I 
beg pardon " in his 
own native tongue. 

"Yes,"s«id the stranger, 
ol many that will greet y 
ascend the mountains." 

"Have yon been upf" asked CHfton 

"Yes; and am now waiting for a party 
lo bo made up. You had better join us. 
This is jufct the place to rest before ascend- 
ing the mountains." 

Clifton Dean consented, and the two men 
walked on— p88.«ed tho red wood chalet, 
over the long stone bridge, and into the vil- 

As they walked, Clifion Dean asked: 
" Are there any strangers in the village? I 
sawat a glance that you were an American." 

" Ye8 ; there are a number of strangers ; 
but only one Anieri''an family- -that is, a 
lady and her husband — wbt-n he is here; 
but he is oftener climbing alone, with the 
guides. Tho lady is -very beautiful, bm 
there is something about her face that in- 
terests me more than mere beauty : it looks 
as if it had a history— that some gteat feel- 
ing had burned up and burned out; a face 
llial had accepted its fate — such a face hao 
Mrs. Preston." 

"Ah! do you know hert" and the 
stranger looked up, in surprise, at the sud- 

you yourself, he i" a celebrated peuir 

like I times on one (ide, then • 

She stream, and they caw a strange c 

bad gathered her roees together asshe spoke, 
and now remained standing; then stepped 
into the house. 

Neither that night nor the next day did 
Chfion Dean catch a glimpse of her. On 
ibe tccond morniugho taw her at breakfast: 
she was crossing the lioor to the table, and 
as she passed through the sunlight coining 
in through the window her hair was flaked 
with a golden hue that only eavo warmth 
to the rich dark brown; the strong light 
only showed the more of the roundness of 
her cheeks, and their pure freshness. She 
was tall, slieht, yet beautifully formed. Her 
eyes blue as the tint that shades tho white 
vlematis. She met the gaze of Clifton 
Dean unshrinking, and smiled a tiuiet 
" good morning." He could but think that 
with some women tho early summer of life 
is far more beautiful than any promise of 
L'irlbood gave. He wondered, as ho looked 
iiilo the uncoDfcious face, if she remembered 
ihat ihey bad once loved in the years gone 
Ijy — tiiftt circumstances had pushed them 
fiparl. Ee had let tho love of his art oc- 
cupy his time; she had married; but Clif- 
ton Dean knew, as he looked into her face, 

, bntshwood 



,'iih 1 

n, and ho 

The abt 

Clifion D. 

handed him bis caso 
that ho had juRt opened 
to tako out another. 

The strnngertlmnUed 
him, audsaid:"! will, 

gether. Do you stop 
in this village t" 

" No," said Clifton Dean, 
Inge farther up lb© valley." 

" This village is so pretty, and the h 
eo much better than you will find in the 
others, that I hivvo been tempted to stay 
longer than I first intended," said the 
stranger. " Did you ever see anything 
more picturesque than that?" and he drew 
Clifton Dean's attention to what was a 
cliHrming picture : into *,hc water of the lake 
had been driven a Swiss ox-cart ; the large 
wheels reslfd on tho shore; knee-deep in 
tho beautiful water of tho lake stood the 
oxen, ready to slako their thirst; at their 
heads, and almoc<t kuee-deep in the water, 
Blood their driver, while his little flock ol 
sh^ep dr.iuk, quietly, near him; a little 
way from them, in a shallow rocky space, 
stood tlte ono goat of the family, with his 
head wisely raised as if ho wore taking an 
iiiveutory of all tho family's wealth : perched 
upon the wagon scat sat n lovely Swiss girl ; 
behind her, and around her, were their 
tiousehold goods. 

Clifton Dean knew, as he looked, what 
the picture meant. Now, that the winter's 
suow bad melted, and tho mountain pju*- 
turcs were grr en w ilh fresh springing grass, 
both caillo aud owners were quitlirg the 
valley where ihey had been confined nil the 
wiutcr for tho Ireo life and fresh air of lh« 
mouutain pastures. 

" That's a lovely picture," said Clifion 

■bowlJers and rhododendri 
and ferns, Alpine flowers an 
creeping and clinging among them all, were 
the serpentine roots of the ground-pine, 
with its needle-like leaves glittering and 
glanciug in tlio sunlight. As they rode 
higher up great torrents roared and rushed 
through magnifirent gorges. They passed 
over a frail bridt;e ihat spanned one, and 
halted for dinner. Dinner and a short rest, 
and the party went on toward the moun- 
tains that, witti elittering arms, seemed to 
beckou them to seek their cool breezes. 
There was no warning then of the storm 
that later broke upon them. 

Late in tho afternoon the storm came. 
The clouis gathered closer; the guides 
looked knowingly at each other, and made 
what preparations they could. The wind 
rustled through tho trees; thick darkness 
seemed to descend from the mountains, and 
tlirouch the side of this dark curtain a zig- 
zag fliisli of liglitniug slabbed its way. lu 
the confusion Clifton Dean found himself 
(liow, he nevor knew) beueatii the shelter of 
a rock, aud alone with Mrs. Preston, await- 
ing the abating of the storm. Few words 
were spoken be- 
tween them; but in 
that great solitude, 
and alone wilh na- 
ture, their hearts lay 
bare to each other. 
Her hand had rested 
lightly on his arm ; 
now, as he held it 
in his grasp, ii trem- 
bled. His eyes 
looked into hers as 
if he would read her 
very soul, and all 
was forgotten but 
tho present. 

The storm abated; 
they rorleon.aud as 
tho evening was 
closing in they 
reaehed tho chalet 
and joiued the party. 
The stars broke out 
through the sky, one 
by oue; then, as 

ight thr 
mnlle eve 


) quickly hidden. 
, rather, 1 did a number of years | 
ly have forgotten it;" and Cliu- 
lon Dean changed the couvcr.'iation to the 
glowing sunset aud the beauty of the 

The two men walked < n, up tho quiet 
street of the village, aud into the house of 
tho good cure, where thry would stop. 
Seated on the porch was a lady ; in I er 
hands aud in her lap were Alpine roses. 
She did not hear their approach until they 
stood quite near her. 

*' You are back again from yi ur walk, 
Mr. Lindsey ! " she said, as the looked up. 

" Yes, Mrs. Preston ; and I have brought 
a fellow coimlryman with me. Although I 
have not asked his name, I do not think he 
is a stranger." Ho stepped aeide, and 
Clifton Dean stood face to face with Mrs. 

If you have ever been compelled to face 
some ghost of the past, without a momem's 
\vaming, then you can fancy Mrs. Preston's 
feelings as there came up before her a pic- 
ture of a schoolroom in a far western State 
— of a teacher, young and handsome, who 
guided her baud through t-paces above and 
spaces beneath the lino, through slem and 
through curve, till his name alone was writ- 
ten on ilie young girl's heart. Outwardly 
she was calm— smiling, but dignified — and 
it was with an indiflerent manner that she 

J. W. Harlins, 

that he held a key to what even this stranger 
All this passed rapidly 
through Clifton Dean's mind as she took her 
seat at tho table, and at the right band ot 
the good cure. 

A week drifted by, and stlH Clifton Dean 
lingered in the village — liviug over again 
Ibe dream of his youth. The largo col- 
lection of pen-drawings that Clifion Dean 

had collected i 
source of pleasi 
occasion of moi 
satiun with Mi 
first lo turn over tho pa] 
pictures, and ended will 
over of memory's pages. 
Finally, a parly was s 

■vels was an endless 

Liudsey, and the 

than one pleasant conver- 

Preston, who liogered at 

tho pages of the beautiful 


1 Mr, 

iged for moun- 
rip — Mrs. Pres- 
ton and other ladies to rest at a chalet far 
up tho mountains; the gentlemen to make 
the high ascent. A merry party they were 
that summer morning as tliey started from 
the village with their guide. Their road lay 
first through green meadows, then over 
Alpine pastures; noTt, it wound through 
stately pino woods ; slopes of grass and 
slopes of rocks were gay with flowers. The 
forest scenery, too, was beautiful. Nowhere 
else could be seen such exquisite sweeps of 
woodland — such views over forest glades — 
such park- like combiuatiors of gnssy 
meadows aud clustering i)ines. As they 
entered ouo of the many glens, great ice 

said : " Allow me, Mr. Lindsey, to pieaeot 1 streams swept down. Their path lay i 

the light that lin- 
gered long in the 
north, the stars came 
J thickly out, and Mrs. 
Preston left tho gay 
party, and beneath 
the stars knelt down and prayed for strength 
to put this love out of her life, for she knew 
what a great gulf separated her from Clifton 
Dean, and had determined never to meet 
him again, but lo relurn to tho Alpine vil- 
lage, and, wilh her husband, leave the Alps. 
She, wilh some of iho ladies and guides, 
did return tho next mnrniEg. But changes 
often come thick and fast ; and as she waited 
for her husband, news came that he was 
dead. The whole party with whom ho had 
been climbing were lied together wilh a 
rope — Some one lost his footing, the rope 
snapped under Iho strain, aud four of tho 
party disappeared over the aide of the pre- 
cipice. This was tho news brought to Mrs. 
Preston by one of the party. 

Clifton Dean ascended the mountains, and 
caught his first view of Mounl Blanc, It 
was truly a monarch; the ascent, though 
perilous, was exhilarating. Life itself, in 
this air, was a joy, and he tried to push 
aside every other feeling. At last he stands 
alono on tho top of the Mattcrhorn. Who 
would attempt with pen to describe the 
grandeur of u scene that the artist's brush 
has lailed to transfer to canvas? Clifton 
Dean felt his isolation; he shrank back 
when he compared his own insignificance 
wilh the grealness around him. 

As the party descended, a rapid pafiorama 
shifted before them. Behind them gteained 
snowy summits; below thero, green fields. 
Glaciers here, and a q^ick turn of the eye 

ami from f oine gloD a misty blue baze would 
arise. To ibe right, snow fields ; tbcn, 
8cemiugly at their very feet, green verdure. 1 
The party descended, hurer and lower, 
until the street breath of the fir tree came < 
like the Bmell of inroD"e to them. Here , 
ne dark bn 

Oblique vs. Straight Pe 
By a. H. Lewis. 

.ites Its pa- 

maleriiil used, the manner of constructing 
.the points and regulatiog their flexibility ; 
but the hnndle used for tcielding the pen, 
has not, until within a few years, been im- 
proved in any marked degree or essential 

As the Joi'RNAL kindly 
roo8 to speak, through ilscoli 

f imporlHUce relating t'^ the chirographic form, 
and there, on some dark brown rock, the welfare of the peopli-, I will venture to give The 

wild laburnum that luves t<» nestle among i my views in behalf "f the character of pen- ; the sword, have all been immeasurably im- 
rocks would stretch its thick branches over j holders best suited to good writing. , pnived. The axe-handle— also, bandies to 

until It looks from below like 
n curtam and tassels of gold on 
a dark biuksround 

Clift )n Dean separated from 
his party at me tf the Alpmo 
village* and crowed o\er into 
Irnly, ani back ngam to his 
own home Trying to llee 
away from what was so dear, 
not knowing that Im lo\o 

circumstances how jou baffle 
every attempt to arrange our 

It was a year after when 
Clifton Dean met Mr Lind 

n compwmg 1 
while lookmg over 
some pen work they had each 
collcctcJ they came to a pen 
drawing jf some Alpi 

" I suppose casually re 
marlted Mr Lindsey, "that 
yoH hear I of the sad end of 
Preston po r fellow ! It al 
moat makes one shudder when 
they tlunk what a tnflo might 
havu caused thi 

" No," exclaimed Clifton 
Deau; "I had not heard." 

Mr. Lindsey detailed the 
circumstances, adding, "And 
his wife still remains cribbed 
in that Alpine village." 

What a little it takes to 
chauge tbo whole 
our lives! A cli 

there, and it brings 
or joy. 

Clifton De; 


I of ; 

es were in full loafj 
3 of that balmy alill- 

now and then its calm was io- 
leiTupted by the twitter of 
some bird flying to and fro. 
On just such a tiiorniug as this 
Clifton Dean opened the gate 
of the good cure. Mrs. Pres- 
ton, comiog down the walk, 
di.l not see the mauly form awaiting he; 
few steps farther, and she raises her eyes': 
their hands met, and the twu, so long separ- 
ated, came togeiber in smooth paths. They 
were married iu the little church in the vil- 
liige, with its white-washed walls. 

You and I, reader, will go in as Clifton 
Dean opens the door for the first time to bo 
alone with his wife. She is standing iu 
deep reverie; her bosom rises aud falls as if 
some deep feehog were at w..rk ; a smUe is 
hovering about her lips. He ad 
driuks iu the beauty of this w 
early summer of life. She hears his foot- 
steps j she turns. An nrliat would give 
much to catch that involuntary pose. He 
comes nearer; be opens hi 
8he is in them; hers are his neck J 
he's holding her as if ho would never let hor 
go; bis lips cling to hers, and their souls 
" '"^*'' ^'^cb other. We, standing 

the love flow inio the eyes of eaeh. 

y ; we will leave them— but not 
alone: invisible angels are in that room 
witQcssing that great mystery— true mar- 

Remember, that if you ren«w, or send in 
your subscription to the Joi;rnal, you 
wdl get a 75 ccut book free, or a $1 book 
for 25 cents extra. 

Lytton did not unduly magnify 
the office of the pen when he said, " In the 
liands of men entirely, grest, the jfen is 
mightier than the suord." The Joi:bxal, 
in every issue, most ably inculcates advanced 
ideas of how to successfully handle the pen, 
not only in the i)racttcal affairs of educa- 
tional and business life, but in the field of j been changed from rigid straight! 
artistic endeavor it has shed volumes of , to that of the oblique form. Tl 


The genius of invention has done much 
for the improTemont of pens — in qu&lity of 

implements for cutting grass and grain — 
give place in the line of progress to curved 
handles, all of American invention, and are 
found to admit of greater skill and useful- 
ness in the hands of operatives. Surgical 
instruments— especially those adapted to the 
most skillful and delicate operations — have 

has be. 

by the addition of the oblique hoi 
ndered doubly effective in its us* 
I aaaert, to thosA who care how o 

what they write, that obliquity required in 
American writing renders an oblique instru- 
ment for writing eminently sensible, prac- 
tical and proper. 

In one of the largest schools in New 
York, which for two years past secured the 
highest average for writing aud other 
branches, of any of the schools of the city, 
the oblique penholder is used by the etu- 
denls, and greatly preferred 
to tbo old, straight pen-shaft. 
The American Stationer, a 
very high authority with the 
trade, says: "The oblique 
penholder carries the pen in 
the hand of the writer at an 
angle approximating to the 
slant of writing, and utilizes 
both points of the pen alike 
in forming letters." Ivison, 
Blakeinan, Taylor & Co., In 
their large advertisement in 
the Journal, make the plain 
and consistent statement that, 
"By the oblique i)rinciple, 
without crampiug the posi- 
tion of the hand, the pen ia 
thrown at the proper angle 
to letters." In my humble 
opinion, the carrying of the 
pen in an oblique position on 
the left side ot tho main 
holder or staff, enables better 
action upon the points of the 
pen by indirect prcf'sure, ob- 
Viftting the harshness and 
friction frequently incident to 
the use of straight penholders. 
The founder of the Spen- 
cerian, while he could write, 
it is said, elegantly even with 
a pen made from a rye-straw, 
indorsed the oblique principle 
for pens, and used them dur- 
ing his later years more than 
any other. Several of his 
SODS also indorse and use ob- 
lique penholders as being 
mechanically, practically and 
artistically superior to the 
straight pen- staff of our an- 

C. II. Peirce, L. Madarasz, 
and a host of thechirographio 
celebrities of the country en- 
thusiastically recommend ob- 
lique holders for universal 
use. Finally, their extended 
use for some years past in the 
business colleges, has carried 
them through the great army 
of graduates, into tho bank- 
ing, railway, merchandising, 
manufacturing and other 
counting-rooms at home and 

; attachment, which will fit 

any penholder, and offered by the JOURNAL 

ay other in the trade, 

I find to be superior to any yet invented. 

Aside from my profession as penman and 

have no pecuniary interest in 

iplements, but iu common with the 

'ho use the pen I believe that 

which is best should prevail. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage -stamps. 

Some one was once rallying CoDgresa- 
man Lefcvre on his eccentric cbirography. 
" I ought to write better, that's a fact," he 
replied. " Why, some time ago I wrote to 
a man thanking him for a clipping cut from 
ft newspaper about mo, and asking the name 
aud date of the paper; and he replied: 'I 
am much obliged for your advice, and will 
follow it, believing that my claim will go 
through aud I will get my pension.'" 

Am .iOlTIJN VI. 


Auticlf II. 

By D. T. Amk8. 

The imporlance ao'l valne of leiiiR an 
«cfioinp!i»hed letter - writer, w<* .li-missefi 
fully io our former article. We now endeavor 
to oulliuo, in gFDoral, the features of gnud 

Letter- wriliop has Ijeen detioed as "'the 
itrt of ipcaking with the poD/'and nn clejir, 
ready thoiiylils, cxpre.*.ied iu concise and cor- 
rect langiinpe, arc the iieofssnryrrrjiiisites uf flpeakiue. po wiili B-ritm^, "oly more 
BO, pince ''ppcaktng wiili the pen'" is much 
inoro tedious and liiborioiia than with the 
voice, and thn ivrilcr is not prrEcut at 
llmrOHding, M in spealtiiig, to repeat or ex- 
plain any doiil)Ifiil word or pcnt^nre. 

Virst. Among tho reqni&itcs of good let- 
ter wrilingi!i,etitirely legible pemnansliipex- 
ebiited with grace nod rapidity. Second.'L^w- 
gnaire, correct in its grrtmmaiicsil coustruc- 
lion; ortliogrnpliy and puuctiiatioQ. lliird. 
Tlio proper iiictlj<jd in the arrangement 
nf the several parts of the letter. I'ourlh. 
ConciaoDesa and precibion iu the exprcssiuu 
of tlie tliouglilh Bought to he conveyed; 
and, lantli/, tlio cxeiLiae of good judgment, 
care, and ucatucss in all that pertains to 
coiTcspundeuce — Irom the aelection of the 
malonuls to ho used lu the euperscriplion 
and hllixing tho postagc-stiutip, with the 
goal nud vtry ueco snry injuLcliou to the 
post-master tha( " ho duu't lail to dispatch 
ilio lelier by Uio lirst mail and by the moat 

Of course, tho style of correspondence 
should vary widcdy, according to its pur- 
pose. Tbu lovu-bK-lc swaiu could scarcely 
be expected lu address bia dear Dulciua 
witli tho brevity and coucisenegs of a model 
business coinmuuiuatioD. Ot tho various 
Htylua and purposes of correspondence we 
blmll irtut iu their appropriate order as we 
proceed with our cuut'iio ot iubti'uctiou. 

Ijelcct a good (pittlity of paper, and enve- 
lopes to miitcb in i^nalily and i»izc, the style 
to vary accordmg to tbe purticular branch 
of coriespoudfuco iu which they are to be 
used. Paper should be selected to nicely 
hi, with u uiiuiuiuui number ot folds, its en- 
velopes. A good {^ualiiy of black ink should 
be Ubcd; red and palu iuka should be espe- 
cially avoided; as bbould very tino-pointed 


uc I'AUTii or A Letteu and tueir 


Hvery letter should consist of eix distinct 

-A heading, which should give the 



rt'here the 

wniteu, with tlio day, month and year. 

Z. — Uhe aUtlicss, giving tho uaiuo and 
rcsiduucu of tbu person addiessod. 

•1. — Hululalwnvi' coiiiplimeutaryopomug, 
such as iSir— Dear Sir,— Madam, etc. 

4. — Budy oj ihe ieltcr, which coutauis the 


5. — ComiAiincntanj chiiiig, such us Youra 
Truly,— \ try Smceiely, etc. 

U. — Suhsciipiiou, wliicb IS simply the 
uamuot ihu wnler. 

The accoiDpauyiug cut will serve to con- 
vey u correct uiipiessiou respecting the 
proper use and ariaugvuieut ol tbo i^uveral 
parts uf a letter, as above enumerated. 


' Penmansuip. 

For purposes of correspondence, writing 
ul a medium size, ui* below medium size, 
will be lotind mo&l satisfactory. Small 
writing 18 iiioio easily and rapidly writ- 
leu, nud bteiaea, btuco it occupies less 
space, tUo iiuus ol Wiumg uro more sep- 
uiated aud dutiucl from each other, lbt;reUy 
diiiiiuutbiug Ibu luteiiiiiugliug and cuu- 
tu&iuu ul tUu exteudtd liutrs which otleu 
seriuusiy mar pages wriuiu uvtr MUh large 
wrmug. All uiiiLiiguous aud doubltul torms 
for letters, aud UAeless tiourisbing should be 


\ Bidi/of IMt>.] 


,. ^vvw'"/"""i"'-'.7 -"" U'\ 

Tht above ml is photo-engraved from ptn-and-iuk copy executed hy Lyman P. Sp\ 


studiously avoided, as iliey not only coufusc 
and annoy the reader hut uften le«d to seri- 
ous or aggravaline mistakes. AliltlecaTe iu 
this directino, on the psn of tho writer, 
would, many limes, save ilio reader mrich 
loES of time and patieueo. In writing names 
and initial lettei-.a, m lieio the context can 
furnish no aid iu deciphering doubtful forms, 
aipbiguity is especially annoying. The fol- 
lowing are a few typical examples— all of 
wliieh are from act'ial occiirrcuees. and some 
of which have been serious in their conso- 
quenccs. We present tbetnwith rules which 
we have formulated fur the avoidauco, by 
writers, of a pernicious use of snperlluous 
and flourisbed lines and ambiguous formi>. 

UvaM/y /or ^■mf.'iAy 





riy for -%J/Citiy 

Rule rour.—7ht opiuj T tbooJd urw ba tgopcd Al 

Sevenil e^rensive liligationa hnre grown out ol the de. 

_,._ f»r 

. and whom he Bii|>pMe<l Ua-Hi-E 
replied: " Saaie ladiaa chief, or 
T.1 eupposiiion in each a ciiy of all 

,lhe«g,ml. ThU 

the hgu. 

Bomaa oajritol Uiler, Ibux 

yl/ forA^; O^/ar/P/'ar/'r 

yyiy^ --^^mi p«.,lbly fo, a .^^i^. 1. 
yfi4^«, .IgalBcaic. a. will b. leeo, I. .till more 

ally outogmplii, illegible, should be avoided, ai: 



lorm lor each lell* r or llie alplitkltet, ■□ 
And perGuilenlly make tbol furui and nu ^.m... 

In our next article we slmll preseut o 
amples, and trent more directly upon bui 
ness correspondence. 

By Paul Past.vok. 

Until quite receuily, tlio term "A peu- 
Bkctch " lias bosD cmplnycd exclusively in a 
Jitorary seuse, im-aiiiug a wrilieu production 
of a lii^ht and culerlaiuiog nHtiire. Hut late 
doveliipuients in fiuo art seem likely to re- 
store tu the 1 Iirnse its literal aud proper 
mcftuiug— a drawing willi a pen. 

I*en-8ketclies are winning recognition as 
unifiue and valuable works of art in tlicui- 
aelves, and us the " cupy " best adupted to 
the purposes of tlio engraver. Tlie artist 
who, in liis ori^iua! oreations, inaUrs use of 
the pen, has now an advanlftKe over those 
who still adliero to the pencil. In the fust 
place, his work is susceptible of clear, ac- 
curate photography ; aud as the photo-en- 
graving pror.fss ifl now very extensively 
used iu preparing iliustratir-as for the press, 
it is welluigh a necof sity that ink should be 
employed iu making the original draught. 
Then, again, tliere are delicacies, fiuo cflects, 
which can bo produced with the pen, but 
are not possible to the coarser and less uni- 
form pencil. Those sharp, delicate lines 
which constitute the chief superiority of a 
Btoel over a wood engraving, produce the 
eanio distinction between a pen and a pencil 
skfitch. There are very few ariist.s, to be 
Bure, who can use the pen to advantage — 
the pencil is much easier — but the higher 
and better class of work produced by those 
who do use the former, leads us ti» hope that 
others will make pen-sketching astudy, and 
80 bring the art to the front that it shall 
supersede the old method of pencil- sketch- 

Drawings in ink possess an intrinsic 
value aside from their superior adaptability 
to the engraver's art. The acknowledged 

fioeneas of the work ; its delightful effect— 
Bomethiog bclweeo that of au etching and 
a steel engraving ; the rare opportouity af- 
forded for displaying the artist's nicenees of 
touch; the fulness of detail aud thorough- 
ness of technique; the peculiar farililies af- 
for^Icd in the handling of heavy shades — all 
theeo qualities, aud others appropriate to 
the pCD-skelch, give it a very high artistic 
value, and render it entirely worthy of the 
attention, not only of the excellent draughts 
man, but of the gifted artist. 

The arts of pen-drawinff and penmanship 
aro very closely related. Tiiey use the saiuo 
elemental forms, and differ only iu the man- 
ner of combiuing them. Penmanship de- 
velops these elemental forms into a system 
of symmetrical symbols — practical signs 
and ornamental symbols. Peu-drawiug 
uses them to represent objects and relations 
in nature. In the former case, they are used 
arbitrarily ; in the latter, imiiatively. As 
soon as the pupil in either art oversteps 
this purely thcorctio^l bound, lie finds hiui- 
self producing uow and different combina- 
tions of form. If the penman has a good 
share of artistic taste and ahility,he is almost 
sure to turn his skill, sooner or later, to pen- 
drawing. The ornaiiientJil scrolls and fig- 
ures which form an auxiliary branrli of the 
penman's art affurd a natural means of 
transition to pen-sketching. These forms, 
it will be noticed, do not themselves belong 
to drawing, for they are arbitrary, fanciful, 
symbolic, not clos*?ly imitative of nature, as 
tlio forms of drawing are. Tliey affurd a 
very good introdiiction, however, to the art 
of pen-drawing, inasmuch as they lead the 
imagination upward from mere symbols and 
signs, suggesting realities which exist iu 

Nearly all our leading peumen have ac-* 
quired the art of drawing with the pen ; 
aud it is to he hoped that, hy-and-by, pen- 
drawing and penmanship will ho hudicd 
upon only as different branches of the same 
art. I believe that the time is not very far 
distant when there will be a rennissauce of 
the purely inauual in art; when all these 
cheap and imperfect reproductinns, multi- 
plied for the aisthetic instruction and enjoy 
inent of the masses, will bo found to have 
served their end, and will be rejected as no 
longer needful. Indications of this revolu- 
tion may bo seen in ceramics and liand- 
painting on rhiua. Instead of a cheap 
mechanical method of reproducing one de- 
sign, the public now demands that each 
article shall have its own original design, 
painted upon it hy the artist's own hand. 
All who are able to pnrchaso such articles 
at all, are r.hle to pay the additional rate 
demanded hy the <!enler for original decora- 
lion. So I think it will be in ihe matter of 
engravings aud the like (chromos have long 
since led the way). Then original pruduc-- 
lious, hearing the arti.<-t't< own i>tHiiip and 
personality, will come to be the only thing 
desirable as works of art. Paintings will 
not then represent the only excellence in 
manual art. Drawings and sketches, and 
especially pen-sketches, will be in great de- 
mand. Instead of engravings and helio- 
types, art-dealers will place original produc- 
tions in peu, crayon and pencil, upun their 
easels. It behooves young penmen to bo 
acquinng the art of drawing with the pen. 
It will not only increase their mastery of 
that instrument, hut it will also fit them for 
a class of work which is likely to le of 
great value in the near future. 

Educational Notes. 

[CommuDicaliona for this Deiiarimeni miiy 
be addresBt-d to B, V. Kkllj:v.'205 Bnmdwav 
New York. Bri*-f tducaiioual iieiuB Bolioited'.] 

Teachers in Colorado are in excess of the 

There are nearly 3,500 students at Leipsic 

The Public School buildings ia lodiaoa 
number 9.55G. 

The State Agricultural College of Maine 
is in a nourishing oouditioo. 

We are indebted to the Greeks for the 
earliest germ of the University. 

All but seven of the Presidents of the 
U.S. had a collegiate education. 

The first algebra originated with Dio- 
phantus, about the tlnrd century n. c. 

Girton College, for girls, at Cambridge 
University in England is to be enlarged. 

Samuel L. Hill gave to the town of 
Northfield $100,000 for educational pur- 

The Freshmen Class of the University of 
Vermont is the largest in the history of the 

The appointment of w()mcn as School 
Superintendents in Illinois has proven uota- 
bly successful. 

Edward Clark, of Otsego Co., N. Y., 
bequeathed $50,('00 to the general fund of 
Williams College. 

The administration and service of the 
Harvard University Library costs about 
§20,000 annually. 

The movement to secure national aid to 
Public School education seems to be rapidly 
gathering strength. 

George Darwin, a son of the evolutionist, 
has beeu elected Professor of Astronomy at 
Cambridge University. 

There are 1,577 Public School buildings 
in New Jersey. Of these, y3 are valued 
at above $40,000 each. 

There are in the United States, about 3(14 
colleges, having 3.5(10 instructors aud 35,- 
1)00 students. — College Record. 

Buchtel College, of Akron, Ohio, is the 
recipient of an additional gift of SlUO,000 
from John R. Buchtel of that place. 

Evening school? for those unable to at- 
tend in the day time are needed throughout 
the thickly settled portions of the country. 

Bequests to Harvard aggregated over 
$400,000 last year. As yet the University is 
not as wealthy as Columbia by Sl,000,(JOO. 

In England a " Teachers' EduoMional 
Loan Society" assists, hy loans without in- 
terest, promising female students in need 

Students, as well as the Professurs, in tho 
Johns Hopkins University, lecture in the in- 
stitution on subjects with which they are 
especially familiar. 

The expenses of the Collegiate Depart- 
ment of Yale College, last year, aggregated 
Sl(i(;,7fli».70— nearly one-half of which 
amount was for salaries. 

Harvard University is in good financial 
keeping. It has invested funds amounting 
to $4,51 1, 8(; I, from which an income was 
derived last year of $233,352. 

A petition, signed by l,351i prominent 
citizens of New York, asking for co-educa- 
tion, was presented to the Board of Trus- 
tees of Columbia College, at a recent meet- 
There are 330 students at the Slate Uni- 
versity of Ohio. The introduction of chapel 
exercisrs is thought, by many of tho stu- 
dents, a Webster's second definition of in- 

The Board of Education are the only peo- 
ple in New York who think the teachers 
in tho Public Schools have been overpaid. 
They propose to raise ttio grade by lowering 
the salaries. — Morning Journal. 

Miss Jennie £. Davis, who has been 
chosen to the head of tho Female Depart- 
ment of Liberia College, Liberia, was grad- 
uated at the Girls' High School, Boston, 
ten years ago, and has since been teaching 
in Missouri. 

is prevailing 

proposal ot the ox-Prei»ident of the Execu- 
tive Council iu Switzeiland, M- Schenek, to 
Hodenominalionalizo tho educational system 
of the country. He declares that religion is 
the enemy of progress, and that no clerical 
teachers ff any sect must bo allowed. — 
Western Educational Journal 

Educational Fancies. 

[ In every iiiBtance where the source of any 

ilt>iH u8m1 in this depai'Un»>iil is known, the 

proper credit is glrvii. A lik« courtesy from 

olht!i-8 will be appreciated.] 

My first supports the ministers ; my 
second, the doctors; my whole, tho school- 
masters. — Pupil {jicw piU). 

" If I should cut the hardness, smooth- 
ness, redness, roundness and cedar-ness ofT 
this pencil, what would be left f " "A gono- 

" I pla by ere," wrote a St. Louis belle 
to a Chicago Prolessor : who immediately 
wrote her, saying that he believed she also 
spelled that way. 

Yale College talks of adopting a new 
yell. Anybody knowing of anything par- 
ticularly horrible will please forward a dia- 
gram. — Morning Journal. 

" Now, my dear," said tho teacher, " tell 
me what is memory?" The little girl 
answered, after a moment's rellection : "It 
is the thing you forget with." — Ex. 

The Stuuy of Histokv. Grandpa: 
"And so you like Edward VI. best, but 
whyl" Mary: "Well, then, because — 
he's only a page and a half long." — Ex. 

*' Who was it that said it was not good 
for man to be alone f" asked a Sunday- 
school teacher of the members of his class. 
A boy answered, " Daniel, sir, when in tho 
lion's den!" 

" What makes you look so solemn 1 " 
said Soph to a freshman whom he had just 
thrown at tlio ball game. " Tho force of 
gravity," replied the latter as he whisked 
himself off— A'x. 

One of the first lessons that ought to be 
taught at the many fashionable cooking- 
schools is: " Never stir the hash with ono 
hand and ainooth the hair with the other." 
— Morning Journal. 

" Pa, is it right to call a man born in Po- 
land a Polo I" "Of course, my child." 
" Well, then, if a man is born in HoUaud, 
is ho a Hole t" " Tut, tut ! I'll answer no 
more of your silly questions I " 

TeacJtcr : " What did tho Pilgrim 
Fathers first do upon landing at Plymouth 
UockT" Pupil: "They fell upou their 
knees." Tcaclter: "What next?" Pupil: 
"They fell upou their aboiigines." 

" Do they speak China in Canton, Ohio !" 
tho sad passenger wanted to know. " Yes," 
tho brakf man said, " broken China." 
" Same as (hey speak gum Arabic in Cairo, 
Illinois, I supp(jse,'' the sad passenger re- 
marked. — Ex. 

A student at ono of our colleges mis- 
translated a word "bird," and somo one of 
his class whispered that tho word should be 
thief. "What kind of a bird, sir I " asked 
tho professor, sarcastically. "A jail bird 
sir," was the quick reply. 

The remark of the jiious ^iieae.tho claasic 
exclamation, " Ilorreecorcrereus" — "I shud- 
der to relate"— is supposed to be the proto- 
type of tho modern expression, "I should 
blush to murmur," " I should litter to ejacu- 
late," eic— Lowell Citizen. 

Teacher: "Why, how stupid you aro, 
to be sure! Can't multiply cighty-c-ight by 
twenty-five f I'll wager that Charles can do 
it in less than do time." Pupil: "I 
should'nt be surprised. Tlicy say that fools 
multiply very rapidly nowadays." 

A fond father purchased a set of tools for 
his boy, paying therefor the eutn of $3.25. 
In a short lime the lad bored six holes in 
the piano case, sawed off six chair legs, 
split two duor panels and amputated the 
aofk'a left ann. Find what the exact sum 


wu, sad also notify your frieodj that the 
toolB arc fur sale at one-third oS.—Detroit 
Free Press. 

A School Examination. — Eloquent 
iipffakcr. Pleased teachers. DL-Iighted 
happy boys. Eloqueot speaker speaks his 
piece. Toward end grows olotiuenl. At 
the close gets out some tremendous rhap- 
sodies on the American flag stretched in the 
rear of the platform across one corner of 


By W. p. Cooper. 

Mr. Peirce's rules and observations, 

regard to Position, are good. They f 

worthy of being put in practice, in soi 

form, by every scribe in the country, a 

body to give proper importsncc, 
and weight tu the whole subject. 

We may, perhaps, as well apeak first 
some of the evils of a bad posit 
public, or the sttideut, msy say 
rules aud remarks are guod, but i 
ative. We need but very Jiille 
about position " Or, other po^il 
rules of position are just as good; 
mutter of position is of no great 


himself, dying with consumi'tiuD, told me 
a few yeais ago, that his own sickness was 
to be attiibutcd vrholly to bad position aud 
practice while writing. "Furthermore," 
said he, "what is most serious and alarm* 
iog about this ruiuous tendency of the lal or 
of your prolessiou is this: in many, evou, 
perhaps, a majority, of cases, so subtle, so 
deceptive, so guarded aud so peculiar are 
these progressive movements t<i decay, dis- 

i<?/^/t^ ^/'//0^l(&i'!mG^m^ 


/ -y- y^ ^y7 y2y 

^ ^ /"^^ 6 / J' f 6^ ]^ # ^ ^ 



the room. " See that flag, boy, ! Emblem 
of hbeity; sign „f bjallj; token of free- 
dom ! Bo,s, why, oh why, is that flag hung 
there f " Just then a lilllo jackanapes of a 
boy pr>.ii,plly squeaked out : " It's put there 
to hide the dirt, sir." Great applause. Boy 
says no more. 

A Frenchman learning the English lan- 
guage complained of the irregularity of the 
verb " to go," the present tense of which 
eoiiie wag had written out for him as fol- 
lows: "Igoj thon starts; hedepwta; we 

deserve the most serious consideration by 
all schools and colleges having to do with 
this art or business in the land. 

What we say, or add, in this number of 
the JoonsAL, is not to interfere with, or 
improve, Mr. Peirce, but rather, in a few 
remarks, hints and suggestions to urge 
greater attention to thU business of Position 
aud eierything belonging to or connected 

By woat has been, and what will be 
said, we wish to fully review, or bring out! 
what b«long8 to the matior, and get orory- 

or, especial attention to this subject is a 
thing of iudifferonco, etc, etc. We will 
first, say something of the evils of a bad 
position while writing. I have known 
cases of cancer of the stomach, iudamma- 
lion ol gall bladder, liver complaint, kidney 
and bladder disease, bronchitis— but above 
all a we.-ikening and final giving out of all 
the organs lying in or near the middle o( 
the body— cases of disease, the cause of 
which was, beyond cavil or doubt, ba.l posi- 
Uon while writing, or other malpractice 
in the use ol the pen. An old recorder 

ease and death, that the scribe ai'prehends 
nothing serious until medicine cannot re- 
store bim to health, or even prolong life." 
Persons in health do not expect disease, and 
therefore lliey do not fear it and will not 
guard against it. 

Mr. Peirce gives a role for learning. We 
should say, the rule is well enough; but 
lean as little as possible. Wo lean to bring 
the head nearer the table— to better see and 
to give a steadier nerve and more perfect 
power over the hands. Fifteen degrees' 
luelination from perpeudumkr we think 

—s^W- '- ilLLa -F.;L iJ ^ v^>?^^''^ 





oea Dot tell us 



or n 

t to 

eao asa 

D!t the table. 


t wo 


by all incaDS 

avoid leaniQg 

agaioet c 



or <I»k. 

The body and 

Itreast el 



that freedom of blood- 





n wbicli 

can ODiy result 

from a positiuD of the body not in cootact 
with table or desk. 


Whatever deranges or impairs proper 
aoil free breatbiog is unlieallhy and iigiiri- 
oufl. Now, does it occur to us ihat titoro 
is DO really oatural breathing wliilc wrJt- 
iDgf Sufh is the fncl: we breatho short- 
Supprejs breath, bdiI, we might say, omit 
the loDg breaths altogether. Try an ex- 
peiiinent at your table at good wiiliug, and 
you will see (juickly how true the above 
observation is. Now, we cannot give you 
this rule: breathe natural and without re- 
straint ; but we choose riither to fay, breathe 
as nearly lilie your breathing when not 
writing as you can, and pause often to sup- 
ply the mi.ssiug long breath. If we lean 
loo murh, the body heats and tho legs and 
feet get co!d. If wo bend the arms too 
much, the muscles and Llood-vessela are 
confined and cramped. " But," says one, 
" why lean at all, or rest the arm at all f " 
Wc reply, a certain amount of ineliuatioo 
increases your power over the pen, and also 
sustains prolonged exertion over your books. 

any position f The reason is, a natural ad- 
vantage physically. But what we say is 
not really fur tho favored few, but the un- 
fortunate many. Wo Ihiuk that, willi no 
remarkable advantages physically, oue with 
right piisiiion and practice can live as long 
at this as any other business. When such 
is tho work or tlie occasion that we care 
not how \v9 write, perhaps almost any posi- 
tion will answer; but if you would write 
rapidly and well, get into position and keep 
in poaition. By such precautions as are 
possible you will so far favor your fat-ulties 
as to suffer but little, perhaps, frum a con- 
tinued and laborious use of tho pen. 

Tho standing position has peculiar and 
important advanlnges. It is oiie that favors 
arms, breast, aLd free circulation of tho 
bloud more than any other. But it wants 
the firmness of the poi-ition setting, and it 
will not admit of tho same full and com- 
plete control of the powers and faculties. 
Tho bottoms of tti© feet should rest sfjiiHre- 
ly, but not heavily, upon the lloorj either 
may be advanced a few inches; but wo can 
see no possible advantage in pushing the 
feet back, in any case. Wo may bo told 
that the side position may be used for a 
change; very likely, if a chaugo to rest tho 
faculties is needed. If, fur urgent and un- 
avoidable reasons, tho sido position is neces- 
sary, use it. Ou© reason for rejecting the 
side poaition is, that it not only encourages 
too much of tho stooping posture (which, 
by compressiug, iujures all of the lower 
organs of the body), but, by the continued 
elevation of the right arm and the steady 

lin upon iho organs of the right side, 
ntldinmation results; to some one 
or more, vital, serious, and it may be fatal. 
While occupied by many kinds of pen-labor 
we may, for a change, resort to the high 
desk. Tho scribe's high stool is commended 
for many advantages supposed to belong to 
its uso, but wo see uo partiuular or great 
need of using it. Use it, however, if you 
like it; but keep tho feet in tront, and 
firmly planted on souiothiog, as nothing is 
gained from thrusting these back, in any 
case. "What," says oue, "shall we do if 

iveniences adn 

I of I 

' proper posi- 
tion-l" Why, nothing less or more than 
whiix under tho circumstances we can. 

We use, in oiir school -houses, desks; in 
our offices, loth tables and desks. Tables, 
on tho whole, because constructed nearer as 
we need them, are the best. Desks nearly 
always have too much slope ; one inch to 
the foot is enough. Tables would be better 
always prepared with one-half or one inch 
to the foot. 

Objects on the inclined plane are better 
•eeo ; the arms and wrist work more naJu- 

ral and easy, and the pen overcomes equal- 
ly well alt dilficullies, in upward and down- 
ward movement- If, as our Missouri friend 
insists, good tables and graded desks are 
not always to be had, we say, get them 
made, and pay for them as quickly as you 
can, and then use them in a workmanlike 

In conclusion, we say, study both Spencer 
and Peirce over and over; try all methods 
yourself; sound tho sense of Cooper's hints, 
and then, if you will do what your best 
judgment shall dlctaie, we shall be satisfied. 

We have, to shorten this article, merely 
glanced at many things: wo havo offered 
assertions without proper proof, or sufficieut 
proof; wo havn wholly omitted much of 
which we wished to speak; but evidence, 
where needed, can be furnished, and other 
matters can, if called for, be discussed. 

We had intended to close this article 
without another word; "But," says some 
one, "what should be the hight of desk or 
table for any particular person t There 
may bo for this question a clear, proper, 
aud easy answer — short also, and to the 
pi'int; but wo confess ourselves perploxeti 
to reach or word a proper answer at all 
Suppose, then, we say, have tho front of 
tho desk or table as high as the middle of 
the breast— well, we may as well say, two 
inches below the middle of the breast : we 
mean, where tho table or desk has but little 
slope; a very slanting desk is a nuisance. 
Suppose wo answer in one other way: sup- 
pose wo choose a table or desk that, with 
fifteen degrees' inclination from perpendicu- 
lar of the body, leaves every part thereof 
together with hand, wrist, and arms, aud 
we will say, neck and head the nearest, iu a 
free, natural, and unrestrained posiiitm. Wv 
ask the twenty thousand Boards of Educa- 
tion of our country, if this answer is a poor 
oue, to anewer the question for us and them- 

Itinerant Professors. 
By C. H. PEincu. 

This catches 'em all, aud wo do not deny 
tho charge. It is jusi, and wo point with 
pride to that long-ago time when we djil 
our best to honor the profession and benelit 
mankind. We were successful; and to this 
we owe our present position. 

Tho beginning of any teacher's career is 
a dreaded moment, because it is fraught 
with discouragement; but a beginning is, 
iind must be, made, and to bravo the storm 
is the surest modus operandi. 

Success does not cumo to all. And whyt 
Every ono desires success and would surely 
possess it if wishing would bring results. 

Discouragements come to all ; but they 
are met by different forces and thus have dif- 
ferent results. 

Tho itinerant professor who is not well 
armed caunot defeud himself against even 
the lesser forces, and must surely succumb 
when met by the very ol*3tacles that are over 
present, and that, if not surmounted, will 
place him among tho " lizzies" of his day. 

It is not wisdom to oven hojie for success 
when tho iugr-.dients are not present to 

Discouragements throw weak minds off 
their balance, and if you aro atflicted, your 
faso is hopeless. One of the causes of 
failure mdy be attributed to blind stupidity. 

In tho face of ordinary reason, good sense, 
and a little general knowledee of people 
and things, tho young aspirant darea ask, iu 
a weak voice and in a weak-kneed manner, 
the charily of the world. 

Does bo get it i No. And why 1 Be- 
cause be does not possess the elements of 
mauhood combined with that which is es- 
sential to his honorable calling. In short, 
tho itinerant professor must be better qual- 
ified in every respect if he would keep pace 
with this age and hope for a share of the 
honor and a respectable livelihood. 

It is not un-ommon that the claims of 
professorship are based upon the power to 
write even well. Is this enough? No. 
Will suooesa come to anyone because of 

ability to write even wellt Not necessarily. 
Will a few specimens of a dash and display 
character cover up a multitude of sinst 
Will recommendations prove the winning 
card? Will one or two spasmodic efforts 
servo to determine your success or failure as 
a teacher? Will grammatical errors weigh 
in the balance ? Is respectability a consid- 
eration? Is honesty the best policy? Will 
the record bear the closest scrutiny? These 
and many other questions must be asked 

As the parts compose tho whole, so do 
tact, talent, eae-gy, manhood (and all that 
make up the true teacher) serve to render 
him efficient and successful. 

Is it possible to ignore characteristic fea- 
tures of the true teacher, and then blindly 
run the gauntlet, with the remotest hopes 
for encouragement? 

That tho typical professor must plead 
guilty to many, many charges, is admitted; 
hut that ho should abandon his calling be- 
cause of little inaccuracies would bo to 
demand tho resignation of nine-tenths of 
regular teachers because of their inability 
to teach wiiting. 

The law honestly provides for this neces- 
sity, but tho farco is enacted, and public 
opinion will not shake oft" its lethargy, be- 
cause of false notiims that have gained cre- 
dence with each succeeding generation. 

In all departments of learning it has 
been demonstrated that superior results are 
tho outgrowth of specialists. 

Tho itineraut professor is an embryo spe- 
cialist, and his efforts must be encouraged 
in order to counteract the very great defi- 
ciency in our regular corps of teachers. 

If the Btigina attached to this department 
of the profession is tho error of preceding 
generations, let the present throw it off by 
meeting demands that surely aro not beyond 
the bounds of reason. 

Great occasions produce great men, aud 
upon this hypothesis work with a will. 
This is a day of specialists, and we hop.* to 
see tho time when the itinerant professor 
will be recognized at 100 cents on tho dol- 
lar. If, however, he does not prove his 
worth by genuine ability, ho surely must be 
content with tho popular verdict. 

"Excellence" must be the motto. 

Ii requires effort, purpose, activity, per- 
severance, to win. Work in a spirit of 
play, in a light, happy, cheerful, earnest 
spirit. Not in a spiiit of drudgery, of 
bondage; sour, dissatisfied, discontented. 

Oue spirit makes every work a pleasure, 
a delight; the other, a task, a burden. 

Drudgery is soui, slow, stupid, plodding 
for an end, a prize. Tho playful spirit, 
leaps, runs, rejoices, hastens to tho end. 
The bright, cheerful, hopeful disposition is 
in love with its work, and because it loves 
its work it will strive to do it well, will 
strive to do its best. 

Can tho itinerant iirofcssor lay claim to 
all this? If not, dream of prosperity no 
more until you have fitted yourself to meet 
the larger per cent, of demands that the 
public havo a just right to expect. 

Remark.— Iu a series of articles I will 
endeavor to state, satisfactorily, the best 
course for traveling penmen. 

An Easy One.— A witness in a case in 
court tho other day, was asked whether he 
had much experience in and knew the cost 
of feeding cattle, and to give his estimate 
of the cost of feeding a cow, to which he 
replied: "My father before uie kept a 
dairy. I have had a great deal of experience 
in buying and selling and keeping cattle, as 
man and boy, iu the dairy business for fifty 
years. I think my long experience has 
qualified me to know as well as any man 
can, the cost of keeping and feeding cattle." 

"Well," broke in the attorney, impa- 
tiently, " tell us the cost of keeping a cow." 

"Well, sir, my experience, after fifty 
years in the business, is that it costs- well, 
it depends entirely on how much you feed 
the oow." 


Uy twy 

A* trippingly 

in It glide oToDf 
I, along Dtvndnny, 

T her mnlcliloM fonn, 

For a aomething lli 

I t« 

nil erirncBf 

BeneaUi, around, 


"YoHlove her-nii 


lovoa you, too. 

But only na n \nb 


Vou lie! yoti cold, 


You'll never trace 



Secret of my thiob 



"Sti« lovea yoti i 


luiiidptis n-ill 

Solar Systems Other Than Our 

Wo know of a great number of stars 
which are accompanied hy smaller stars 
moving around them like the earth around 
the sun. These systems, which aro now 
numbered by hundreds, have been so care- 
fully observed, that we havo been enabled 
to calculate the orbits and periods of the 
planets, brilliant or opaque, which compose 

It is, then, no longer on mere hypothesis 
that we can speak of solar systems other 
than our own, but with certainty, since wo 
already know a great number, of every 
order and of every nature. Single stars 
should be considered as suns analogous to 
our own, surrounded by planetary worlds. 
Double stars, of which the second star is 
quite small, should bo placed in tho same 
class, for this second star may ho an opaque 
planet rcllecting only the light of tho large 
one, or a planet still giving out heat and 
light. Double stars, of which tho two com- 
ponents give tho same brightness, are com- 
binations of two suns, around each of which 
may gravitate planets invislhlo from this 
distance; these aro worlds absolutely dif- 
ferent from those of our system, for ihcy are 
lighted up hy tioo suns— sometimes simul- 
taneous, sometimes successive — of diflerent 
magnitude, according to tho distances of 
these planets from each of them ; and they 
have double years, of which tho winter 
is warmed by a supplementary sun ; and 
double days, of which the nights are illumi- 
nated, not only by moons of different colors, 
but also by a new sun— a sun of night! 

Those brilliant points which sparkle in 
the midnight sky, and which havo, during 
so many ages, remained ns mysteries in the ■ 
imagination of our fathers, arc therefore 
veiitable suns, immense and mighty, gov- 
erning, in the parts of space lighted by their 
splendor, systems different from that of 
which we form a part. The sky is no 
longer a gloomy desert ; its ancient solitudes 
have become regions peopled like those of 
which the earth is located ; obscurity, 
silence, death, which reigned in these far-off 
distances, have given place to light, to 
motion, to life; thousands and milli'ma of 
suns pour in vast waves into space the 
energy, the heat and the diverse undulations 
which emanate from their fires. All these 
movements follow each other, interfere, con- 
tend or harmonize, in the maintenance and 
incessant development of universal life. — 
PoptUar Science Monthly. 


P«bUi.h«d Monthly at SI p*t- Ye 


Slngla ioMTtloD, 30 nmli par !)»■ nonpnivll. 

«lnmi) rwno" $S «lS llTVOfi 

Bch. isiiDM.'.''.'. 3 25 «.50 10.00 1800 

nDw: for all monlliK itni one )-ev. ii«>-atili' qoarlerl^ 
kilrkrrw. No lUtlMliuo frum lh« KboTS rftt«a. B«ftd- 


> «ny pf not) ■'ndltifr 1h«lr own and nnolhCT name m 
»ll to ibe WDiIer, a copy ol either of lliv Tullon'tng 
Conirdon't Nonnal Syalein of Leilerintt 

;8, W»<n In. ! rcrnlU for 92. Or, n r 
"■ llflml'bniilt of Arlinlio Peninni)ii1i>| 
"SinniUifil PfTWlIfnl Pt-nmnnilili." 
naniu and r if» nrlll forwani a <i 
tPBPhfittlVaiilile": relBlIf forlS. 

-'WllllamB & Poohard'a Oeuii 

Witliont a BrsctAi, pKTniiii 
premium!, to eacb •ubtcrlbpr i 

;■»!'- •'■SI 

10 " 6.00 I 150 " ""'/.y.V. Sl'.OQ 

The JouiWAi wlU be i»nrA a> nearly ae poulble oo 

r. Money liinliweit Id 

Bniiidtvay, Neir Yort; 

promiiily iitteudeil la by llie 



« *tu)>|<e(l uDilI the eubiiuripiloD 

Nkw York, FnnnuARv, 1883. 

Ambidextrous Writing. 

Jii.l«P Jero Black frtl a short limo ago 
an.l frHi'tiirp(i his rinlit urin in eovoml 
places. lJeinc:m old man. llio pliyMcinns 
8Hy that bo «iM nevrr recover the 
iiBe of It. A surprisiuir faot is that ho Ims 
loanied to writo with groat facility ami rap- 
idily with Ins left haud auit Piilt romlncis 
Ilia owu correspoudouco.— i^. Y. Telegram. 

It is a well authenticated fact that Thomas 
Jofferaou, afi-T iniJdlo life, by an accident 
which almost entirely deprived bim of the 
U50 of his rigbt-hand, was forced to make 
U80 of his loft-baud for writing. IIo ulii- 
mitoly acquired a fdcility with the left, 
nearly oqiml to ibat wbiob was common to 
tbo use of his right, hand for nearly half u 

lo cbauginc to the use of bis left-hand 
the cbaracteristics of bis baudwriiing ro- 
aainod unchanged. His left- hand con- 
tinnod to express, on paper, tbo chiro- 
grapbio forms so many years resident in Lis 

In tbo August number of the Journal, 
the advantages of amhidoxtrous m riling 
were enumerated, and au "easy way " of 
accomplishing the work waa given. Two 

years ago over fire hundred pupils were in- 
elrucled in ambidextrous u-riling, at the 
Spenceriau College in Wasbington, D. C, 
and during the past year Mr. II. A. Spencer 
bas io^truclcd about tbc eamo number in 
Xew York and Brooklyc, to write both with 
the right and left hand. He is new en- 
gaged in conducting a class, many of whom 
are the sons of New York millionaires, 
bankers and merrhant princes. At each 
lesson the left-hand is trained equally with 
the right, aixl the results already attained 
from a few lessons, show ambidextrous 
writing to be a feasible as well as a practical 
feature in educational work. 

Wo give, in Ibis number, a right and left 
hand spocimeo from yuung Carl Scburz. 
He is 13 years of age, aud is tbo sou of the 
Hon. Carl Scburz, ex- Secretary of the 
Dept. of tbo Interior, and now the editor- 
in-chief of the N. Y. Post. The sou has 
never, until recently, manifested any special 
liking or aptitude for writing, and in the 
institution wbero be is being educated quite 
a number of students excel bim in right- 
hand writing, and also show nearly as mer- 
itorious work with tbo left-band. That 
young Carl will acquire the habit of writ- 
ing well with both bauds, his published 
specimen gives most favorable promise. 

In common with the young gentlemen in 
his school, be bas made free use of that in- 
valuable aid and incentive to good writing, 
The Standard Practical Penmansbip. The 
sale of this popular work now leads all 
other ebirograpliic publications for self-;n- 

The King Club 

Fur this mrmth comes from the Penmi 
and Art D.-psiluients of the Northei 

gregating i 

ihers Ji/ttj- three ; while a club o( fifty - 
comes from Fred J. Judd, of Jenning's 
linary, Aurora, III. The five cluba 
ro mentioned, abino give an aggregate 
pa^e of 4CiS subscriptions, while the 
03 of lessor ones, and buodreds of single 
icriptioDS received during the month, 
.1 the number into the thousands, ag- 
re than for any previous three 
the publication of the Jour- 
nal. For these numerous and substantial 
tokeus of goodwill and appreciation on tbo 
part of our patrons, we return our most 
earnest thanks, and pledge our besf efforts 
to make the Journal an ever -welcome 
and eaiertainin; monthly visitor. 

The " Hand-book" as a Premium. 

We liH 


until further 
paper) free t 

be "Hand book" (in 
ers.mremiiiiDgSI for 
a subscription or reuowal to the JdURNAL 
for one year, or, for $1.25, tbo hi'ok hand- 
somely bound in clotb. Price of the book, 
by iiiHil, iu cloth, $1 ; iu paper, 7.5 cents. 
Liberal discount to teachers and agents. 

Work and its W^orth. 

Iu the course of an able and iuteresting 
Address delivered, on iho 2d inst., before 
the students of Eaton & Burneifn Business 
College, Baliimore, Md., the Rev. O. H. 
TifTauy, of Philadelphia, said : 


■ towi 


pires, aud l»catei 
pathways fur commerce and 

twins. Work ha: 
!S, established em 
u white in makitif 

I bitrary 

JZ/^' fZ< 7^Z^-^7^ ,'fTj^r^'^'Z-^^ 

^^zM^-nc^^ ^t^^'Tp^z/M^A^ 

-i^'-'-^f'^^ -'^.^Z^l^J 

■auiia a'l'iU.i-j wUU botk the rUjld and Ufl hunt I 
(AVc article entUled ■' Ambidextrous Writintj.*) 

diaua Normal and Businpss Institute, Val- 
paraiso, Ind., and i.-« sent by E. K. Isaacs, 
who is tbo penman at that Institution ; the 
club numbered one hundred and seventy- one, 
which is nut only King, but it is the largest 
single club ever received at the office of the 
Journal, and niakes a grand aggregate of 
fourteen hundred and ninety- six sub- 
scriptions received through Mr. Isaacs and 
his predecessor, C. W. Boucher, from this 
single institution within a period of a lilile 
over two years. As w© have befure ob- 
ser-'ed, it is the well instrurted and inter- 
ested pupils who are most likely to find sat- 
isfaction in, and desire, the monthly visits 
of such a paper as the Journal. Judged 
by this, and wo believe a correct, basis, Mr. 
Isaacs and bis associaloa at Valparaiso are 
doiuganefbcientaDd far reaching work. The 
Queen Club comes from Folsom's Albany 
(N. Y.) Business College, and numbers one 
dred and eleven ; it was sent by C. E. 

rI.Hinly i 

Cariiart. So large j 
cative of good and 
part of Mr. Carbarl, who is iu charge of tbo 
Penmanship Department of the College. 
The third club in size comes from tho 
B. & S. Davouport(Iowa) Business College, 
aud uumbonj seventy- six, and was sent by 
S A. D. Han, the accomplished penman at 
that inatitutiou. The fourth largest club 
comes from A. H. Ilinman, of Hinman's 
Business College, Worcester, Maaa., and 

assumption. Society ia divided into two 
classes : those who w..rk, and those who do 
not work. Those wh-i do not work are 
Composed o( those who, having wealtli, 
make uu exorlb.u, known as aristocrats; 
those who caunut live without working, but 
do not work, known as paupers. There is 
a curious coincidenco between paupers and 
aristocrats — where most castles stand, near 
by are hovels; lords are jostled on the 
streets by beggar-". On the other hand, wo 
have those who are in any degree dependent 
upon their labor; those who do something 
— farmers, merehants, professional men. 
The extremes of this class blend intimately 
with each of the former classes. If tho 
aristocrats aro tho gilded ornaments of so- 
ciety, and if the paupers are tho sores upon 
tbo body politic, then the workers are its 
strength. The toilers of to-day are ibe 
capitalists of to-morrow. Our workingmen 
'■ "" lufortably than many employers 

1 othei 


J do.'^ 

Speaking of tho rewards given to labor, 
Mr. Tiffany said : " Wo have had two mar- 
tyred Prosideuls ; hoib camo from the hum- 
blest walks. The blood of Garfield bathed 
tho world in tears. Working mediocrity 
outstrips lazy genius." 

The lecturer, iu closing, spoko of the 
time being not far in tbc future when the 
worth of work would have its full apprfeia- 
tiou.^ " When society shall shake off iis 
artificial drapiogs, aud man ho recognized 
as man because be is man, apart from tho 
fictitious dislinctions of birth and weallh 
and lineage, then a new order of things w ill 
be ushered in; then the true worker will 
receive bis proper meed of praise; the 
beaded drops upon the laborer's brow will 
be the nation's proudest coronei; and the 

Back Numbers 
Of tho Journal can bo mailed from and 
inclusive of February, I?7!>, except the May 
number for that year. >!(! numbers in all, 
to January, 18:?:J, will be mailed, with any 
four of the pen-pictures offered as premiums, 
for S4 ; without premiums, for $3. Only a 
few of several numbers remain, and those 
wishing back uumhcrs should order them 
without delay. Tho binder, which will 
contain all the back numbers, will bo ia- 
cluded for $l.SU additional. 

Another Broadside at "Com- 

In the Atlantic Monthly, for January, 
appears tlie following article upon " Com- 
pendium " sjstcpns of penmanship : 

Wehax-e long lelieced that ibe " Comppn- 
.'ium" deception takes rauk willi the greAte^t 
bi.nibuge ot the age. The " Compendiiuu " 
system of pemnanebip we belipve to bo iioibing 
but rank liunibii^gsry, for several rea)>uus. In 
the first place, it is not good, practical penman- 
hhip. Those who try to follow the "Com- 
pendium " system do not gel a practical busi- 
ueas hand. Serondlij, it will not do what is 
chimed for it. As a Bvstxm of penmanshtp it 
ia not to be compared wiili several copy-buoks 
and slips-copy eyetema lo b« had at any hosk- 
atorefor ihe samemouey. Thirdly, the fac-pimile 
autographs aud those who claim to have writ- 
iHU Ibem are the greatfst (rands conufcted with 
the business, excepting only the publisber. In 
some caaea llieae autographs were never writ- 
ten by those who are said to have wrilffnlhem. 
In other cases the autographs are " doctored " 
befort- they are engraved, until the wriif r bim- 
aelf would scarcely know them. In almost 
every ease the writers ot theae elegant (f ) auto- 
graphs have learned to writa under the in- 
atrucliou of penmen of business colleges or in 
writing classes, and never devoted one hour of 
lime to tbiT* "Compendium" syat'-m. They are 
led to indorse the system iu order to see iheir 
pretty (t) faces io the papers : 

"That that new penmanship method can be 
depended upon, every time, to take the cliHrnc- 
ter all out of the Mudeni'a liandwriling is a 
tiling which the printed fac-simile ppecinieiis 
have lung ngo proved, lo the aatiefaction of the 
very last doubter. But what I want to know 
is, does it lake the character nul of the aludent 
bimfielf. at ihe same lime t I sbuuld think it 
must be so; but here we have only a sort of 
nferenlinLcircimistimliHl evidence, not proof— 

fill * 

the p., 

i-tl purlrnitB of the 
I liny meddled with ihat 


and '• Alier priiciid.;j. the .vMem." ih^y pu 
along with the portntil nf ibe succeat-fiil alu 
dent aiioiber portrait, i-bowiiig what be wa 
lihb ' before practicing the I'yelem.' " 

Letter -Writing. —An exercise which 
should be introduced into all our schools is 
letter- writing. Aside from the instruction 
iu composiiion which is thus imparted, ituc- 
customs children to express themselves nat- 
urally in corre*^pondence. It may sound in- 
credible, but it is true, that many growu-up 
people, and tcacbera at, do not know 
how to write tho simplest business letter. 
They cannot place the address and date in 
the proper place, and they do not know 
liow to express what they want to say. 
They can talk intelligibly, but when it 
comes to writing, their sens? seems to desert 
them. Tho reason of this is that they have 
never had practice under a ciunpetent in- 
structor. A few hours spent each week in 
this exercise would bo profitably employed. 
— Exchange. 

Remember that ihe Handbook of Artistic 
Penmanship— giving thirty-two large pages 
of flourishing aud lettering— is mailed frco 

cloth, lo every person sending $1 for a sub- 
scription or renewal to tfao Journal. 

Special Notice. 

The 8inck of ihe "Centennial Picture," 
'jnx2(?, H'liicli WG have liitlierto sent as a 
jnfiiiimn, having been ox'cawsted, ami tt-p 
plates from whii^h they were printed dt- 
itroyed, we now offer to mail, as a premitim, 
tho larger oize, 28x40, of which we have a 
cfiniideralile number on hand, for 25 cents 
extra, whiirh is a IrlBe abuvo the co?t fur 
pnAtagc and tiibr-s. 

This 19 a picture of rare trIuo, and should 
li;ive a place in every pclioolronni and home 
111 the Uiid. A key giving full cxpliinatiou 
of tlie design will accompany each picture. 
Tliiinaands of ilieao pictures have been sold 
Iiy agents at $3 each. 

Tiie fi)lb)wing are a few of the tnany 
ciimmeuls fniiit tho press and eminent men : 


I, inMciilc..- 

e ol penniiiiiBliip and n pirtu-e of 
—ManufttctuTtr and Huililtr. 


a uplvuditl 

■*ork of mV'—Ktw York Trade 


i-lTHnl nnil n 

liilio."— rfi* Irith World 


•londiil slj-lP, and dioiild meet with 
i/jertiM (A', r } Tdtgreph. 

ir,K «. 


■ea.-~Xtu.-ark (If. J) Morninff 


rr'r ■ 

rwhietion, ond dwerxe* n pliico in 

S0C[> ■•— iV 


X romnrkabla em«1i of ll.e ago. nnd 
ennial prudiioiioii we Uave ever 
nmercial AdoertiKr. 


le mo,i 

loiuanatrlihinghlirorioet lllmirs- 
"— J\Vw Tor* Sunday Mrrcury. 


Mnrcpliiin U 

granil; (Le tO'Dca, life-itke and 
(cuiion, mailerly."— r/ie WHting 



ennmnship. and an extraonlinnry 
Kern Ymk Uaihj Erprest. 


renmrkuWy Ingenloiw iinil beautiful i>ieUire." 
^latu CtnUnnial ire/wnit. 


he inoKl rvi 

acuufJV. y.) DaUy Standard. 


Dails Timu 

uud remnrkablo peu-picturo "— 


\ innalcrpipco of imlience and skill, by fur (lie 
(N. y.)Da\Uj Unim. 

ingeDlau«eiid»kilirul." — Rtv.l 

•■ The Cenleonlal Pktiire of Progrru ts n work of greut 
nblllly and rcBl (fcniiw "— Hov. Ei.WAliua l'ltlutEI'0-\T, 
Alloniej -Gcnoml wf U. S. Wu.liing(oo, D. C. 

"It Uvery iDleresling."— Ilox. ALOXZO Taft. V. S. 
S«orel*ty of Wnr. Wasbington, D. C. 

■' It I* a b«uiirul work of art '•-IIox.R H.BlueTow. 

When to Subscribe. 

For several reasons it is desirable, tha*, so 
far as is practicable, subsoriplinns should 
begin with the year, yet it is entirt-ly op- 
tional with the subscriber as to when his 
sabscription shall commence. Those who 
may be specially interested in tho very prac- 
tical and valuable course of lesS'ius com- 
menced by Prof. H. C. Spencer may have 
their subscriptions betin with the May 
number, in which is the first lesson of the 

Allhongh au expert jiemnan may rise t( 
distinction he will never make " his mark.' 
—N. Y. Com. Ado. 

No, but tlien be will always tlourisb.— 
Boston Com. Bulletin. 

It is the shipping clerk who makes '' hii 
mark."— fff »/ci-'s Stationer. 

Yes, yes; but you kuow the penmai 
makes the master stroke. 

Treasury \)\ 
Washinoto.v, D. C, Jan. 21), 1883 
Editor Penman's Art Journal. 

Dear Sir: — I inclose herewith $1 to re 
new my subscription tn the Journal. 
Though iu no sense a pemnun, I d.i ai'inire 
tlie Journal, I coum-Ut it a valuable ia- 
slrucior iu the art of peiunaiiship. It does 
much toward keeping up a public interest 
ii writing. Very rcspecifiilly, 

M. V. Casev. 

W. N. Yercx, ol ihe L-mdon (Can.) 
Business College, souds a elub uf fifteen 
sub!<uribers, and, in au elueautly written 
loiter, says: " Nearly five years ago, when 
I liritt saw and subscribed Tor the Journal, 
I little thought that it would contioue to 
Increase ia excellence S'l tnany years, but, 
really, age seems to agree with it." 



II \V. Bearce, special teacher of writing 
in ih© public echnols of Bridgeport, Couu., 
passed iriuiuphuutly from tlie state of t.'in^h 
to duublo blessedness ou December 25ib. 
Tbo special cause 'of tho transition was 
Mrs. L. W. Marplc, of Bridgeport, where 
tbo ceremony was performed. Mr. Bcarco 
18 au accomplished writer and a popular 
teacher. May their sojuurn in tho new 
ttate be lung and mutually oongeitial. l 

This penholder possesses more of the 
vequisites for easy, practical writing than 
any jieuholder of the oblique order yet in- 
vented. It has the qnalities uceded in a 
straight holder and the special advantages of 
tho oblique penholder. These two principles 
are so perfectly united in this invention as to 
mako it tho best writing iuiplemont extant. 
The Journal will send two of them by 
itiail, iagood order, on recci(.t of 20 cents. 

Send $1 Bills. 

Wo wish our pat^^*u^ to bear in mind that 
in payment for subscriptions we do not de- 
sire postage-staitips, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a d^dlar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit thau the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The actjal risk of remitting 
money is slight — if properly directed, not 
one misiarriagfi will occur in oae thousand. 
Inclose tho bills, and whore letters contain- 
ing money are scaled iu presence of the 
postmaster wo will assume all tho nek. 

Attention is invited to the advcitisen.eot, 
iu another column, by the well-known ink 
manufactarer, Fred. D. Ailing, of Ilochester, 

A Remii 

Editors of tlic Jm 


will be borne with more lender zest than 
the incident of tho signing of tho roll of 
membership. By universal consent, the old 
pioneer of business colleges— the father of 
us all— R. M. Bartlett, led tho list, and after 
him came, in the order of service, his fol- 
lowers and compatriol.t, closing with the 
name of tho year-old baby of our highly 
esteemed friends, Mr. and Mrs. Goodman, 
of Tennessee — " FRANK EASTMAN GOOD- 
MAN, his -\~ mark." We all remember how 
his great blue eyes looked with straoiro 
wonderment upon the .omiling faces around 
hiiti, and how heartily he gripped tbo pen- 
handle as his chubby little hand was di- 
rected in the forming of the cross. It was 
a peculiar sort of chriiiening, with the 
father and mother, smiling, ou either side, 
the sponsors all around, aud tlio olliciating 
clergyman pronouncing tho formal dedica- 
tion of the young chilli's life to the work iu 
which we were all engaged. Many of us 
were deeply imiiresred wim tho occasion, 
and, naturally, our thoughts ran upon the 
probabilities of tho future as wo forecast tho 
period when our honored piuueer an I his 
colaborora should be gathered to their rest, 
aud this youngest member of our confrater- 
nity, the beautiful baby hoy, shall be per- 
fect iug the work vre had begun. 

A recent despatch c.nnos to us with the 
sad tidings th»t, while the gray old tnau 
lives, the boy baby has passed to his eterual 
home, and our dour friends aro childless. 
Can we not truthfully say that in their erief 
they h ive tiw waruiost sympathy of all the 
members (»f the Convention of 1882 f 

Yours, S. S. Packard. 

Editors of ;/ie Journal: — You will, 
doubtless, receive many letters from your 
readers, and particularly from toaehers aud 
friends of educiition, thanking you iu ad- 
vance for what you propose to do iu tho 
way of iuslruction in Letter- wri"ing. At 
any rato, you will be heartily thauked, 
whether people write to you to tell you of it 
or not. This is a subject about which too 
much cannot be said by those who are qual- 
ified to say ii; and the iinportauce of which 
cannot loo earnestly bo set forth. You 
promise well, and I only hope that tho exi- 
gencies of your increasing duties will not 
stand between yon and the fulfillment of 
your purpose. 

There may be different notions concern- 
ing the qualities of a letter— notions per- 
taining to form and matters of taste — but I 
am sure there nill bo no great divergence 
of opinion as to the essentials; and I do not 
doubt that these will bo clearly aud forcibly 
presented in your aeries of lessons. You 
have a peculiar ground of ad vantage in your 
daily experience, as well as iu your acquired 
knowledge, and we, who are engaged iu the 
very work that you have undertaken, can 
but feel a special desire that you slmuld 
meet the want effectively. The business 
schools of the country should see to it that 
their pupils do not lose the rare advantages 
jou offer them, and, during your sories, at 
least thirty thousand copies nf your paper 
should bo distributed regularly iu these 
schools. You can set me d..«n for one 
liuudred subacriptioua to start wiih, aud for 
any amount of goodwill for all that yoii are 
doing to elevate and dignify uur work. 
There are some points concerning which I 
should like to speak, had t the time; but 
I will hold them in reserve, as you may 
possibly cover them, and thus save mo the 
trouble. I shall watch you with interest. 
Sincerely joure, S. S. Packard. 

If you want the beat guide over published 
for home iottructiou iu praciical writing 
send .^1 for the " Standard Practical Pen- 
manship Package," prepared by the Si>en- 
cerian Authors for tbo Penman's Aut 

'.M'VA;J4 '*<•'; 


C. S. G. M , Kaum'< City, Mo.— " What 
constitutes the full outKt fir a professional 
ponmauf thai is, what are all tbo different 
kinds of pens, imiterials, inks, etc., used, 
aud which are tho best!" -4ns.— Tho 
term " professional penman " is very indefi- 
nite, aa it U equally applicable to teaching 
or tho practice of plain or artistic penman- 
ship. In either case, however, our answer 
as to the fi-st requi^ito w-mhl n-a differ, 
namely, a g<tod supply of braius, well dis- 
ciplined iu tho speoiric dopariinent of prac- 
tice. F..r a teacher, *• Gillott's HO:}." "Spen- 
eerian No. I," or "Ames's l^enman'a 
Favorite Pen," arc good. Spencorian or 
Davids black ink, and a l<j-lb. fine quality 
of foolscap paper sliould be use I, except 
it is di'sircd to uso engraved copies— then 
books shonld bo selecfd from somo ono of 
tho series of recognized standard systems. 
For fine professional writlutr, card^, etc., 
"Gilloit's 3tt3." or "Spenceriau Artistic Pea 
No. 14,'' should be used ; ink as above, with 
a fiue quality of Bistol-board or unruled 
paper. For artistic pen-work, fluurishmg, 
drawing, letieriug. etc. First. A set of 
drawing-boards should be provided, of size 
to suit, generally from 17x21 to 24x;j() inches. 
Second. T aud triaiigiilar squares, with a 
complete set of good di'iiftiiig instniments, 
and a quantity of thumb tacks. Third. A fine 
quality of black India ink, with tray for 
grinding aud couTiiiuing tlie iuk, and a. few 
saurers, I'l.r mixing diff.'ieiit shades. Fourth. 
Peua as above; with crow-quill for fine 
drawing, and ibo broad and double pointed 
Sonneckon pon, for lettering; also a few 
well-iiradod sable or camel hair brushes. 
Fifth. A graded set of Dixon's or Fuber'a 
Siberiau load pencils, and piece of velvet, 
and ink-erasing rubber ; also, a good scraper 
and burnisher. Si^tU. A fino quality of 
Bristol-hoard, or ^VIl>^tlllaa's hnt-presaod 
drawing-paper, should bo used, which, for all 
kinds of work (exci-pt that which is specifi- 
cally off-hand nourishing) «hould be fastened 
uprm a drawiug-bo'ird. For fine work, the 
India iuk should be freshly ground, each 
day, from the stif-k, in a tray containing 
Writer. Prepared liquid India iuk may be 
used for iiiany purposes; but whero fine 
lines and ready How are desired, ink freshly 
ground from tho stick is superior. A few 
sheets of tracing paper should be provided 
for making transfers of designs to bo copied. 
And we bdicvo every artist would find our 
" Day Spacing T Square " to bo a good in- 
vestmom ; by ira aid, lines are ruled parallel 
aud equidistant- either liMiizonlally or upon 
any angle— with iho lacility aud rapidity of 
frcc-liand lines. 

G. A. J., Valparaiso, Ind— " By sending 
my name as a subaouber to 1(^0 Journal, 
and *I.OO, can I now get the Ilau.l-book, 
in paper, for a proinium, free, or fortwonty- 
fivo cents extra, in cloth?" ^n-s— Yes; 
you will see by notice, that that offer is now 
extended indefinitely. 

C. U., Irwin, 0— "Where can I obtain 
unruled cap paper t Can red and green in- 
delible ink bo had f" ^HS. — Unruled cap 
paper can bo procured of any paper dealer, 
aud from most printers, or we cau can sup- 
ply it at from *4 00 to 85 00 per ream. Wo 
know of no indelible iuk except black. 

P. F. B., Halifax, N. S— "What is tho 
best pen to practice tho lessons of Prof. 
Spencer, and can your furnish tlioui, and at 
what price f" jlti«. — Wo should favor 
" Spcucerian Artistic Pen, No. 14," or otir 
own " Peutnan's Favorite.'' The former 
are finer, but lefs durable. "Artistic," 
spnt by mail, for $1.25; "Penman's Favor- 
ite," $1. 

J. II. W., iLvanston, III.-" J. Is there 
anything iu nature that we take tlio form of 
any of our letters from ? 2. Is there anything 
in natare from which we take our ahadlDg 

IQ wriliogJ" Am.— We are not aware 
thai oature furnishes any models, for either 
form or ebaJe iq wrJliag. Possibly, to our 
Duinerous " DAtural peumeo," there may l)e 
some mjFBtorioua tf^cvelRtioo, of form aud 
ehade, from oature, which to aa common 
mortaU is denied. 

"Ames's Hand-book of Artistic 

HavJDg iiut rcceatly received and joat 
looked this wonder of art through, we cannot 
eee Uiat Hoother design, sentence, or idea is 
wanting to make it complete, for in it i3 all 
that ia required for a full eluciilntion of this 
inconiparahle art. The illustrations in flour- 
ishing are of Mr. Ames's best — now, origi- 
nal, and elaborate. They are not only ema- 
nationa from Ames's pen, but they are all 
ablaze with the exquisite inspiration which 
ia peculiarly his. 

It is an excellent thing in Prof. Amea 
that, io the masterly detail of the most 
akillful mechanism, he never loses the light 
of inspiration. His pictures, therefore, not 
only delight lis at first, but they wear well, 
aud never grow less agreeable upon ac- 

Tho second part, which illustrates every 
kind of jetleriug, fur- 

Advice to Young Men by 
Mr. Burdette. 

Robert J. Burdette, of The Burlington 
Hawkeye, delivered a lecture entitled " Ad- 
vice to Young Men," at Association Hall, 
recently, before ao audience which was 
limited only by the rapacity of the house. 
The lecture, although an old one to Mr. 
Burdette, was a new one to most of his 
hearers. If rounds of applause and peals 
of iHUghter were indications of approval, 
Mr. Burdette was certainly successful in this 

" I have had a great deal of advice," he 
said, "given mo by older people than my- 
self. In many instances I know I would 
have been much wiser had I followed that 
advice. When a boy, I was told to keep 
away from the canvass of the circus tent, 

but I didu't 

r now. Although 
a.s swift as ligbt- 
)rc likely to strike 
Young men, you 
2in with. I don't 

ning, yet it was much 
twice in the same plac 
must be somebody to 
mean by this that you must be horn of some 
big family, for ancestry don't count for much 
in this country. If you have got the idea 
into your head that it does, you ought to bo 
stuffed and set up in front of i cigar -toie 

Reading Bad Penmanship. 

Anecdotes of ludicrous, or worse than lu- 
dicrous, mistakes occasioned by bad hand- 
wriliuc are numerous enough. Some of 
them are as obviously invented as Moore's 
"freahly blown noses" for " freshly blown 
roses," and others tell strongly of the stu- 
pidity of the readers. A small case of the 
stupid sort conies to us from Jersey. It is 
said that the Lieutenant-Governor, Gen. 
Nicholson, in apologizing for his absence 
from a temperance meeting, referred to "the 
need of further restrictions on the sale of 
drink," but that the last few words were 
read "in the Isle of Drink," and that this 
led fo "indignant protest on the part of cer- 
tain citizens." This is quoted as a "warn- 
ing" to those who will not take the trouble 
to write legibly. But it is equally a warn- 
ing to readers of handwriting to use what 
brains they may happen to possess. All who 
have bad much experience in the perform- 
ances of printers and copyists know vei^ 
well that, though niisreadings are fewest 
when the original manuscript is eood, some 
of the most irritating blunders are extracted 
from the fairest "copy" — those, namely, 
which make a wretched, bastard sense that 
perverts the tnedning oi enfeebles tht style 

terly impossible that n misiakc should ever 
be made by a writer who had one* cast his 
eye upon the rule ; but what the fact is we 
have some of us melancholy reasons for 
knowing. Now, take the case of a badly 
written manuscript. You will find a whole 
group of people fumbling at a sentence, and 
making, as to one particular obscure word, 
guesses upon guesses, all of which are sim- 
ply absurd. When it is demonstrably clear 
that the missing link mnst be an adverb, 
you may hear six sane men trying nouns or 
verbs. It may be clear that the dark word 
must be one of strong praise of a given kind, 
the dictionary possibilities of the rase Ijiuer 
within narrow compass; but scores of false 
shots will be made because nobody has itie 
brains or the will to say to himself," What- 
ever this word may he, we can posilively 
it is not, and so limit our 



manuscript, it is moi 
be able to determii 
word neither is not 
U'.— Paper World. 




r than half the battle to 
1 at a glance what a 
can by any possibility 

,nd perfect, of every 

an cither learn 
\ and this part. 

if thre 
large, ( 
better, > 

[ould bo no 
»r give occa- 
sion to pupil or mas- 
ter to ask for any 
more for his business. 
We are moat sur- 
prised, perhaps, to 
find how little Prof. 
Ames Eces fit to say 

work, and but few 
words anyway. Ho 

pupil to decipher, 

explanation, the rid- 
dles of his book. We 
leave this idea as his 


aud our eyes find it. 
Ho boasts not of tho 
wonderful beauty of 
his book. He is not 

Women m Colleges. 

Tho slmttiog out of women from Harvard 
oiverMty, Yale College, and other prom- 
^ incut Eastern institu- 

i for the iustruc- 
of youth, is based 
nd principles. 



and say truly, that if 
they should admit 

for which these insii- 
tutions were origin- 
ally established — tho 
education of young 
ould be per- 

;i-ted. Tho 


ard would have to be 
lowered, and tho 
whole curriculum de- 
moralized and modi- 
fied. Nothiug has 
yet been shown to 
prove that any kind 
of preparation can fit 
girls aud young wo- 
men for tho courso of 
study pursued at 
these institutions. 
ay of them 

row. The 
any young ' 

, how 

many designs /or 
paper < 

prolific in blind QX- 
ptauations; neither 
does he, to induce 

purchasers, tell either purchaser or pupil a 
single lie about the miraculous ease uf learn* 
iug this great art. He ^nows that what 
costs nothing, aud is learned in a day, is 
worth nothing, aud loses all value with 
buyer and iHspector alike. He has worked 
long and hard for his skiU; he adds to that 
that of hundreds of others, and offers his 
hook for seventy-five cents or a dollar. 

The contents are at your service, but if 
you would make them artistically yours, you 
must work for it — the story of all other 
pubUshers to the contrary notwithstanding. 


'Journal," before Veb . 

fonk .f Aiti'.tic Icnmai,^!nf—a S3 par/c huol, 'jni 
iLtlh nearly thirty standard and aitutic alphabets Mailed free until ft rther 
I cloth), to evety person i emitting ^I for a subsoipticn or renewal fo) 

of the book, by mail, tn paper, 75 t 

'. cloth, $1 

It is certaiuly safer to travel on tho cars 
than it is to stay at homo. The reliable 
Loudon sciientifio publication, Nature, has 
made the calculation and figured out the 
number of railroad traveler killed iu France 
aa one in each I ,()Un,000,000 km. run, 
which is a disiaucc equal to 40,000 times tho 
length of a voyage rouud the world. The 
excursion would last during 3,044 years, 
traveling day and night at the rate of sixty 
kilometres per hour. So that, supposing an 
average lifetime of sixty years for a healthy | ^^^^ 
, before he could bo killed by a railpiad i ®'3® 

When the world wants you, my son, it will 
find you. It woL't ask you who your grand- 
father was, for it don't care. People soon 
forget tho names of the ancestors of dis- 
tinguished people in this country. I don't 
believe there is a man present here to-night 
who can tell me the namo of Brigham 
Young's mother-iu-law. [Laughter.] Make 
up your mind to do a great deal of hard 
work. It won't kill you. It's the intervals 
between work that kill people. It's after 
one of these ' intervals ' that you wako up 
and find your hat fcmr sizes too small and 
your coat several sizes too big. It's the 
recreation that kills. Oh, but it's only once 
in a while, you say — a very small matter. 
Well, although a bumble-bee is not as 
largo as a dray-horse, you mustn't handle 
him carelessly. Then try to get acquainted 
with yourself. A good many men die with- 
out haviug scraped an acquaintance with 
themselves. If you are going to be hi-nest 
from policy dim't be honest at all. The 
kind of honesty that can be bought and 
sold isn't worth much. Don't believe that 
cheek is better than modesty or merit, be- 
cause it isn't. If you never do anything 
ihe world, maixy. Don't he afraid 

accident, according to the law of probabili- yoir wife won't look after you. You'll find 
ties, he would have died fifty times a natural , she will be able to do that to perfection.'' 
death — N. Y. Trade BuUetin. , [Apolauae.] 

i obvious : 

a less strenuous at- 
tention is paid to good handwritiog than tc 
bad. Even in "setting up" from plain 
print, straugo mistakes aro made; for iu 
stance, in setting up the last line of " Guine- 
iw oJ tho "Idyls of the King," 

s of the 
m, printed, 
: there is pt 
iting bears l 
to it. Ofc. 

X, having the hoi 
"To where beyoi 

uch blame that does 

not belon 

ought to be legible, but allowance must be 
made for idiosyncrasy, fatigue, illness or 
haste. A handwriting without peculiarities 
is a handwriting without landmarks or 
checks upon false reading ; and, as absolutely 
good writing is not to be looked for in the 
business of life, the dull schoolboy, hand, 
wiih no special character in it, is not with- 
out its dangers. The very worst manuscript 
may be made out by a reader who can and 
will analyze, but those who can and will 
analyze, are few. Here, as elsewhere, there 
are not many who find a pleasure in taking 
trouble and applying obvious general rules. 
Take the subject of spelling, for instancer 
The rule which decides in certain words 
whether, when the sound is ee, the word 
shall be spelled ei or ie is so short and easy 
that any one who had no previous know- 
ledge of human dullness would think it ut- 

tempting this . 

with her male class- 
mates iu tlie base- 
ball course? Then 
there is football. 

I of study would fall 
behind the rest of tho class in the very 
first game — we would say recitation. 
Wooieu can go to Cornell and Michigan 
Universities because those institutions do 
not attempt nor dare to establish courses iu 
these higher branches of scholarship. So 
long as they con Sue themselves merely to 
Greek, Latiu, mathematics, English litera- 
ture, physics, etc,, they aro just about fit 
for women. But the colleges which are 
abreast of the age, which of late have wou 
more fame and attracted wide attention in 
boat-racing, football and baseball have no 
use for woman. Their admission would, aa 
we have said, either pervert the purpose for 
which these institutions arc founded orlower 
the standard to the vulgar and old fashioned 
pursuits ot the classics, mathematics and 
sciences. In short, women are unfit for the 
higher education in the Eastern colleges.— 
Detroit Free Press. 

Extra Copies of the "Journal" 
will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to secure a club of 

Adversity has the effect of eliciting tal- 
ents which iu prosperous circumstaucea 
would have lain donuaDt. 


Capital and Labor. 

outcide Ilia co1Wgi>, who will join in wisliiog 
Lim Tfrj maoj- reliirtiR of lliia eignificaiil dajr. 
— Vtica Sandajf Tribune, 

W. E. Enist is teachiog writing-cliBees at 
M«ndoo, Mich., and hia l«t(er is m haiitleome 
f pecimeo of practical wriliug. In it he siya : 
''I cannot but express my admiratioD at the 
beautiful and entertaining manner in which 
r paper is golti'i) up. Coming, as it does, 
each month filled with words of encourage- 
nt and beautiful specimens of penmanship, 

merits of a good handwriting, than anj 
er penman's paper in the world. I wisl 
I success in jour noble enterprise." 
!'he most popular man in Washington, i' 
ms,is our popular friend Prof. H. C. Spencer 
The following is from the livening Star, Wash 
on, D. C, January 20lh; 
DRBwa'8 PORTitAiT OF Gaufiilu.— The Art com 

at folloivi: Prof I!. C. SpeDMr, 770; Mra. Son* 
Mr, 17J : Geo. D. O. Swalm. 30; Col. H. C.Corbin, 
Ion, JbidmO. Bl>liie, 84; Hon. Joho A, Ijogao.l'i; 
Mra, Liierelia R, Garflcld, 13; Coroomo Art Gallery, 4 

The Pittsburgh (Pa.) Sunday/ Globe, of recent 
date, contains an interesling communication 
from C. C. Cochran, professor of commercial 
science in the Pittsburgh High School, upon 
"Plivenochirographology; Or, Mind -leading 
from Handwriting." Several autographs are 
given, upon which he expresses his opinion as 
to their indications respecting the character of 
their aulhora. He says: "I have about the 
same faith in Phrenocliirographotogy tliat I have 
in Phrenology or Physiognomy. These are ap- 
proximate sciences, and are akin to each other; 
a second cousin, as it were. Handwriting in 
the meclinnical tracing of ihe efforts of the 
mind through the nerves, fingers and pen to 
the paper. On the principle of cause and ef- 
feet, lo my mind, some strokes of ihe mental 
funclicns can be traced in one's 

Rochester. X. Y.. a letter and set of capitals; 
J. E. Garner. Harri'burg, P«,. letter and cards; 
C. W. Rice, penman at Denver (Col ) Busi- 
ness College, letter and cardd ; Gus. HuUizer, 
Toulon, III., letter and nrnameatal card ; Geo. 
O. Shoop, Shainokin. Pa., letter and flourished 

"Questions for the Readers of 

the 'Journal.'" 

Bv Prof. C H. Peircb. 

1. Can au amateur hold a pen correctly t 

2. How is the perfect form of a letter dfl* 

at the same or nearly the same time, 2J0,- 
000,000 years must elapse befure Jupiter 
will reach the sta^e of planetary life through 
which our earth is now pasaiug. Whether 
the assumption be correct or not, the time 
diflerence between the stages of Jupiter's 
life aud the earth's are of this order. Thoy 
must be measured by tens of millions, 
if not by hundreds of inilli..ns, of years. We 
must note, however, that the 210,000,000 
years correspond with only a seventh part 
of that time in the earth's history; so 
that we may say that, if our assuiiiptiona 
are correct, Jupiter would now be iu the 

turn in small writiog materially i ^'^^^ '° ^^'^h 
affected by any change in hight or spacing t ! J^"™ "S**! 

earth was 34,OLO/J00 
the beginning than the 

4. What determine the "upward stroke \ en<l of the fiery stage.— Proc(or, in Be7j,m- 
Biuall letters T j *"**• 

5. Is the dot or finish io final r above one | 
ace in hight t , The Bright Side of Life. 

James Hedloy. delivered a lecture 

6. Is the oval in capitals containiag stem 
the same in all letters f 

7. What are all the reasons for a pen 
spattering ink ? 

8. Can superior execution be reached by 
holding the pen incorrectly 1 

0. In the superior execution of pen-work, 
which predominates — movement or concep- 
tion of form f 

10. How can yoii determine tho jierfect 
holding of the pen f 

Birth and Death of Worlds. 

It has been shown that, had past geolo- 
gical changes in the earth taken place at the 
same rale as those which arc now in pro- 
gress, 100,000,000 of years at the very least 
would have been required to produce those 
actually been produced, 


I tho 


I fit 1 


W. E. Dennis is teaching wriiing 
Bridgeport (Conn.) Business College. 

E. C. Lockard is teaching writing and book- 
keeping in the High School at Black River 
Falls, Wis. 

J. H. Wilson is teaching writing and book- 
keeping at tliH North Western University, 
EvanHon, III. 

The Oltiimwa (Iowa) Business College, con- 
ducted by W. D. Strong, is favorably men- 
tioned by the press of ihnt city. 

J. T. Kenagy has been awarded the Pen- 
man's ART JofitXAL for five years, as tlielir*.! 
prize for quality and speed in making figures, 
at Peirce's Buain-,>89 College, Keokuk, Io. 

Geo. K. Demary, special teacher of writing 
in Ihe public schools of Medina, N. Y., is high- 
ly complimented by the SJidina Itcgtsfer, for 
etlii;ieut aud succeesfiil work in the schools. 

J. C. Y. Coniwall, who, for many years past, 
has written cards aud sold stationery at the 
Fifth Avenue Hotel in this city, has established 
himself in the same line of busiuesa at the 
Hofi'mau House. 

The newspaper reporter has been strolling 
into the Joliel (III.) Business College, conduct 
ed by Prof. H. Kussell. He enya he finds 
large rooms full of studious pupils, and con- 
cludes that the college is doing fine work aud 

J. C. Bateson is teaching writing in Union 
County, Pa. The Uwithurg {Pa.) Local Newt 
says: "Prof. J. C. Bateson, of the Lewisburg 
University, has just finished giving a class ol 
fifty scholars writing-lessons in Milton. Mr. B- 
is a practical and iheoreiic penman, and all 
who have thus far been taught by him have 
been well salieHed." 

Prof. H. B. McCreary, of the Utica (N. Y.) 
Business College, celebrated his 4'2d birthday 
anniversary on January 22d. His Bludents. 
or "boys." as he afi'ectiouately calls them, pre- 
sented him on the happy occasion with George 
Eliot's complete wo^k^ S vols., bound in 
Turkey— as appropriate a gift as it was appre- 
ciated. Mr. MoCreuy has many warm friends 

Note«oithy specimens ha\e been received 
from the tollowing persons : 

C. L. Stiibbs, penman at Nelson's Business 
College, Cincinnati. Ohio, a letter; S. K. 
Brewer, teacher of writing, Andreee, Ohio, a 
letter and cards; W. H. Lollirop, Boston, 
Mass.. a letter; G. M. Smithdeal, Greensboro, 
N. C. a letter ; R. S. Collins, teacher of writ- 
ing. King's Mountain, N. C, a letter aud cards ; 
J. W. Srt-ank, U. S. Treasury, Washington. 

D. C, an elegantly written letter, and photos 
of three gems of pen art, entitled respectively. 
"Coal of Arms of Penn." "Gathered During 
Idle Hours," and his own " Pen and Ink Por- 
trail"— all are of a high order of pen-art ; Jos. 
Foeller. of Jersey City, a letter, and photo, of 
an engrossed set of resolutions.whioh are highly 
creditable; S. A. D. Hahn. penman at Ihe B. 
& S., Davenport (Iowa) Business College, a 
letter; T. E. Condey, Medina, N. Y., a letter 
and copjt-slips; J. D. Briant, Raceland. La., 
box marking ; Emma Poole, teacher of wi iting 
ill the PuHic School of Bradford, Pa., n letter ; 

E. A. Whitney, penman at the Centenary Lit- 
erary lust.. Hackettslown, N. J., a letter and 
a club ot twentyseven subscribers to the 
Journal, whose names were handsomely 
written in German round-hand; C. H. Peirce, 
Keokuk, la., a letter and other specimens; 
John F.^Kelley, Geddes, N. Y., a letter; H. 
J. Willirmson. teacher of writing, Greenville. 
N. C, a letter and flourished bird ; D. Clinton 
Taylor, Oakland. Cal., o letter; D. H. Farley, 
penman at the State Female Normal School. 
Tr^-nton, N. J., a letter and very skillfully ex- 
ecuted specimen of lettering ; C. C. Maring. 
teacher of writing at Painsvitle, Ohio, a letter 
and flourished bird; R S. Hawk. Mutual, 
Ohio. letter and cards ; W. R. Foster. Troy 
Grove. III., letter and cards ; M. J. Goldsmith, 
penman at Moore's Business College, Atlanta. 
Ga., a superbly written letter ; J. R. Carrulhers. 
Mendon. Mich., copy-slips and cards; A. B. 
Clapp, penman at Heald's Business College, 
San Francisco. Cal., a letter; A. W. Palmer, 
penman at Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Business Col- 
lege, aletter ; T. A. Spence, Philadelphia, Pa., 
a letter ; E. C. Bosworth, BueineBa Univerwty. 

be the abode 'of life. But recently it has 
been pointed out, correctly in all probability, 
that under the greatar tide-raising power of 
past ages, these changes would 
place more rapidly. As, liow- 
ly 10,000,000 of years, and pro- 
longer time, must have 
moon was at that favorable 
istance for raising tides, we are by no 
enabled, as some well-ineauing but 
mistaken persons have imagined, to reduce 
tho life-bearing stage of the earth from a 
duratina of 100.000,000 of years to a minute 
fraction of such a period. The short life, 
but exceedingly lively one, which they desire 
to see established by geological or astronom- 
ical reasoning, never can be demonstrated. 
At the very least, we nmst assign 10,000,000 
years to the lire-hearii]g stage of the earth's 
existence. If we now multiply this period 
by seven for Jupiter we get a period of 
60,000,000 years longer. But lake the 
stage preceding that of life on the earth. 
From the researches of Bischofi" into the 
cooling of masses of heated rock, it seems to 
follow that a period of more tlian 300,000- 
000 years must have been required for the 
cooling o( tho earth from a temperature of 
2.000° centigrade to oue of 200°, a cooling 
which has certainly taken place. Suppose, 
however, that these experiments, or the cal- 
culations based on ihem, were vitiated by 
some error so considerable as to increase tho 
real duration of the fiery stage of our earth's 
historjrmore than ten-fold, the real duration 
of that period being only 30.000,000 years. 
Multiply this in turn by seven, and we get a 
period of ^10,000,000 yijars, or 180,000,0110 
years ioager. We ought next to consider 
the vaporous stage ; but the evidence on 
which to form an opinion as to the duration 
of this stage of a planed history is too 
slight to be the basis of a«lual calculation. 
Here, as Tyndall has well remarked, "con- 
jecture must entirely cease." But, by con- 
ly two stages — the fiery stage 
and the life-bearing, or rather that portion 
of the life-bearing stage through which the 
earth has hitherto passed — we find the two 
monstrous tiiqe differences — 180,000,000 
and tiO,000,000, or 240,000,000 years iu all. 
They mean that, V. our assumption as to the 
effect of Jupiter's superior mass is correct, 
then, supposing Jupiter and the earth to 
have started into existence ae diaiinot orbe 

entitled "The Bright Side of Life" at 
Association Hall recently. The Address was 
full of bright things, and was punctuated 
with outbursts of applause from beginning 
to end. Dr. lledley thought that life is 
much as people make it. Tho liuman heart 
is like a garden : if seeds of dappinoss are 
sown, flowers of joy will blossom in every 
part of it. Substitute the seeds of envy 
and discontent, aud it will be-ir its appro- 
priate fruit of misery. Pure laughter is 
God's guarantee against insanity. Tlie 
man who never laughs is to bo regarded 
with suspicion. Laughter is the best tonic 
in the world- It has beeu said that a smile 
adds five minutes, and a hearty laugh a 
whole day, to a man's life. It is no use for 
people to sigh for a country where there are 
nd no afflictions, for these are 
lot of men. They are t!io 
schoolmasters which teach mankind to look 
beyond self. 

Our Premiums. 

Inasmuch as Ihe Journal will, this 
month, be mailed to many thousand persons 
who have no knowledge of the character or 
style of the premiums, one of which is 
given free to every subscriber, we have 
added four extra pages for the purpose of 
inserting cuts— reduced size — of a portion of 

to be the ( 

Public singer: 
prey of the paragrapher, whose vivid imag- 
ination fits them into nice little stories, 
usually based on the travels of the auto- 
graph fiend. The story of Campanini's 
writing in a young lady's album, " I am ze 
greatest tenor, Italo Campanini,'' to which 
Kavelli added, " Mec, too, Ravelli," is now 
supplemented by this from the retentive 
memory of a Boston writer : "An amus- 
ing story is (old of the autograph exper- 
ience of Mine. Nilssnn, a day or two ago. 
A persistent applicant for Mme. Nilssou's 
signature presented a book, and, in running 
over the leaves, Mine. NiUson's eye fell 
upon tho last page, where was inscribed 
' Last, but not least. Adclina Patti.' 
Seiziug the pen, the fair Scandinavian wrote 
upon the blank page of the cover, opposite 
' La Diva's' signature, * Last and least. 
Christine Nilsson Rouzeaud.' "— N. Y. 

There is a difference between politeness 
and etiquette. Etiipictte can be defined, 
classified, formulated. You can tell young 
people to take their soup from the side of 
their spoons; to eat with their forks; not to 
make a noise in eating; and all these and 
countless more such injunctions are impor- 
tant. But I would rather eat a hundred 
dinners with my knife than laugh one mali- 
cious laugh at some one else who did so.— 
Cardinal Manning. 

Send Money for the "Journal." 

Persons desiring a single copy of the 
Jouenal must remit ten cents. No atten- 
tion will be given to postal-card requesti 
for funs. 

AKl »J«/l'l{.\.Vl' 


Beautiful Things. 

loment Ih* hmg ilny through. 

With ]«li«Dl gn<M nnd (tiii)y f 
Bmallfiil Ike* »m Ihow lUiil I 

" Which of you children can tell ine who 
WB8 Ibo iiieckfst man ? " iislctl an Austin 
Siin(hiy-8chuol teacher, of hor c'ass. None 
of tht'in raised their hnarts to indtcalo that 
they were in pos-p*«>inn of the desired 
BihlicaJ Finally little Johnny Fizzle- 
top raised liie hand ahuve liis curly head. 

" There ! " paid tlie teacher, angrily, glar- 
ing at the rest of the class, " you ought all 
to be ashamed of yourselves. You great 
hie hoys have been coming to Sunday- 
day-school for months and months, and yet 
yiin don't know any more than you did when 
you first came, and here is little Johnny 
Fizzletop, poor little fellow, he never hiis 
hud nuy advantages, and has only heen com- 
ing t<i Sunday-School for the past two 
weeks, and yet he knows more about the 
llihle than all the resl of you. I become 
perfeclly discouraged when I think of it. I 
come here every Sunday, and slave and toil, 
trying to get something into your empty 
heads, while yon hit there with your mouths 
open, like a lot of f»n]s, and don't know 
what lo pay when I ask you fo pimple a 
question as what is the name of the meekest 
man in the Bible. Jnst look at little Johnny 
there, holding up his hand, wlille you hang 
your heads. Spealt uji. Johnny." 

" Please, um'am,in«y I go out t "—Texas 

At a recent etonogrHphio exhibition in 
Paris, twenty-four different systems of short- 
hand were on view. Among other curiosi- 
ties, there was a postal-card containing 
■ll.dllO wi'uh.— Boston Iransa'ipt. 

" My dearest Maria," wrote a recently 
married husband to his wife. She wrote 
back : " Dearest, let mo correct either your 
grammar or morals. You address me, ' My 
dearest Maria.' Am I to suppo-e you have 
other dear Mi 

Whenever a new and Blaiirmg fact i 
brought t.i light iu science, pcnple lirpt pay: 
'■ It is not true " ; then, that " it is contrary 
to religion"; and lastly, "that everybody 
knew it before. 

The aifove cut was photo- engrared from an original specimen Nourished I 
P. R. CUary, teacher of tiritin'/ at Vernon, Mifh. 


The proper way to do good which is 
really good, is for a man to act from iho 
love of good, and not with a view to reward 
here or hereafter. 

Youne lady writing a love-letter for the 
kitchen-maid : " That's about enough now, 
isn't itt" Kitchen-maid: "One thing 
mure, miss; jnst say please excuse bad 
Bpellin' and writin'." 

Literary prosperity : The Chi' ago peo- 
ple say that, tttlk as you may of culture, 
the product of their pens amount to more 
than the income of all the authors of New 
Enfiland. Pig thing. — Boston Commercial 

Proctor says that Jupiter is in the state 
that our earth was tJJ.OOO.nOO years ago. 
Proctor has the longest memory we ever 
encountered. We can't remember half that 
far back in the dim and misty past. — Nor- 
ristown {N. J.) Herald. 


gures. A young 
man met a girl, ler, married her, and took 
her on a wedding 2er, and the morning they 
started she 8er breakfast witii a good ap- 
petile, a b9 smile occasionally flickering 
ahnut her mouth, nnd they went on the 
even lOer of their way. 

Boston Tklegram.— " They had been 

wore reading the paper together. 'Look, 
love,* he exclaimed, 'only $ir> for a suit oi 
clothes !' * Is it a wedding suiti' shn asked, 
looking naively at her lover.' ' Oh ! no, 
he answered : ' it is a business suit.' 'Weil, 
I meant business,* she replied.'* 

SuViscril>ers wlut may dejiro to have their 
subscripliuu begin wiih Prof Sp( 
course of lessons, which began iu the May 
uninher, may do so, and receive the Jour- 
nal from that date until January, I8d4. for 
$1-511 will, .< 

How manyapples did Adam and Eveeatf 
Some say Eve 3 and Adam 2, a total of 10 
only. Others figure the thing out differently. 
Eve 8 and Adam 8 also ; total, IG. But if 
Eve 8 and Adam 82, certainly the total 

be 9U. 



strength of the theory that the antediluvians 
w(>re a race of giants, reason Bomething like 
this: Eve 8t nnd Adam 82; total, JO:*. 
Wrong again. What i-ould bo clearer thnn if 
Evo 81 and Adam 812. tho total was tO^f 
Then if Evo 81lsl and Adam 812, would 
not the total be J62Uf Perhaps, after all, 
the following is the true solution : Eve 814 
Adam, Adam 8124 Eve; total, 8,ua8. Still 
nnnther calculation is possible : If Evo 814 
Adam, Adam 81242 oblige Eve, ttital, 82.- 
03«. Even this, however, may not bo a 
sufficient quantity. For, though wo admit 
thai Evo 814 Adam, Adam when he 
81811242 keep company; total, 8,182,0.')G. 
All wrong. Eve, when she 81812 many, 
and probably felt sorry for it, and her coin- 
pauion, in order to relievo her grief, 812. 
Therefore, Adam, if ho 8i8N24{iry Eve's 
depressed spirits, hence both ale 81,89(i,H.J4 
apples. — Free Press. Oh, pshaw ! you 
mean that in Adam it was bt<J428l42J()ry 
Eve, and it made Eve, when she 8I2,C a 
dog. So between thorn they consumed, by 
that kind of mathematics, 942,822,3Gti. 
Next! — Texas Siflings. 

Not Responsible. 
It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of iuleresl or merit, are received and pub- 
lished ; if any person diOurs, The 
are e<iuaUy open to him to say so and teji 

A good C(iuntry parson preached a series 
of sermons on practical mt>nilily. and very 
interesting and ins'ruclive they wei-e. A 
lad in the village who had heard only one 
of them was coming out of an orchard ono 
day, Ills pockets bulging out with stolen 
fruit. IIo met the parson, who noticed his 
efforts to conceal the evidences of his guilt. 
"Have you been stealing apples!" a?ked 
tho minister. "Yes," answered the boy 
sheepishly. " And you are trying to hide 
them from met" continued tho good man. 
" Yes, sir," said culprit, brightening up, 
"You saiil last Sunday that we must avoid 
tho appearance of ovil." 

A citizen of modoralo views, who hap- 
pened to bo present at the banquet of French 
radicals, was talking politics wiih hisneigh- 
bor— an extremist from the word go— and 
with indignation recalled the massacre of 
Dojniiiican monks at Aroueil. 

"All that," coolly replied tho radical. " is 
ihe fault of the priests." 

"What ! the lanlt of the priests f" 

"Certainly, if there weren't any. nobody 
could shoot them !" 

The Penman's Art Journal is the 
title of a beautiful nnd valuable monthly, 
published at $1 per yenr. Every number 
is replete with hints and lessons in practical 
writing, nnd a choice ccdlectiim of choi-e 
liternture, designed to meet the wants of 
every member of the household. We 'annot 
speak too flatteringly of this journal — it 
needs only to be seen to be admired.— Ifotise 
and Home. 

The PESBtAN's Art Journal is a very 
welcome visitor to our table. The 
present number is not only very beau- 
tiful, but highly entertaining and instruct- 
ive. It is surprising how this splendid 
journHl has grown in public favor. Thia is 
a fitting and emphatic testimonial to its 
worth. Published monthly, at 20.> Broad- 
way, New York, at $1 per year. D. T. 
Ames, editor and proptittor. B. F. Kellcy. 
associate editor. — Waihington {Pa.) Signal 


Owing to largely increased business and 
inadequate faciiiiies at Woousockett, It. I , 
the New England Card Co. has transffrred 
its bu.siuess tu this city, and is located at 
Nus. 75 and 77 Nassau Street, where all 
commuuicatiniia may be addressed. 

• Jiiit i. 



-,(„(HU j 





cyfiu(^Jy^ /^l . 

©4£^^^ri/y _... 


D l.,v^. 

n,. a6«.f «,(, are phoh-e,igravcJ /rom pn-a«J-i«k copy pnpariJ at tU offia of Ac ■'Journal," and are pirn a, tpmrncm of pm-aork applied to cmmtrcial purpoea 



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5gal. kegs, each, not $C25 

a«7. cone bolllea. per gniu <paoked' in J-gro. wood 

Peumau'H luk Cabinet No. 1 (Price, 9'i) 
Contains Ibe fuUiitving Inks; Ivz. boltle eacb of Japan. 


iiivh allps bearing 
Special RittM lo 

FRED. D. ALLING. Ink Manufacturer, 


VKT aouKN.\:t 


LAPILINUM •Stone-Cloth). 

Black Diamond Slating, 

n- licit l.i,,„„l .s/„, ., V , „ ,//,...,; ,.,r,,,:,„n)/o< 

IVdlh ,1.1,1 n /. „ ;;/.,,;/ ji. 

■ ■ EMlon.Pn 

Slul« Ntinniil SvliM 
Binglmin SriiooC . 
Long liliniU Uospil 

Till'' WLiU 13 UDuei-saliy coutcded ly rlu pics pn II k u U [ (Hiiiau md rtisis 
gcnerall) t bo the in )'*t com p relic nsive pmctiuil, and nrtisitic gui le to < ruaiiicntal pen- 
iimusliip ever published. Sent, posl-naid, to any address on receipi ot $4.50, 'jr as a 
premium for a club of 12 subscribers to the Journal. 

Tlio above cut represeot-Q tbo litle-piiee of tlio work, which is 1 1 x 14 in sitp. 



r\\ Sertesof "^ 

^Ofic>iAffsr££i P£^s /Af use ^ ' 1 


On receipt of tliv prices uniicxml, we vrill for- 
wiii-U by rt'luni of mall, or by oxpi'(»»s as stAled, 
any aruclu nttmud In the following lIsL 

Uy ordering from lis, patrons cun rely not only 

ni>on receiving a etipcrior article, bnl upon dolr* 


Ames- Compomliiuii nt f^n-'MM,,,, ,,,-!, ii,. || » 

Ames' lt<xik<it Al|iii;ii'. I- . . im 

cierciscs . . . ^ lo 

&0slieut3, (.'iOfiiU setaof eo|iii-s) 9 oo 

100 " {100 full seisuftouica) 6 00 

BrlBtol itoard, 3-slieet thick, 3SxS8 in., pr sht W 

«x28, poi- ahect, by express.. 80 

BluckCftraBoiii-il.eixSS, for white Ink...'.'. W 

Oliii'k Cards i)cr 100 2S 

Black CurOs per tliouaond, by express S 00 

What's dr'lng-papcr, ho^p^e8^ ISxM.i is $t » 

" 17x22, 20 S 00 

19x24. 20 3 SO 

" " " 2I1™. 25 %-i^ 

*' '* *' SlxSil I ifi SO IM 

Blank Bristol Board Cftnls, per 100 as 

" 1000 100 

„" " " 1000, by ex. 1 M 

Wlii9orANewton'8BoprBQp.lnd. luk.sUck 1 M 

*>y mnil : SO 

1000 " by exrreM. .;.'';■■,".■.".'.',!!;;;;;""";;; 400 

AmM« Penmen's Pnvorite No. 1 p«r (ttom ....;... 1 30 

Tlie New Spenceriaa CompeDdium, Pafl i, 3,'3, -I, 

Rnjrroulnir Peni for letlerinir. per doi .'.". 9S 

Crow-qniU Pen. verj' fine, for drawiog. doi 78 

William.'<««dPackflrdiOen,» g 00 

„ , •' GiiWe 300 

CoDirdODi Normal Syitem ol Ploiirishing SO 

" " " Letterinir. 60 

BomPU.url.hmgBndUriering *. 70 

Pnyson, Dunton & SiTiliiier a Manaol.' 1 25 


;, Ct. 

<ng#. N. J. Knoxvil 

lluUfkeu, N. J. Eoleigh, N. C. 



No. I ... . Size, -Ovri t«i . . . , f 1 o:, 

;; a . . . . ■• L>i»3i ■■ . . - 11.7,} 

Plain. Witlioul SUelf. 

No. 1 18x24 ioobea tl 25 

■• ii Ruled Ibr'mittio " ■■ '-'".!! 2.75 
This is uniicrsally admitted lo be the beat 
material for btacl-board in mjc. 


>"-<! 205 Broadway, New Vorh. 


Fine Uiigriwine: i" Colors, (aiiLe, 26x40 indict, 
nearly Bi leet wid«. niid over 3 feet long,) vejiresenliiig 
"An Auslraliiin Scene." uod llie maimer of (rnreliug iu 
tlinl counlry. nitli Ostrlelies n« n molor. 

volunlnrj- cominoudaOuut no litive received: 

Mahomkt p. O.. ILI, . A-oo, •• ISSi. 
Dtar Sirs: Vonr lituann.rli receiveJ, and thnoka (o 
30U. 1 will have it rrmnol, and bung up tu inc «hop. 
Youra inily. R. BOLTOn. 

I rewlv«l your benulKiil pi.-ui., 1 ,1 ,> \i, 1 v 

•oeno. I ubiill reuieinWr your II 1 .1 ,, 


Manuracturers of 
•Strictly Fikst-Class Vehicles Ox 

The Packard Commercial Arithmetic 

Bv S. «. PACKARD, or Packard's Biisinbss College, 



1. CoMn.KTic. :i2n pp., large octavo. 2. School. 27.'". pp., duodt 

iritboul doMbt. llu moit thorough, na »rell as the moil rtUable, biiiineMariibineiic before lh™i?ul'be. *" " *' " 
1 be StbiM.I cd.iiun rompiuea tie main porlion of tbe larger work, omitting only llie n.oro difficult and ob 
e.iiimples, and ceitiuii subjects nut applicable to lilerary ■clioole. It is a moat churming book. 

JRetail Pricea: Complete Edition, $1.50; School Edition, $1. 
Prices to Schools: Complete Edition, $] ; School Edition, 75 cents. 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 805 Broadway, New York 

^iH^^^Jor^N^^uTle Md'^'^v*! '^™"^"'""*'* """i"'-'* I (^ ^ GaikelU Piindpal Gflskell'. Buai 
Tbere«lI»peak«Ueu'lMythBt>''ni ''■"']" 7 ,', ' Z~i""\ M\'*s«"!I"e.l'Tl.f(ry"e I^Xn'iiru 

are deligbied with It, Write ii 
1 Brj-nnt & Stmtton'a nu»ine«s 

n. Addit Albro, Prim 

» ihonjugli. precise uud practical ai 
, Principal Rroirn'a BntincM Collef 

Prijioipnl Rrj-ant & Stnil ton's Biisinei 

^ Plill»deli.||iii.— "Experien 

ttgt. Prinoipnl Brj-ant it Siration's lliu 



Phonograpliic Monthly 

A 3! Page Rnya) Octavo AlagKxine, containing 8 to i; 

lied lu adopt it. It ia }iu 

3 S » Sm CU go HL 




of Engxav 

ing, and exei 







N»w Ytrk. 



nrilteu and lluurUbcd. Specluieas. 10 ceniN Valuable 111 Prnpii.'si f\^^,i i.i * _ 


Marionvllle. Onondaga County, Noiv York, 

Central AViuijwpcr Suhteription Agent, and 
Pubtislier of Swift's Hammiooks of Lsk RscirES. 

■ling Ink, Anilia* 

i*her'» full pri« for any Uading pertoditoL U, B. 
BMsnoM, O. T.Aiiut. e-lSi 



The Book-keeper 


PuBLisnKO Fortnightly. 

The Leading Accountants of America 

Devoted to all matters of special interest 
to Accountants, Uankcrs. Merchants, 
Manufacturers. Counting-room 
AtUclu'S, Instructors of Ac- 
counts, and all persons 
having to do with 
the keeping of 
of account. 
Ancient and modern systems oi Book- 
keeping reviewed and exemplified. 
Practical problems and questions discus- 

sed and elucidated. 

Specimen copies s 

um. Smgle 
I prospective 

L free 
An Agent wanted in every city in the 
United Slates and Canada. Full com- 
pensation guaranteed. 

The Book-keeper. 
29 Warren Street. New York. 
Post-office Address. P. O. Bex 2126. 



WuUm A'omat ColUgt and Commtrcial IntlituU 


Ttaorongta coiine in Ppnmnniilii)>. 10 ^reeki. flO; 1! 

KDd Dm1|[dIii| 

). Etejitii 

8(l!^iiUi UuuKoi 
Mn, |1 i S|>»olini 
IbU anil Combinaiinnm su ceuia ; -^ tiuteo a 

Au" klu<U or I'eii-rrork t.i onler. SalUrRClli 
rted. Can ltiml*h all kinds of Writing-iDBte 
Band for Prtoe-ltol ami Clroiilar. 3-12t. 

rds (pLiin 




COMMON sriinoT, TiooK-KrrPiNO, 

CUDTBChi- • ■■ \ ■■■■■■.:. am 

II, 11, 1 

TUI«inn>iil«rwoik, lor tlio liist fifteon 
r«un Diia enjoyed n ^renter niL'UBnru of t liufiivot 
af prnotlcul cdutaitors tlinnany otlK-v of blmlliti 

■nplilcul di'tses ana greatly iuipi'ovca In 




taitnu'iiin MifTli<-'iiy;iiiil r>,n.tlce of Accounts; 

75a and liS Broadiray , New York. 

1000. by Eipre**, 4^ 

Bod for Clrcolftr. S*mplM SENT FREB. 

P. T. AMU, n» muwir, k«v Toa 




TI.e name 

n'nn ImB bfen iilenliHed witli a leading svatem of iii8(ruci 
iir Citpv-bonks have borne tliat designation Biiice ie54, 
Pen*! einie WO. More n-ceiilV il lias alao been need by ub a« a special trade m 
pen mail fill i> pnbliofllioii* and atalionere* speciall' 

Jl ia recogiiixed everywhere a 
that well-known and standard designs 

iity of die superiority of anything which bears 


in the country. Tliey combine a degree ot elaalicil 

any other pens. 

c-roiXT pens sent on receipt of 3-cent stamp. 


onetantly made of difficulty in getting gond ink; and as nove 

^ jniially'beiiig broueht out. they are tried in the hope thai I hey may prove free I 

usual defect?. The original receipt's from which the Spencerian Black Ink ia made h&vt 
uae in Knglnnd for over onr huiidrrd yearr. The proprielnrs have devoted the grea 
and pprnnnnl atlenliun to their preparations, and fully believe that (heir excelleuce 
nppiecialed by all who may use ibem. 


Are need by all the'best pern 

smoothnesB of point not ftmn 

SarapleB of the 


will be 


points of superiority whi<:b we claim for iheae p^cils are, the FlNKST Grapuite, 
I'lto.M Grit, and Uniformity of Grades. 

assorted sizes, will be sent. 

Frekdom from Grit, and Uniformity of Grades. 

Sample-box, containing TEN pencils, of one gradi 

ial, by mail, on receipt of 40 c 


V Standard Alphabets and Figures, but a test Pentenci 

est sentence, embracing the entii 
lieal wrilinj-, the key to all comb 
es of writing required in bunk-keeping, hiisiiiet 
this Ruler, makes it invaluable to cnllege-Btudeut: 
.» and teachers. 

all nlphabet. The niaelery 
lions of Pmall letters. The various 
:>i>pundeuce, as published 


•A peiilioldi 
of acraiB them, as with the ordinary st 
greatly inci-eafied ease and sinuotliness 
pen iitielf always acts upon boili, 
principle, without cramping ihe positiui 
the letter. 

For the convenience of teachers, ' 

aight penholder. The 

the work of wriliug. By the use of this hohlei 
)n the up and doicn strokes, ami besides, by the "'*( 
of the band, the pen is thrown at the proper aviji 

We Can 

• Fii 

ill send one do 
Orders for Less • 

, postpaid, on ret 
,N One Dozen. 

ipt of $1. 

Ivisoii, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. 

f^'If you order please mtntion this paper, 6-12U 

The Leading Work on Commercial Law. 
Class-Book of Commercial Law 


1 o[ buvium, der^gnvd and anaoged especially for clau 



te. furmM of butinui-jMiitr, * 


II is not a n.c« ttwt o/Mmt. F<,r.,u .^.in l,« purchiwca ut «cy UK.k More lor a le.v centi; but i 


■ lenrlivra nlMiil lu iidnpl a wurk on ooiniiierciul law Is. llie Ificl llml tbii bouk tvu« n riHen by nn txptricnetd Itacfitt 
d ntu wniteii iiprttilj/ /nr ttuiltnlt iiinl butinat men. Jt liai bten rxaminrd tlntrmighly by tht bt4t Ugal tuft/t. 
hat tlooil Uie U4t (/ (Ac elau anil eountingroom. II ii oeully primed Bod liKud«uiiii-ly buuud. 

SIogl« Copie« WDl puit>|<ald to any ftddreu on n»Mipi ol Oaa DuRur. Addraw, 


Prinoipal ol tbe Albany Biuidmb Cu11«g«. 
, N. V. 

** rLECTRlC LlOHr." 310 ElegnDl Exien 
l«p«f. fJxVrro.'ii!' S«i.rp7«'' u..^«!,"I!m ttnU'tl 


tUBipttotLH Fnt. C. U. I^kCB, 

CIlORTllANU-wrillag Iboittiiglily lauglit Uy m»tl 

lUlY ELLClllIC rtN HOLDER for Oniaiii.Dltt] 
twth. ll^uipcrdoMo. Addrm, PKUtcit'. jivftUUM 

OOUJ0I. XMkia, lov*. 

THE Ki;\V 


Adsptrd fur i»e will, or nilln.ul Txt-Book, 
uJ tbe onlv iFl rccommeaaea to 


Bryant & Stratton 


Faronible nrren^ment* mnit. wllli tltuinM. Colt.gM 

The b«t Peu In tbe U. S.. aod lUe bwl Penmen lue thei&. 



119 AND 121 WiixiAM Street, New York. 

Shading T Square. 

Unea being ieparaled Bt yerfei-X iDle^^-lll^ and executed 
ai rapidly hs thu»e made free huiid. The upace belireeo 

to eeveii-eigbths ot a'o inali.aturinadt) hurizoataijyor upon 

SenI BPoiirely pat^ked by expreM to any part of lh« 










ni of Tintlny. 


•qimre, w 


a rnpiiUt; 


YOIIK. July 37 


D. T. , 

feotion ol 



(J. U. SlCKKLH, 



aman, A 

m. Bank Not* Cc 

,N. T. 



E6Q.— J 

hav« applied iL 



T and Dra 


with D. Appleto 



They v% InriloabU to all who an Mehtng to Improt* 
thai/ imUu, AddxMi, fuuui'« AuT JoumaU 

9W BiMdnr, H«w V«* 

m 1 1 

AT an. Bllcj*D\ 

lU \1 \run 

..,./^^^^'*;teachers' guide. 

Lntfred vt 
New York, N. Y.. 

TiiE Po8T Office of 
AS Second-Class IUtthi. 

D. T. AMES, Editor • 
B. F. KELLEV. Aiioc 

d Proprietor. 
•10 Edilor. 


Vol. VII.— No. 3. 

No. X. — Bv Henry C. Spencer. 

CopyriijhUd, March, ISSS. by SpCncer Brothers. 
I gTvtitttt itiTentiotia ol htiman ingeDuitj-. are writing tnA monty: the awiimon language <i 

r 0/ te^.it 

The accompanying < 

ffliile the 

represents the partial left-side position fur writing; some- 
times called the accountant's position, becanse 
adapted to writing on hooks that cannot, con- 
veniently, bo placed ohliquely upon the table 
as \vc may place paper. 

iIbo suggests the proper position 

1 a hlackhoard, which requires 

side he turned partially toward 

ectire the proper slant of letters. 

arm and hand are used to steady the 

of the writer. A chalk crayon, how- 

Qot usually held like a pen, or pencil ; 

the writing end is held between the ball of 

the ihumb and the end of the first finger, 

ross the palm ol the hand. 

the mastery of praciii 

learner has not the 

bang in bis ro( 

ornamental pen- 
, blackboard, he 
1 the supply de- 

lain portion passes obliquely across 

lOARD Practice as an aid to the 

! earnestly recouniiend. If the lea 
can, at email cost, obtain a Hexible blackboard 
parluieiii of Tin: Penman's Art Journal. 

We have received, from a prominent State Normal School, a quantity nf specimens 
showing the progress made by a class in writing, in a course of lessons where a part of 
each les."!on required practice on the blackboard, and ihe improvement uniformly made by 
the pupils is remarkable. We have reason to believe that the blackboard practice was an 
important aid in producing such highly gratifying results. It is of especial use in educat- 
ing the eye to a proper appreciation of forms, and the character of the consecutive strokes 
which compose leitTs and words. 

Movements. — In practicing the larger-sized capitals, two ruled spaces in hight, em- 
ploy tho whole-arin movement freely; nest, make them one and one-half ruled B|jace8 in 
hight, using the forearm movement, which is the wholearm movement modified, by allow- 
ing tbo muscle of the forearm, near the elbow, to come lightly in contact with the edge of 
the desk ; next, write the capitals eight-ninths of the ruled space in hight (medium-ruled 
paper), with combined movement, in which the fingers slightly assist the forearm. In 
each of these movements the mind should be directed to the ehunlder as the centre of 
motion, nud the writing epeed should be gradually but surely increased, from moderate to 
highest degree o( rapidity practically attainable, aiming, always, to produce the standard 
forms. Ho who aims at nothing hits twthing. Aimless practice is worse than useless; it 
is injurious to miud and hand. 

Copy 1 introduces the reversed- oval, which is the distinguishing feature of nine cap- 
itals, called the reversed-oval letters. 

In forming this oval, the direction of the movement is upward— the opposite of tl'at 
which produces the direct-oval, or capital ; hence, the name, reversed-ovn]. 

The square is an aid in securing the proper slant and width of this oval. The loops 
at base of exercise facilitate continuous movement, round and round in same oval. Dwell 
upon this exercise until freedom, ease and goi)d form are secured. 

The correct slant of a reversed-oval letter may be readily secured by making a light, 
straight stroke, on maiu slant, and then striking the oval around it. Observe the shade. 
How does it increase and diminish ? Where is it broadest ? 

Copy 2. The email loop of Z is on the slant of the lower part of right side of 
al ; aim to make the long loop on main slant, and, io the wholearm practice, extend it 
le and one-third ruled spaces below base-line. 

Left and right curves in Q cross each other, closing the oval at base; loop ia hori- 

il. Be careful to make the fourth stroke of TT a left curve, and i 
opound curve. How many shaded strokes in each letter t 

Copy 3. The capitals are here presented practical size. Width of reversed -oval, 
measured at right angles to main slant, one and one-half u-spaces; third stroke of X, 
descending, touches shaded oval at middle hight ; make it a true curve ; there is a tendency 
to make an angle at point of contact with shade, making the letter look like a K. Strokes : 
left curve, right, left, right. 

Caution : Do not begin the reversed-oval with too slight a curve, nor leave it too 
much open at base, pruducing a horso-shoe form. 

Pen on the wiug \ sweeping down on the right, i 
to produce fyll, free left stroke in reversed-oval, as i 
large family of letters. 

Capital W. Oval same as in X ; width across 
one and two-third u-spaces; width between angular joinings at base, the 
spaces at middle hight, equal ; ^nal curve, two-thirds bight of letter. Strokes : left, 
right, right, left, left. 

Capital Z. Make the oval as in W; small loop, one-half i-space in hight ; width 
of oval turn, from base of small loop to crossing of long loop, one u-space ; width of 
long loop, one-half u-space, full. Be careful to make oval and long loop both on main 
slant. Strokes : left, right, left, right, lefl. 

Capital Q. Reversed-oval, same width as va Z ; right curve descending, crosses left 
curve near base, and passes one u-space to the left ; horizontal loop, narrow, and one 
u-space li'Ug ; compound curve, crosses both curves of oval. Strokes: left, right, com- 
pound. The monogram, which embraces W, X, Z, Q, is presented for study and 

1 the air, and upon the left on paper, 
t forms the prominent part of this 

I lop from I 

I angular joining. 


^--^.-u^y iJ^i^y^^t-iSy 

Copy 4 affords practice upon words embracing capitals that have just been taught 
separately. The X and ^ joiu readily to small letters that follow ; so will the Z. Would 
suggpst more extended practice on these letters. The name of a Buckeye farmer, Xeno- 
phon Quinton, is a good one to write ; Washington, another ; Zimmerman is an excellent 
combination for free practice. Many others may be thought of in this connection and 
written, for improvement. 

Copy 5. In this copy the reversed-oval is modified to adapt it 1 
how the shaded stroke is brought down on the main slant on the right. It i 
in nearly equal parts as to length, of right curve, straight line and left c 
the shade increase and diminish ? Practice this copy thoroughly, then pass <. 

Copt 6. These letters depend upon the reversed-oval for their top portion ; bnt the 
width of the oval is slightly reduced, and the opposite curves cross near the base line. 

It you wish to be represented by a good-looking form — and who does nott — give 
special attention to capital /. Many excellent writers form it with but two strokes, omit- 
ting the final left curve. 

It is necessary in these letters, / J, to make first third of upward left cnrve, full I 
full ! ! so that right curve descending will crosa it above point of beginning. Observe posi- 
tion and form of shades.' 

Copt 7 brio^ at down to the practical sod most aiefal size agaiD. 
Capita] V. R«v«rsed-oval ooe and ODe-third ; 6Dal eorve two-tbirds hif^bt of letter, 
Strokes : left, oompoaDd, oomponod oorre. 

Capital U. Reverscd-oval, mme as \u V; difltaoco between shadedstrokeaod straight 
liDfl, 000 epace, full ; hight of atraight line l«-a-thinl« of letter. Strokes : left, compound 
riKht, iitraight, right. Only one shade, miDd. 

Capiul T. First four strokes same as in U, enisb with loop, like amall y. Strokes ; 
left, compoand, right, straight, right, left. 

Work np the raonogrsTn, napiul /. First or simple form; width of Inop, one 
u -apace ; crossing of curves one-third i-epace above base; distance between curves on 
hB«e-liae, one u-space. Strokes : left, right. Shade lower third of right curve. The 
second or full form of the / is completed h ith an egg oval, one aud ooe-half i-snaces 
high, and two and one-half n-spacea long. Especial attention should be given to the 
direction and curve of the final stroke. 

Capital J. Top similar to /; loop below, one-half u-space in width, shaded oo right 
side. Be sure to give main slant to long down stroke. Strokes: left, right, left. See 
ntooogram showing relation of / aud J. 

Copy 8. Practice on words. U, Y and J are letters that join 
following small letters. Write also, Uncle, Very regpeetfulhj, Yo 
promise, June, July, January, etc. 

Wo have undertaken a great deal for u single lesson ; but as the lesaous are a monll 
apart, the time for practice is ample. 

The capiUls we present, as most will agree, are plain and simple, and yet synimetri 
cal, in style. The tendency of handwriting, in obedience to the demands of evcry-day use 
is steadily in the direction of siinpUcity ot form. It is not many years since the re 
vcrBod-oval used in the nine capital letters taught in this h-ssnu was formed 
tttrokes, and now it is universally conceded thai two strokes much better answc 
pose than did the four. 

We warn oar pupils against the use of redundant strokes in their writing. 

Some of our young people, especially when they have attained free ct 
indulge in extra curves aud elaborated forms of letters, quite ridicuhms 
correspondence, and the Spencerian System is often unjustly held responsible for such 
eccentricities ; when, in short, it rondemns them. 

In conclusion I would remark that unfortunately the body of professional penmen in 
our country too often suffers in reputation, because held responsible for the gimcrack pro- 
duwtions of exceptionally vain, conceited and illiterate self-styled " professors " of pen- 
manship. Other professh.ns suffer also, more or less, from having unworthy members 
whose acts they deprecate, hut cannot control. 


id of hand 
business and 

A Talk About Writing. 
Bv Paul Pastnor. 
This is what took place at our lyueum, 
last week. We had a talk about writiug. 
Tlie Kubject bad been brought uji by the 
card of a writiug-teaoher, published in the 
eountj paper, which announced that be 

should spend one month in R , for the 

jturposo of forming a writing-class and in- 
structing all who desired to join it in the 
beautiful art of penmanship. It was an 
"off" night at the lyceum. The contest- 
anta who had been appointed to take the 
leading parts in the debate, announced 
theuisolvcB unprepared, for good and suf- 
ficient reasons, and the Presblent excused 
thoin for two weeks. "Now," he said, 
" let us have an inloruial talk on some sub- 
ject of interest. Part of the object of our 
training here is to fit us speaking with- 
out previuna preparation on an; subject 
which may be brought up. Will some 
meuilier suggest a topic of interest for this 
evening f 

I happened to have in my pocket ihe Cou- 
rier, with the writing-teacher's annouuce- 
uieut in il, and I stood up and said ; "Mr. 
President, I see by a card in this week's 
paper that we are to have a course of writ- 
ing-lessons here in town." ! read the card. 
■•Now, Mr. President, and gentlemen, it 
seems to me that this is a subject which in- 
terests us all, and inasmuch as the gentle- 
man who is coming here will depend largely 
upon the membera of this lyceum for pat- 
ronage and assistance. I would suggest that 
we bring out, bya talk on writing, the opin- 
iou» of tliose present, so that we may kuow 
who of us are in favor and who opposed to 
the project of a If agree- 
able to the members of the Society, I will 
slate the question in thU form : Resolved, ( 
that we believe the puMeiiion of a good 
handwriting to be oi the greatest value ui ' 

j every young man, and that we will support 
and aid the proposed school of penmanship 
in this village." The subject was accepted, 
and also the fonn of statement. " I will ap- 
point no regular contestants on either side 
of the question," said the President, " but 
let each member speak when be chooses 
; aud as he chooses upon the subject before 
us." As I had introduced the matter, I was 
asked to open the discussion, which I did, 
as well as I could without previous thought, 
urging the considerations which I deem.d 
best calculated to support the affirmative 
side of the question. When I sat down, a 
young man— son of the village merchant— a 
fellow of considerable ability, though indo- 
lent, who bad been away at college for two 
years, but was now spending the winter at 
home, for some reason not made public — 
this young man rose, and said : " Mr. Presi- 
dent : I regret that I am not able to indorse 
in every respect the opinions of the gentle- 
man who has just spoken. I do not believe 
that the usual stereotyped hand taught by 
writing-masters is worth, for bu-ines» or 
literary purposes, the time and trouble and 
money which are required to secure it. I 
admit that a good handwriting is of value, 
but I do not think that the best handwrit- 
ing is taught by following the usual cut-and- 
dried method. It teems to me that a sys- 
tem which excludes the element of person- 
ality in penmanship is not one which we 
want to tie ourselves down to. I look at 
one of these Spencerian charts, and then at 
the handwriting of the teacher and of the 
more advanced of his pupils, and I receive 
the same general impression. The writing 
is pleasant enough to the eye. is easy to 
read, but it is formal, labored, and lacks the 
higher beauty of orii-inality and force. Now 
I have seen the handwriting of a good many 
prominent business men. I had a chum at 
college who had collected, in a scrap-book, 
quite a number of scraps of letters and 

autographs of well-known men, both in 
mercantile and literary life. I never saw 
but one piece of manuscript, of a business 
man, which was anything like a Spencerian 
oopy-book, and that was the work of a very 
young man who had succeeded to a large 
business built up by his father. The father's 
handwriting was small aud condensed, 
without an unnecessary stroke or an orna- 
ment anywhere. It was very plain, but be 
never looped his I's or shaded bis t's. He 
wrote with a stub pen, and the lines were as 
black as night and as straight as a yard 
measure. All the business men represented 
in that book wrote differently ; their person- 
ality came out in strong lines, and one could 
easily see that they never wasted time pat- 
tering over a copy-book, or if they ever did, 
they bad gotten bravely over it. I say it 
honestly, that their handwriting was more 
beautiful to me thau the finest copper-plate 
script. There was more in it. It had the 
beauty of adaptability, which is higher than 
the beauty of abstract form. So with the 
writing of literary men. I saw sixty man- 
uscripts of American autbora in that scrap- 
book, and not one of them would have been 
accepted as child's copy by a writing-master. 
The President of our college writes a rough, 
angular little hand, but it looks well on the 
page, and does a man more good than all 
the ' Be virtuous and you will be happy' that 
ever flowed from the painstaking pen ol 
writing-masters upon the copy - sheet of 
despairing youth. Now, Mr. President, I 
do not propose to attend this writing-school, 
and I do uot propose to use any influence 
which I may have, either for against it. 
The system of writing which is now taught 
seems to me too uniform and lifeless, and 
not practically worth the time and money 
spent in acquiring it. These are the points 
I wished to bring cut." 

The young collegian sat down amid a 
perfect silence. I must confess that I felt as 
though my simply stated arguments had been 
cast considerably into the shade, and I hardly 
knew what to say, in case it sboold devcdve 
upon me to reply, in the end. I was very 
much relieved, therefore, when the young 
principal of the village academy, a college- 
bred man and a graduate, rose and said : 
" Mr. President, as the question is now open, 
I should like to say a few words by way of 
comment upon the arguments which have 
just been advanced. The gentleman has 
made a very brilliant and forcible plea, but 
his blows, I think, have been mostly de- 
livered into the air. He claims that the 
system of penmanship now taught excludes 
the element of personality. How does it 
exclude personality? He says that the 
chart, the handwriting of the teacher and of 
the more advanced pupils convey the same 
geniml impression. I challenge him to 
prove that they arc so much alike that one 
could be mistaken for another. The fact 
that they convey the same general impres- 
sion is that which marks them as exponents 
of a common art; the fact that they are not 
servile repetitions of one another, as a type 
is repeated upon paper, proves that they 
contain originality. If I can distinguish 
difference in a word or sentence written by 
one of my pupils from the same word or 
sentence written by myself, so that I could 
not mistake the former for my own, then 
I claim that there is originality in that word 
or sentence of handwriting in both cases, 
and originality in every letter and line of it ■ 
lor It is logic, that what is true of the whole 
18 true of every part. I can distinguish b.- 
twoen the handwTiting o( an advanced pupil 
and his teacher, between dilierent advanced 
pupil", between different writing-masters, 
between any two professional or skilled 
writers in the worid, and anyone can do it 
who has at all an eye for the art. There- 
fore, I claim that there is originality in cor- 
rect penmanship. There is 'originality in 
any two products which arc not exactly alike 
and proved idtntical. A«aio, the gentle- 
man who has just spoken, claims that ekUled 
penmanship lacks force. Now, if he will 
teU US just exactly what qualities constitute 
force in pemmmship, I think we ehaU Siul 

that the highest form of the art possees€>s 
them. For myself. I should think that the 
qualities of force in penmanship were coti- 
si^teney aud legibilitif ; at all events, a 
handwriting not possessing these qualities 
is weak, characterless. By consistency I 
mean, adherence to the same general princi- 
ples of form. In consistent handwriting the 
slant is always the same. Ihe letters are 
formed upon Ihe same general model, the 
manuscript pages present harmony. I 
claim that the present siyle of correct writ- 
ing is consistent. Legibility is the other 
quality of force. A style of penmanship 
which does loop its I's and shades its t's, 
certaiLly cannot be be less legible than one 
which so far departs from perfect and ac- 
knowledged forms as to disregard these 
points. Add to this the care of the accom- 
plished penman in making every letter con- 
plele as well as beautiful, and I think it will 
lie aw^orded that the artistic form of pen- 
manship, as taught, is the most legible. 
With consistency and legibility, I claim that 
it possesses force. As to the examples of 
uncultivated, or slovenly, or, if yon will, 
characteristic, haurlwriting alluded to by the 
gentleman, I ilo not think that the descrip- 
tion of them strengthens his argument. I, 
too, have seen smiie specimens of the hand- 
writing of representative men. Among 
literary men. Dr. Holland's for instancer 
and Longfellow's, each a model of beauty 
and correctness. James A. Garfield wrote 
a writing-master's hand. As to business 
correspondence, take Ihe majority of letters 
which pass between large commercial 
houses. If the gentlemen of the firm do 
not write their own letters, they at least 
know how they beat wish them to appear, 
for, next to professional pen- work, the busi- 
ness correspondence of this country presents 
the most beautiful specimens of penmanship 
ant— idcar, clean, running, harmonious 
ipt, that one feels more like framing for 
Its own sake than abstracting a message 
from and then throwing into the waste- 
paper basket. And as to the argument that 
it does not pay to acquire this art of pen- 
manship, I think that the fact of all these 
salaried business correspondents, young and 
successful and rising men, defeats it. There- 
fore, I think that we ought to support the 
resolution which has been offered." 

The young teaclier was warmly ap- 
plauded as he sat dowu, aud 1 .lo not need 
to add that the question was decided ac- 
cording to the evident desire of the mem- 
bers, in favor of the affirmative. 


The scepticism of the age strikes deep. 
It asks not merely, is the Bible inspired I 
But, have we a Bible f It not only ques- 
tions whether a miracle is possible; it de- 
mands whether the Christian religi-m is 
supernatural. It not simply seeks to know 
whether Christ made an atonement- it in- 
quires, Is there a Godf It examines less the 
question of the doctrine of future punish- 
ment than the more fundamental question. 
Is there a future f 

How widespread is this .|ueationing of 
the corner-stone ,if Christianity cannot be 
said with precisi.iu. But it pervades, af 
least to some ilegree, the educated classes of 
the community. It is indicated in the pa- 
pers, in the Ninelccntli Century, and other 
magazines. It is evidenced in the popu- 
larity of Mr. Mallook's " Is Life Worth 
Living." It is voiced in discussions in phil- 
osophical s.icietiea and literary clubs. Of 
the spread .,f this scepticism among the 
rank and file of the community also there 
can he no doubt. " Materialism," remarks 
a keen English writer, " has already begun 
to show its efforts on human conduct and on 
society."— Jl/rtcwiHaM. 

Subscribers who may desire to have theii 
subscriptiou begin with Prof Spencer's 
course of lessons, which began in the May 
number, may do so. and receive the Jou»- 
NAI, from that date until January, ld((4, for 
$1.50 with OI10 pcamiam. 

Vim ,j<)i kv VI 


but til*' 

iid the 

Some Scraps of History. 

By S. S. Packard. 
My dear Amen: 

You a«k me tu writ« yvu a sketch of loy 
life to accutnpHuy a portrait which you have 
dr>cirlc<) t() publish in your March issue; and 
you request me, moreover, to forgpt that I 
am "Packard, chuck full of niodenty, and 
just do him /uil juttice \u all the depart- 
mcDttt of his life's work — hh teacher, author, 
UfUrateur, and man." 

Of eouree I '* ha»<ten to reply." Almost 
anybody would ; anybody, I mean, who 
isn't suffocated with modesty. Therw may 
viptions among buHJuess college men, 
I exceptional, anyway. I look 
upon it aa a rare opportunity — such a one, 
in fact, a8 I have no moral right to throw 
away. Opportunities are the gold mines of 
life ; and gold mines, to jwoduce anything, 
muBt be worked. I will work thw even if 
it produces nothing. 

But you have asked of uio two impossible 
thiugs; firet, to forget that I ain Packard, 
and next, to do myself "full justice." I 
cannot forget that I am Packard. I only 
wish I waild. It is the one thing in my life 
that I am always promptly e<inscious of. I 
liave often tried to cheat myself in this re- 
Hpoct; Ut forget my personality; to think 
myself another, with diflerent tendencies and 
dillerent environments; but always at the 
same old man turns up, 
B intinnities, the same obstruct- 
tbe same unreasoning hopes, 
le unsatisfied desires. No, I 
cannot forget that I am Packard, although I 
did once forget my naine. That was in 
Cincinnati, more than thirty years ago. I 
called at the Post-office for a letter, and 
when the delivery-elerk asked my name the 
ludicrousncsH of the request so disconcerted 
mo that, for the life of me, I couldn't think 
of it, and actually had to take my place at 
the end of the line and collect my scattered 
wits. It waa a case of t^-niporary aberra- 
tion. I am occaaionally troubled in that 
way. Sometimes, even, I forget that I am 
owing a man until reminded of it ; and once, 
I remember, I let my subscription to the 
Journal lapse until one of those sweet 
little insinuating poatal-cards came to me, 
like Banquo's ghost, and set me right. I can 
forget things like this, but it is useless to try 
to forgot that I am Packard. 

And as to doing " full justice " to myself, 
that is quite out of the question. I couldn't 
do it if I would, and I wouldn't if I could. 
The fact is, I neither want to do justice to 
myself, nor to have anybody else do it. This 
is something that I have always dreaded. 
Of course I don't doubt that in the long 
eternity there will be an evening up of 
things, and everybody will get his deserts. 
Then I expect U> catch it, with others of 
your delinquent subscribers ; but I am like 
the boy who was sent home with the prom- 
ise of a tlmishing when his father came. 

"Don't hurry, father," said the boy; "I 
can wait." 

Nevertheless, I will do the best I can, and 
yon can print as much or as little of what I 
write as you choose. Even if you leave it 
all out— and the portrait, too — your readers 
won't blame you, nor will I. There was a 
time in my life when, if I had been told that 
bi^foro I died the editor of a great i)appr in 
New York would desu-o to publish my por- 
trait, and say something ab<iut what I had 
done in the world, I wouldn't have had half 
the faith in the fiilfiUment of the prophecy 
that some sensible people seem u> have had 
in the coming <.f Wiggins's stonn. And if 
by any means I a.uhl have been induced to 
believe it, I should have be«-n wholly at a 
1(*B to sunnise what tlie line of human ef- 
fort would be that should entitle me to any- 
body's con^deration. For there was no 
divine intimation in the beut of my boyish 
fashion, nor in the achievements of Iny boy- 
isli life. The most that I can remember of 
my earlier schooldays is that I loved all the 
nice little girls, and bad a fashion of '• leav- 
ing off head" in my spelling-class. I do 
remember, too, that I had a genuine admi- 
ration— I waa going to say "adoration" — 

for a 

And so strong is this sense 
in me, even now, that the very smell of 
printers' ink or binders' glue aends me back 
involuntarily to those "baby days"; and I 
think of myself, lying upon the floor in the 
"best room," when the light from the un- 
curtained uindow streams 


the whole matter that is to me as irreeistiblo 
as it is unaccountable, and there has been no 
time since my early manhood that I liave 
not been in some way cotmected with print- 
ing. I ought to ha^■e been a great editor or 
a great author, and I am satisfied that the 
upon the open ' only thing that has kept me from one oi 
of the rarest ! other— possibly both— has been the lack of 

things for a boy of those days to hold in his I ability. Once I thought 1 1 


There was probably never bora a boy 
who, during Jill the years of his adolescence, 
had a greater reverence for "print" than 
ha^ J. Raised, for the most part, in a one- 
horse town in central Ohio, to which my 
father, witli our family of five boys — and no 
girl — had emigrated from Cummington, 
Mass., in 1833, I had no chance to see or 
know men of letters. A real live editor I 
had never seen — let alone an author. Such 
persons wer 
a high ordei 

on the earth, but whose heads were certainly 
in the clouds. The editor of our country 
paper— the Newark Ga«/ie— which I re- 
member with as much distinctness as I do 
the New York Tribune which I read this 
morning — was, in my opinion a "bigger 
man " than Horjice Greeley ever dreamed 
of being. There was absolutely nothing ho 
did not know, and nothing in an intellectual 
way he could not do. 
With this prodigy before me I made up 

. the 

of becoming a magazine publisher, and the 
few people now living who have not quite 
forgotten Packard's Monthly and "The 
Wickedest Man in New York " wiU know 
to what I allude. I am quite sure even 
now, that I struck a genuine thing, and be- 
lieve that I should have succeeded in mak- 
ing a fair reputation and a good living as a 
publisher if I had had a little more money 
and a little more leisure. As it was, I made 
a stu-, and invested a few thousand dollars in 

imagination, beings of I a very permanent way. 

feet might possibly rest I I began to teach at sixteen, and that, I 
am soiTy to have to say, ^vas forty years ago. 
" Pity the sorrows of a poor old man " who 
has to own up that ho is fifty-six years of 

My first school was in Delaware County, 
Ohio. I visited the old echoolhouse last 
summer on my way to the Cincinnati Con- 
vention. It stood on the old spot, by the 
roadside, solitary and alone. In front of it, 
however, waa a locust tree, some eighteen 
inches in diameter, which had twice been 

my mind, at the age of twelve years, that I 
would be an editor as soon as I became a 

About this time an advertisement ap- 
peared in this same county paper for a boy 
to learn the printer's trade. It caught my 
eye, and I answered it at once — that is, I 
wrote the letter at once ; but, as it would cost 
ten (rents to send it by mail, I had to wait 
until I could send it by private conveyance. 

The first man that hauled a load of wood 
to tov.'u earned my letter. I got an imme- 
diate reply, with an off of the pkce— erand 
came very near running away to accept it, 
:is my father refused to let me go. I think 
I never quite forgave him for it, and even to 
this day I look upon his decision as a well- 
meant but unwarrantable blunder. I got a 
mild revenge, however, in having a "piece 
of poetry " published in the paper a few 
weeks after. It b(.re my initials, and my 
revenge was in seeing my father's eyes stick 
out when he read it. I am sorry to say that 
this "piece" has never appeared in any 
collection of American jKjetry. 

I was never in a printing-office, and never 
saw a movable tyjw, until I was eighteen 
yeare of age ; but my reverence for printing 
and printers, and printing-oflaces and printed 
pages, which began long before that, contin- 
ued to grow and has grown without abreak to 
the present day. There is a glamour ubout 

struck by lightning, but, in the language of 
Daniel Webster, waa "not dead yet." I 
planted that tree with my own hands — and 
a little assistance from the boys and giris — 
forty years ago next month. 

In 1845 I went to Kentucky to teach 
wilting. I remained there a little more than 
two yeai-s, when I was willed to Cincinnati 
by " Father Bartlett," the pioneer of busi- 
ness colleges, for whoiu I taught writing for 
another two years. I don't think I was ever 
much of a writing-master, and I am sure I 
never liked the business. Bartlett, however, 
thought I was a prodigious chap, and used 
to blow my horn with all bis lungs. He 
even has a kindly remembrance of me to 
this day, and treats me with the fond affec- 
tion of a father. 

I married in Cincinnati in 1850, and in 
July of the same year I moved with my 
little wife to Adrian, Mich. Hero I taught 
writing in the Union School untU I was 
stricken down with mjilarial fever, which 
followed mo and kept me on a low diet of 
health and funds until 1 got discouraged and 
disgusted, and left for the East. 

I landed, with my wife and ten months' 
old baby, at Lockport, N. Y., having come 
by canal boat from Buffalo, on the nine- 
teenth day of November, 1851. I waa 
barely able to walk— was pale, emaciated, 
and weak — a 

with not more than five dollars in my 
pockety and no certainty of employment. 
But I was in the State of New York, with 
Michigan fcvciv at my back, and was happy." 
J was soon employed a.*( teacher of writ- 
ing, book-keeping, and drawing in the 
Lockport Union School. But the little I 
knew of book-keeping and drawing wouldn't 
way hurt anybody. 'The smallest head could 
carry it without producing the mildest cere- 
bral commotion. But I did what many 
another better man has done — I studied and 
taught, and managed to keep just a little 
ahead of my pupils, and won an undeser\-ed 
reputation of being a good teacher. Some 
of those boys and girls aie alive to-daj. 
Some of them may even read these lines 
and wonder how they could have been so 
taken in. One of them — a boy of twelve — 
is now the proprietor of Sadler's Business 
College of Baltimore. Ho seems to have 
followed in the footsteps of his old teacher, 
cither from an impulse received at that lime 
or from a conviction of duty which seized 
him later in life. 

While in the Lockport school I attempted 
the publication of a monthly school-paper, 
"The Union School Miscellany." It ran 
about a year, I have a bound voluuie of 
the complete edition, and, judging from its 
literary character, I think it should have 
boon called a weakly rather than a monthly. 
From Lockport I went to Tonawauda, a 
thriving to\vn on the Niagara River, be- 
tween Buffalo and the Falls. Here I pub- 
lished a weekly newspaper for three years, 
and was as happy as happy could be. While 
in this congenial and delightful occupation 
chance threw me in the way of H. D. Strat- 
tou, who, with Bryant & Lusk, had just 
started the Cleveland Commercial College. 
I had previously known Lusk in Cincinnati, 
where he was attending a medical college, 
and he set Stratton on my track. For a 
year I resisted the wooing,.but it wa* use- 
less. Stratton waa a man who never yielded 
a point. Ho had set out to make a commer- 
cial college man of me, and he succeeded- 
Under a general arrangement I took charge 
of the Buffalo College on the firet of Sep- 
tember, 1856, about as poorly qualifftd to 
nm a business school as any tramp could be. 
To he sure, I wrote a fair hand— not Spenco- 
rian — and had a smattering of book-keeping 
and arithmetic ; but I have often thought 
that if Stratton had known how really igno- 
rant I was of the science of hook-keeping 
ho would as soon have thought of recom- 
mending me to fill a Buffalo pulpit aa of en- 
gaging me to conduct the second link in his 
great " Interaational Chain of Commercial 
Colleges." But the best part of it was that 
X was as ignorant of my ignorance as Strat- 
ton was. If I hadn't thought I could do 
the work in a creditable manner I surely 
should not have undertaken it. I tremble 
now when I think of my temerity; but I 
wonder still more that I got along somehow, 
and nobody scorned tu know what a humbug 
I was. But hopeful as I was of myself, I 
did not long rest ignorant of my own short- 
comings, and I determined to master book- 
keeping in the shortest possible time. The 
te.\t-book used in the school — or rather the 
book of reference, for we made a virtue and 
boast of using no text-books— was Thomas 
Jones's Book-keeping. It was the firet 
philosophical treatise on tho subject that I 
had seen. I ba^l used and tried to under- 
stand Critteodon, and Harris, and Mareh, 
and Fulton & Eastman, and Duff, and sev- 
eral other authors whoso names I do not 
now recall, but from none of them had I got 
an inkling of the real science of book-kcep- 

Thomas Jones was to me a revelation. 
In his crisp, logical method of stating prop- 
ositions, his presentment of the two aspects 
of double-entry, wherein effect always fol- 
lowed cause, and cause always preceded and 
produced effect. I saw, as it were, the 
heavens opening, and the angels of God 
descending. Tho whole subject of double- 
entry book-keeping seemed to fla-sh upon 
me like a vision; and although my thoughts 
were necessarily crude, and my generaliza 
stranger m a strange land, j tiona often extnvagaot and wide of the 

mark, the gorm of the matter had found a 
lodgment in me, and I knew it could bo 
nnrtured into a lively plant. 

But, after all, Stratton cared more for my 
litcmry help than for my ability as a teacher. 
He had conceived of a "chain of cnllpges," 
and he not only w*antecl teachers, but \vrii- 
en — thoBO who conld put his ideas br-fon- 
the public through the columns of the news- 
papers, and through books nnd circulars. 
This was congenial work for me, and opened 
up to my imagination great possibilities in a 
chosen field. 

Said he: " With Brynnt 
when taken, nnd you and ine I 
pickets nnd plant the standards, 
have the entire country invested and everj' 
etronghold in onr power." 

In November, 1856, we wont to Chicago, 
and together opened the "Chicago link." 
Stratton did the outside work, while I man- 
aged the school, and wrote editorials for the 
local cfiliimns of the daily papers, fur the 
insertion of wliicli we agreed to pay ten cents 
ft line — iHie-littlf in tuition — represented by 
prrip — and the other half in cash. It ap- 
peared to tho outside world that the daily 
press of Chicago wsts 
very favorable to the 

which it surely was. 
The young men of 
the city and of the 
surrounding country 
devoured those fervid 
editorials, and cjnm> 
flocking to our Bt;nid- 
ard. Tho two com- 
peting Bclioola were 
those of Judge Bell 
and Uriah Gregory. 
Bell had been estab- 
liehed about six yenrs, 
nnd had a fitio school. 

tion lived about two years, but 
a very vigorous child, and its last days were 
somewhat piteous. Its disease was a com- 
bination of literary and fioancial mirasmus. 
It simply pined away and died. Nobody 
knew for a certainty when it stopped breath- 
ing. The moat that I can remember about 
it at this remote date is that it was finally 
dead. My impression is that the fact of its 
death was concealed from or softly broken 
to the public by merging it into a circular 
for the new college which was beginning to 
get a slight foothold. One thing about this 
hold the points short-lived magazine it is pleasant for me 
I to dcpl(»y lh(- to remember. We published in it a por- 
re can sonn trait and sketch of Cyrus W. Field, j'lsl 
after the laying of the first Atlantic cable. 
A few months thereafter, when the wire 
had become dumb, and the public confidence 
in its success was rapidly waning, and Mr. 
Field was forced to take hold of his paper 
b'isiness in Beekman Street to save it from 
the general wreck, he called on me i^ne day 
with a sample of pristing-paper in his 
bands to solicit our itatronage. Three 
months before this really great man had 
been the centre of interest and admiration 

and being the " official " teit-book of " the 
chaiu," its financial success was assured. 
While I did not hope to say anything new 
on this trite subject, I felt it necessary to 
depart somewhat from the plans of previous 
authors. In looking over the official state- 
ment of one of the State banks, I discov- 
ered that it was simply a trial-balance of an 
open ledger, with the resources on uoe side, 
and the liabilities on the other — and that 
these were eq'iol ! This was, inde«d, a dis- 
covery, and it formed the basis of my whole 
work. There are a number of the old 
teachers now living who will remember the 
commotion which followed this departure 
from Thomas Jones's classification, and 
the discussions which grow out of it. Jones 
himself, who was always one of my very 
best and warmest friends, used to pity my 
blindness in not being able to see how im- 
possible it was that the proprietor's account 
should show a liability — that a man should 
owe himself, lift himself up by his own 
bootstraps, as it were ; and I pitied him as 
I did Folsom and others, who bail to ex- 
plain the credit-balauce of Stock 
being "the earnings of a previous busi 


more recent imjioiia- 
tion, but had the ro- 
ligions advantage 
over his opponent of 
opening his school 
with firayer. He did 
not seem to be greatly 
troubled about Bell, 
but tho incursion of 
Stratton into the do- 
main, with a link of 
the "great interna- 
tional chain," quite 
put him to his trumps. 
Ho at one^ made suc- 
cessful overtures to 
R. C. Spencer to come 
intothn fight, and ti^- 
gothfir they opened a 

Rufus Choate's Chirography. 

In his very interesting sketch of journal- 
ism in the Uuited States, Frederic Hudson, 
fornaerly editor of the New York Herald, 
relates the following : 

Horace Greeley was a better penman than 
either Rufas Choate or Napoleou I. Any 
one who will compare Greeley's notes with 
the specimeu of Napoleou's chirography in 
tho Lyceum at tho Brooklyn Navy Yard, 
will readily admit this to bo a fact. Choate's 
penmanship was positively shocliing. On 
one occasion he delivered an Address at 
Dartmouth College, we believe, and two re- 
porters from New York — one from the Tri' 
bune and the other from the Herald — were 
in attendance. Finding that Mr. C. had 
prepared his Address, they arranged to take 
his manuscript after he had finished its de- 
livery, and assist each other in making an 
extra copy for one of the two journals. So 
they formed a part of tho audience, and 
congratulated themselves on saving the 
labor that taking stenographic notes of the 
oration would involve. The last word of 
peroration scarcely reached the ear of the 
most distant hearer 
before the manu- 
script was in the 
hands of the report- 
Tbey looked 




The above cut ts photo-eng\ 

I original pen-and-ink copy executed by E. E. Itaaca, of the Normal 

"Spencoriuu" e^impaign. Whether or not 
Robert ussistod in the devotional part of the 
work is not known to this historian. Itia 
known, however, that Stratton accepted the 
Spenceriau fhalleugo, and at once sent for 
the author of .Spencerian Penmanship, and 
the father of H.diert, tho veritable " P. U.," 
and that when I left Chicago for tho East, 
just before Cliristmas, the son Robert was 
with Stratton, in charge of ..a school of 
seventy five pupils, and Gregory was be- 
yond prayiug for. 

From Chicago I came to Albany, where, 
on the first of January, 1857, I opened the 
Bryant & Stratton Albany C<dlege. In 
March, 1855, I came with Stratton and 
Elihu Burritt to Now York, for the purpose 
of opeoiog a college and publishing a 
mftgaxine. The first step was to attempt 
to buy out " Hunt's Merchants' Magazine," 
which, on ac^-ount of the recent death of the 
recent proprietor. Freeman Hunt, was for 
sale. Two obstacles stood in the way, how- 
ever: first, too much money was asked for 
it, and second, we had no money to invest. 
So instead of buying a goodwill we pro- 
posed to make one. 

The niagaziuewas started, and christened 
*'Tho American Merchant." Bryant & 
Stratton wore the publishers. I was the 
editor, aud EUhu Burritt was conductor and 
special contributor. This unique publica- 

for the people of two continents, and had 
rode down Broadway at the head of the 
largest and most imposing military and 
civic procession this city had ever witnessed. 
Now he was simply a business man trying 
to retrieve his broken fortune thrnugh the 
legitimate channels of competing trade! 
The conduct of this man under adversity 
has always been an inspiration to me, and 
I have often held it up as an example to 
young men. 

The time came at last when it seemed 
necessary for " The Chain " to have some 
text-books. Mr. Stratton had already made 
overtures to Thomas Jones to write a work 
on book-keeping. I t.ld him I thought he 
would make an irretrievable blunder to em- 
ploy an outsider and a competitor to do his 
work of authorship; that if it couldn't be 
done "in the chain "the sooner the chain 
resolved itself into its separate links the 
better. He at once challenged me to under- 
take tho work, and all unfitted as I was, I 
accepted the challenge. The running of 
the New York College was put in Mr. 
Bryant's hands, and I embarked on the 
troubled sea of authorship. When I now 
refiect upon my slim equipment for that 
work I wonder at the measure of success 
which attended it. Crude as 

But I have had the satisfaction of seeing 
my theory of "equal resources and liabili- 
ties" generally recognized by thoughtful 
teachers everywhere, and of knowing that 
the Bryant & Stratton series of book-koep- 
keeping has bad its full share of favor from 
the pubbc. 

Aud so I could go on talking to the end 
of time ; but I won't. I don't hope to be 
known in the future as a distinguished au- 
thor, or a litterateur, but I would like some- 
body to remember me as a schoolmaster 
and a man. It is the dearest of all my 
hopes that when the eartli shall have been 
shoveled over my mortal remains.and I shall 
no longer go in and out before the boys and 
girls of Packard's Business College, I shall 
still be sweetly remembered by a few loyal 
hearts as one who tried, while living, to 
make other Uvea than his own blessed and 

The "Hand-book" as a Premium. 

We have decided to continue to mail, 
until further notice, the "Hand-book" (in 
paper) free to every person remitting $1 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the book hand- 
^^^^ ' somely bound in cloth. Price of the book, 
ot us parts. It was deemed a great improve- | by mail, in cloth, $1 ; in paper, 75 cents. 
Liberal discount to teachers and agents. 

most of the books then 

Choate's brilliant 
eloquence; they 
turned the pages up- 
side down,then aide- 
ways, then corner- 
ways, then all sorts 
of ways, and gazed 
at each other in 
blank astonishment. 
Not a word could 
they decipher. They 
sought the orator. 
"Why, Mr. Cho- 
ate," taid one of the 
reporters, " we can- 
not make out aword 
of your manuscript. 
What shall we do f" 
" Cannot read it! 
Thai's u nfortunate," 
replied Mr. Choate. 
'•It seems plain to 
me; but I cannot 
aid you, for I start 
immediately in an 
opposite direction 
for New York. But 
let me see ; I guess 
I can help you. An 
old clerk of mine 
lives about twelve 
miles from here. He can read it," aud ofi" 
went Mr. Choate. 

The two reporters hired a team and drove 
over to the residence of tlie clerk. He read 
and they took stenographic notes, and suc- 
ceeded in reacliiut: New York in time to 
write out their reports for their respective 
journals. Those reporters, ever after, in 
asking for manuscript, first carefully in- 
spected the chirography. 

The old art of illumination was attended 
with much labor and expense. To go no 
further back than the Middle Ages, we find 
men in monastic cloisters spending a whole 
lifetime in the oroamentatiou of one manu- 
script. Days and months aud years were 
occupied in the elaboration of a single capi 
tal letter. All the talent, thought and ex- 
perience of the artist were concentrated on 
the title of a gospel, or on a page of the 
Fathers, and, as he worked in his seclusion, 
years slipped by and the flight of time was 
unheeded. Naturally, thoso who owned 
such illuminations counted themselves rich 
men because of that very fact, and even to- 
day, a fine specimen of ancient illumination 
is more valuable far than a four-story 
" brown stone front " in New York's swellest 
'^veuue. — Geyer's Stationer. 

,#^^^^^1 H^^g^ffl 


Articlk III. 
By D. T. Ames. 

Id our last issue we presented a model 
for the coDstruclioD and atrangemeDt of the 
several parla of a letter, and we closed with 
eome hiols regarding penmanship in corre- 
spondence. We will DOW consider more in 
detail the constmctiun uf a letter. 

We here repeat, by diagram, the form 
previously given : 

The Siosatube 
Should be vert/ plainly written. Remember 
that no context can aid in deciphering an 
illegible antograph. Hundreds of letters in 
course of a year, from this cause alone, re- 
main unanswered in our own office, and 
many others from the omission entirely of the 
name or place. Ladies addressing strangers 
should make known their sex and condition, 
as { Mrs.) Jennie Williams, or ( Miss ) Mary 
Wood; otherwise, unpleasant mistakes 

Bl. Ect: Juhn Pri 

— A bishop. 
-A priest, o 


The Heading 

fficiently to the left of 
lie of the aheet to leave room for 
a of the place and date on tlie head- 

Vali'ARAISo, Ind., March 1st, 1883. 

Valparaiso, Ind., 

March 1st, 1883. 
If writing from a large city, the street 
and number should be speciHed, thus: 

205 Broadway, New York, 

March 10th, 1683. 
If writing from a hotel, or institution, the 
name should be given in the title. 

Complimentary Address. 
The name and address are most properly 
written at the opening of the letter, upon 
the left-hand, thus: 

205 Broadway, New York, 

March 10th, 1883. 
S. R. Hopkins, Esq., 

2i) Wurren Sireet, New York. 

It ifl the practice of some writers, and ad- 
vocated by some authorities, to place the 
name and address of party addressed at con- 
clusion of the letter,upon the left-hand side. 
We, however, prefer the former method. 

The Salutation 
Is written to the right, and on line below of 
the address, and its form varies according 
to the relations of the parties. In friendly 
correspondence, the word Sir, Madam, 
Friend, etc., is preceded by the word Dear, 
which word in business, official, and other 
letters, is omitted. 

The Body of a Letter 
Should commence about two inches from 
the top of the sheet, or if short, so as to oc- 
cupy the central portion of the sheet. Each 
distinct topic should constitute a paragraph. 
There should bo a margin upon the left, of 
at least ono-half of an inch. 

Compliment ARV Closing. 
This, also, varies greatly according to 
the uiuiual relations oj the parlies. In let- 
ters of buBiaoss it is, Yours truly, Your,, 
respectfully, Yours very respectfully. Id 
letters between hieuda — Yours very truly, 
Sincerely your friend, AffectionaUly yours, 

might occur io addressing a reply. 
Much of taste and habit is displayed in a 
fiuperscription of a letter. It should be 
plainly wriiten, and complete. The name, 
nearly central upon the envelope ; place 
below, and to the right of the center, coun- 
ty and State, still below, and to the right, 

Prof. Jauiea Wiee. — Professor of art or 

Official Titles. 

„. ,. ,, S The President, Governors, 

ff« Lxrdtenry j ^^^ ^^^^^ ministers. 

f The Vice-President, Heads ol 
Executive Departments. Stale 
„ ,, ! and National Members of Con 

Honorable . ^^^^ ^^^ gj^,^ Legislatures. 
Lieut.- Governors, judges, and 

Officers of the army and navy should be 
addressed according to their rank. 

One title only should be prefixed to any 
name, as Hon., Dr., Hev., Prof. ; but as 
many may be affixed as a person is entitled 
to use, as A.M., M.D., LL.D., or D.U, 
LL.D., etc. Where persons are addressed 
in the plural the proper title is Messrs., 
which is a contraction of the French word 
Messieurs. To unmarri* d ladies it would 
be Misses ; married ladies, Mesdames. 
{To be continued.) 

Educational Notes. 

[CommuDications fur thin Department may 
be addressed to B. F. Kelley, 205 Broadway, 

New York. Brief educational itei 

At least 7,000 American students ; 
German Uu: 

s Cajij,. 





r.MIK O 




In directing a letter it is customary and 
proper to make use of some title before or 
after the name, as Mr. James Johnson, or 
James Johnson, Esq. Ouly one title should 
be used. Where a letter is not sent by 
mail, but is taken by private hand, it is 
customary to place upon the lower left-hand 

corner— Politeness of Mr. , ur, Courtesy 

of Mr. . If a letter of introduction, in 

the same position, the name of the person 

Honorary Titles. 

Every person of Mhalever degree is eo- 
titled, respectively, to the appellation of 
Mr. {mister). Master, Mrs. (contraction 
for mistress), or Miss. With persons oc- 
cupying a high social or professional posi- 
tion, the prefix, Mr., may be omitted, and 
the customary title belonging to their re- 
spective positions may be used. For the 
legal profession, Esq. is the proper title ; for 
high olficial and legislative positions, the 
title nf Hon. for honorable is prefixed. 
Members of any profession should be ad- 
dressed by their appropriate professional 
titles, as Prof, for professor; Dr., or MD., 
fur doctors. The following are the profes- 
sional titles in use in this country : 

Jiimes Blackatone, £ay.— Attorney at Law. 

Or. Charles Medicus, 1 

Charles Medicus, J/./>. ) 

Rev. James Goodman, D.D.— Doctor of Di- 

UtT. (or Prof.) Jamwi Wiae, il.Z).— Doc- 
tor of Laws. 

/ Doctor of Medicin 

A member of her Class of '53 has just 
made Yalo College a present of $60,000. 

There are 1,493 students now enrolled in 
the various departments of Oberlin College. 
The study of Latin has been made com- 
pulsory in the high schools of Charleston, 
S. C. 

Brooklyn has sixty-six public schools, 
200,000 scholars and 1,343 teachers. There 
are, besides, about 2.'),000 pupils in private 

Miss Edith Thomas, daughter of Pro- 
fessor Thomas, of Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, has recently received the first degree of 
Ph. D. ever granted to a woman by the 
University of Zurich. 
— N. 0. Christian 

In California about 
130,000 children 
were in school last 
year, while about 
.i0,0U0, who should 
have attended, did 
not do &n.~ Public 
School Journal 
Miss Kittie Hoyt, 
a teacher in Wyandotte, Mich., punished 
the son of the ex-Mayor, and was arrested 
for assault and battery. She was acquitted. 
—Public School Journal. 

Forty students have been imprisoned in 
St. Petersburg for expressing doubts of the 
administrative ability of Count Tolstoi, 
Minister nf Public Instruction.— iV. Y. 

A note from Whittier, the poet, who is a 
trustee, is published, in which he expresses 
his hope that the "noble old institution'' 
will be open to women— a measure, he says, 
" which I feel certain would redouod to the 
honor, and materially promote the prosperity 
of the college." — House and Home. 

The Fourth Annual Report of the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction of the Ter- 
ritory of Montana, just issued, shows that 
there are in the Territory, 189 schools, 191 
teachers, and fi,054 scholars. In regard to 
illiteracy it stands very well, coming just 
after New York and Ponusylvauia, and just 
before Indiana, Vermont and Massachusetts. 
— JV. r. THbune. 

Educational Fancies. 
"School Tax." — Does he mean large- 
beaded ones, such as the teacher sat down 

Give the miser a knowledge of the mathe- 
matic and he will cipher more. — N. 0. 

Professors: "If you attempt to squeeze 
any solid body it will always resist pres- 
sure." Class smiles and cites examples of 
exceptions which prove the rule. 

At one of the schools in Cornwall the 
Inspector asked the children if they oould 
quote auy text of Scripture which forbade a 
man having two wives. One of the child- 
ren eagerly quoted in reply the text, " No 
man can serve two masters." 

Many a boy has declaimed at school Chaa. 
Sumner's famous speech in regard to the old 
battle-flags. There is one sentence in which 
the orator, referring to the fallen soldiers, 
exclaims, "Let the dead man have a hear- 
ing ! " We remember listening to the 
rendering of this piece by a youthful as- 
pirant for oratorical fame before an audience 
of select visitors. Imagine the horror of 
the teacher when, in stentorian tone, the 
boy cried out — " Let the dead man have a 
herring ! " 

"Don't you have any schools heret" 
" Had a kind of school here last chowder 
season, but the teacher was two willing." 
" How so t " "Oh, some of the blue fishers 
asked him if he thought the world waa 
round or square, and he said seein' he waa 
out of a job, he'd teach her round or square 
— just as the soliool-board wanted it teached. 
Said it was immaterial." — W. Y. Star. 


From Various Parts of tub Country. 

By C. H. Peircb. 

1. "Do you think that, in a few months, 

my penmauship sufficiently 

) become a successful teacher 

I could i 
to enable i 
of the artT" 

This question takes the form of an as- 
sumptitm, with a very largo percentage of 
the intelligent of this day and generation. 
There is, to say the least, no logic embodied 

utterly void of sense. To presume that one 
capable of writing even a good hand can 
teach well, without proper training, is just 
as preposterous as to suppose that a good 
singer is necessarily a good composer. 

Questions of an analogous character may 
serve to determine a proper answer. Be- 
cause any one can write well enough to dis- 
play even superior ability, does not indicate 
teaching-power beyi'nd mediocrity. The 
ability to write, and the ability to teach, are 
as far apart, literally, as it is possible to 
conceive. A good writer may be a good 
teacher; an excellent writer may be an ex- 
cellent teacher; a superior writer maybe 
a superior teacher ; an excellent writer may 
be a poor teacher; a superior writer may 
he a poor teacher. 

It is only in isolated cases that the two 
harmonize. We, then, must conclude that, 
in nine-tepths of oases, preference is given 
to either one, and that the power to execute 
is by far the all-absorhing question. Is this 
just f Is it right ? Is it proper t Look to 
your laurel, and if it is your ambition to 
enter the teacher's profession, make the 
science of teaching the leading feature. 
Normal schools are established all over the 
land to meet the demand that Princeton, 
Harvard or Yale fail to supply. 

To learn to write with matliematical ex- 
actness is truly a secondary consideration. 
Young men and women do not study their 
best interests when they give their entire 
time to executive ability. To be able to 
impart instruction upon scientific principles 
that are progressive, to gain the confidence 
of pupils and students, to win respect and 
esteem, and t'stabliah yourself thoroughly 
aud efi'ectivtdy with a scrutinizing public, is 
the labor of a varied experience, based upon 
details which are readily gathered from an 
experienced teacher. 

While it is possible for one to become a 
good teacher with but little assistance, the 
majority will do better, everything con- 
sidered, to profit by the mistakes of the one, 
and thus 8h<)rten the road to success. The 
answer to the original question is : You can 
improvA jour penmanship very materially; 


AH r rJoiiKvvi. 


jOQ esM i;et teachiog- power ; but I cftDoot 
promiM that ;ou will be f uoceMful. 

2. " Do yuu ihiok that I cAxt leant to 
«rit« A good, ueat aod elegant hanJ, with 
proper appliratioo, when I poBseu a very 
large hand and fiogeni T " 

Ye«; a large band aod fingers are not 
dfftriiaeDtal to the acqaisitiun of the highe«t 
urder of ezecutioD. A scnall, or \ery Biiiall, 
hand is objectionable, and in tiinuy cases 
haa worked disaatrouR re^utta. While jruu 
have no choice in the matter, yoti must be 
content. Allow nae, however, to congratu- 
late you upon one of Nature's blesaiogs, 
viz., a large, strong, healthy baD<l. 

P. S.— I trust that it corresponds with 
your heart aod brain. 

A Modern Prodigal Son. 

Br Maey E. Martin. 

A large schooner had juet been securely 

fastoDed to one ol the lower docks in New 

York when a boy of foarteeo stepped from 

The bootblack saw that the hoy wao in 
earnest. *' Give us yuur hand on that ; you 
have got &ght in you, if you did rome from 
the country." There was a geniiine look of 
respect in the bootblack's face for this boy 
who was so ready to fight. 

" How did you know that I was not from 
the city f " atked the boy. 

" I kuew it the minute you butted into 
iiie that way. Going to visit friends in the 

" No," said the boy ; " to tell you the 
truth, I have run away from home, and I 
am not goiog back again." 

The bootblack gave a prolonged whistle. 
" Run off, have you I Well, where are you 
going to stop T I SQppose you have got 
pleuty of moDey." 

"No," answered the lad ; "I haven't got 
but fifty centa left." 

" You had bettar go back home," advised 
the bootblack. 

" Never," said the boy, proudly. " I am 
going to make my own living." 

As he walked along, how he wished be bad 
learned to write well. Now he had no time 
to leani : it could not be secured in a mo- 
ment. "Oh, if only I had not idled my 
time away when I was put to writing ! Now 
I might have written weU." Well, ho 
might have wisht-d it — he would have been 
been saved by it from sinkiug into the wild 
arab life that afterwanb oame to him. 

It was getting well on in the aftoruoou, 
and he had grown more than hungry. He 
had eaten nothing that day, and the long 
walk made him feel almost famished. He ' 
had fell like eating in the morning, but put 
the money back in his pooket, fearing it : 
would not last long. Now he could resist 
no longer, for he was just in front of a win- ' 
dow where everything was displayed to | 
tempt the appetite. He wont io, and ate as 
only » hungry boy can. What was his 
astonishment when hv asked for the bill! 
The man said: " Fitty-cents." He left i 
without a cent, and not a friend in that targe 
city. At the appointed hour he made his | 

her. The day tiefore. the father, Mr. Stead- 
ham, had severely punished the boy. and. as 
time proved, very unjustly. He was a man 
of ungovernable temper — stern, and unre- 
lenting at all times. In vain the mother 
pleaded to him to go in search of the boy 
and bring him back. " No," he would an- 
swer, " he will soon be 8tarve<i out, and be 
glad enough to come hack-*' It was this 
spirit that had fiually driven the boy to the 
step, and uow that he had taken it, he had 
all his father's will, and would not go back 
— no matter what happened. The mother 
did all she could to find her boy, but tn 

After four years of street-life, Billy, as 
every street- boy called him, was a tall boy 
of eighteen. His best friends would not 
have recognized in hiui the neatly- dressed 
boy who stepped from the schoouer four 
years before. Although he was as tattered 
and torn as most street-boys, yet he had 
never caught up their vices. He had learned 
to love this wild, free life ; yet, at tirst, cvu- 

The above 

her deck. Ho had a noble, manly face, and 
his eyes had a fearless look as they sought 

" I hope you will have no trouble in find- 
ing your way home," said one of the men. 
as ho patted him kindly on the shoulder. 

" I dou't think I will," answered the boy ; 
hut he hsd a terrible homesick feeling, as 
he walked on up the street. The noise and 
confusion annoyed him so that he was 
tempted to go back and tell the man his 
true story. On second thought — no, he 
would never give up now. On he went up 
many streets, until he was far up into the 
city. Suddenly, as he turned a comer, he 
mu Bfiuarely against a boot-black— a hoy 
near his own age. The collisit.n was so 
sudden that one boy rolled on© way and one 

" I say, country," said the bootblack, 
junipiug to his feet. " don't try any more of 
your goat-butting on me. You must have 
practiced that with BiUy himself. I have a 
good mind to give you a good thrashing for 

"You know I did not intend to do it," 
said the other; " but if you wan't to fight, 
I am ready." 

" Not so easy done as you think, my boy ; 
but I'll help you all I can." 

" Where do Jou sleep at night t " asked 
the boy, beginning to be anxious about 

" Somelimt'8 in a doorway ; often under 
a box ; but if it is very cold I go to the 
News-Boy's Lodging H.Mise; but I'll meet 
you here at five this afternoon." 

They parted iu (n.nt of a buildinp so 
large and so well known that the bootblack 
know that the boy would not miss it. The 
neatly-dressed lad went on, into every store 
where he thought a hoy could be wanted. 
In some, he was turned off with B<!arcely an 
answer; at many, he was told they wanted 
a boy but he must write a good hand. Once 
when he thought he had certainly sectired a 
place (it was in a small store), and the 
owner was pleased with his looks, bu* said : 
" Let me see your handwriting." The man 
tossed the paper back with disgust when he 
saw it. " You will have to write better 
than tnat, my lad, if you ever expect to gel 
a place in a store." Sick and disheartened, 
the boy turned from one place to another ; 
but this cry always met him : " We have 
DO use for a boy who doea not writa welL" 

way to the spot where the bootblack bad 
said he would meet him. He was there be- 
fore him, and, as the boy came up, he called 
out: " Say, Billy, have you made your liv- 
ing yet ? " 

" My name is not Billy," s»id the boy. 
Why do you call me so t " 

" You butt so well that I intend to call 
you Billy." 

And Billy was the name that he was 
known by in all the years that he staid with 
these street-boys. 

In a town, soirie distance from New York, 
there was a house "f a merchant. It stood 
a little way from its neighbors, and had au 
air of seclusion ; at the same lime there was 
a certain graudeur about both house and 
grounds. The family were seated at break- 



science troubled liim ; and ever and often in 
his dreams his mother's face would come 
before him, and he would half determine, 
as he arose from some hard bed, that he 
would go back to her ; but it was put off, 
until conscience troubled him no more. 

One morning, as he was at the depot that 
be might dispose of some remaining wares 
that he had A.r sale, a handsomely-dressed 
young man, very little older than himself, 
came from a train, and, walking up to Billy, 
said: " Will you take my satchel and show 
me the way to No. Street! " 

As Billy had just concluded his sales, he 
consented. They walked together, and the 
longer Billy looked at the young man the 
more certain he felt that he knew him. At 
last he knew that it was his old phtymate, 


the only son of thf family, came hack to I 
say that he was not in his nK)m and could I 
nowhere be found. Still the family were 1 
not alanned, hut finished breakfast before a ' 
final search was made. All search was in 
vain, and they had come lo the conclusion, 
before his mother picked up a few linos, 
written to her in a cramped hand, saying that 
he bad ran away, but wu ■orry to leave < 


lo(»ked at this young man, so handsomely- 
dressed, and for the first time he realized 
what he had lost. At what a disadvantage 
he had placed himself hy his own act ! AU 
this rushed over Billy as he walked along, 
and from time to time cast stolen glances at 
his playmat*, and thought, with a horrible 
revuUinn of feeling, that he was now his 
pMd servant, and, probably, he would not 


have him for that if he hnew who be wa«. 

There o 

ever came 

over Jooepb 

iD Egypt, a 


loDttlDg U 

know from his brethren 

than rar 

ne over B 

Ily lo know 

■ hie parenle 

were si 

11 alive. 

Uifl 8lreet-l 

raiuiug had 

Dot l>eei 

in vain, 

o he, byquet>tioiis, deter- 

mined 1 

O fiDd OD 

t, Ae ibey 

walkcrl on, 

Billy p 

>ialed ou 

object* of 

interest to 

the Ntranger, and 

6nally said 

" But yoQ 

vilt ba> 

e time en 

ugh to find . 

ut all about 

ibe city 

f you int 

nd to stay very long." 


going t 

} a buaineoR 

college, and 

iDtend u> make 

ny borne he 

e for some 

"Where is your homef" boldly asked 

The young man named the very town 
from which Billy came, and his heart 
bounded at even hearing the name called. 
Some close questions on Billy's part caused 
the young iiiau to speak of hh scbonl-Iif« 
in hi« uative towu, and he ended a remark 
by Baying—!' But I have never been eo at- 
tached to any schoolmate as I was to 
Clarence Steuilhaiu." 

Billy bad to turn away bia head to bide 
the tears. His own name— then tbey did 
remember bim ! He had thought himself 
long ago forgotten. As soon as he could 
recover himself, he turned, uud waid : "Why 
did you not persuade bim to come to the 
business college with you ? " 

" He is dead," said the young man ; "or, 
rather, his friends all think so. He ran 

away, and we have ne 

ver beard from h 

"Would you t-are 

anything for hiu 

you were to meet hi 

m now, and he 

poor ? " Billy asked, 

ookiug wistfully 

the young mi 

"Indeed, I would care just as much for 
bim as I ever did ! But I fear I shall never 
flee him again." 

Billy's heart bade bim make himself 
known, but bis pride was not alt gone, and 
he said to himself—" not in these rags ! " 

Billy went to the street and number with 
the young man; waa paid, and went back, 
but with a repugnance for the life be was 
leading that amounted to horror, and with 
aucb a yearning for his own home. He 
could not give way to his feelings in the 
street, so, paasing a newspaper building, he 
went up the stairway and eat down in a 
dark corner and cried as if hie heart would 
break. Stout boy ae he was— almost a 
grown man— his very frame shook with liis 
sobs. How he longed fur a better life- for 

It was just here that a reporter, coming 
out of an office above, found Billy. Of all 
unusual sights to see a don't-care street-boy 
of his size, crying. The reporter looked on, 
astonished at lirel, then, kindly lifting the 
bowed head, said : " What can I do for you, 
my lad ? " He bad unconsciously chosen 
the very forui of speech that was most con- 
In broken sentences, Billy told his story 
to the reporter: Of his father's harshness, 
bis own willfulness, and huw he had run 
away. At first, trying to keep up. then 
gradually sinking to what he waa. 

The reporter said: "Why don't you go 
back now? I will get you a ticket." 

" No, exclaiuied the boy ; '* not in iliese 

" Well, let me try to get you some eiii- 

" But I cannot write," said Billy ; and 
the old horror came back of how he bad 
been repulsed from every place because he 
uould Dot write. 

" A boy your size, and cannot write ! " 

■' I could write a little," said BiUy, when 

I left home ; bin I cannot do much at it 

The reporter hesitated just 
Should he take the trouble to help this boy f 
The city was full <.t just such cases. Jt waa 
only for a moment that he hesitated ; then, 
turning to the boy. he said : " I will teach 

The boy looked up in surprise, and with 
an eager, hungry look, said, in half aston- 

ishmeot, half adoration : " You teach me 

—to— write I " For thia seemed to the poor 

oatcast as the only barrier between him and 
a respectable life- -and that there could be 
one person who had the power, and was 
willing tn put this maeicias's naud in his 
hands, seemed impossible- 

" Yes," said the reporter, " come with 
me up into the oHli-e." There bp explained 
to Billy that he might have the use of a desk 
that the reporter owned, and placed every- 
thing in it that Billy would need fur writing. 
He did not stop here, but bade Billy wait for 
him for a few minutes. Wheu be came 
back he told Billy that he had secured a 
place for him in the building at so much a 
week, and that he could sleep iu oce of the 
rooms upstairs. Billy could hardly believe 
that all this was done for him ; but a warmer- 
hearted fraternity than printers never ex- 
isted, a* he soon found when tlip reporter 
came back and handed him a smalt sum of 
money raised for him. It was sufficient to 
put him in neat clothing and keep bim until 
he could draw bis first week's salary. 

The young man now worked with a will : 
be had an object in view ; he must go back 
home, and see his mother. Yet nothing 
could be done until he had learned to write. 
He was a handsome, fine-looking young 
man, after he had put on his new attire— so 
thought the reporter often, as he watched 
him, while frying so hard to learn to write. 
The reporter was not satisfied with simply 
teaching him to write, but aa Billy would 
not return home until he had made a living 
for himself, then the reporter determined he 
should be a fine penman. He stimulated 
the young man by constantly holding before 
him what a high point in penmanship might 
be reached: showing him beautiful speci- 
mens of writing, and opening to the young 
man such beauties in the art that he who 
had only thought of it as a passport to 
secQring a position was charmed, and would 
not be satisfied, until he, too, had accom- 
plished this. It took months to du what the 
reporter wished, and at what the young 
man aimed. He had also been preparing 
himself, through books, for the position he 
now hoped to get. Being in this office had 
been a great help to him ; for if a young 
man cannot be in school, then no better 
place can be found for him for improvement 
than a printing-office. 

One morning the reporter came in 
touched the young man on the shoulder, 
said: " 1 have found you a fine place 

He goes farther into the room, and, i 
eager longing not to lose one glimpse of 
that dear face, he stuuibles against a chair. 
She looks up now, and prepares herself to 
meet a stranger. One look more— "can it 

be ?' ' " Yee, it is ." And her face is 

glorified with look of intense love as she 
cries out — " Clarence, my aoQ, my son ! " 

He clasps her close, and murmurs : " Can 
you ever forgive me, mother t " 

" Forgive you, my son ? You do not need 
it!" Mrs. Steadham drew bei son to a 
chair beside her, and watched, with eager 
interest, the changes that time had made in 
his favor. Not in his first hour of renewed 
affection did Clarence tell his mother all of 
his story ; but so busy bad they been in 
conversation that tiiey started when they 
htanl coming footsteps, and which Clarence 
knew were his father's. 

Mr. SteHdhain entered the room, and 
Clarence saw that he bwl grown old rapidly, 
and c-arried bis sorrow in bis face. He 
knew his sou in an instant, and, in a voice 
that sounded like a thank-offering to God, 
he went up to Clarence, and, holding out 
his hand, said : " My sou, I am glad to 
have you back." 

There may not have been killed the 
"fatted calf." but there went up deep re- 
joicings from that hearthstone that night. 
Clarence Steadham's experience was of 
great value to him ; and, after the first days 
of home-coming, his father persuaded him to 
come into business with hiui. He had long 
wished this, and the clear insight that 
possessed for business was 
lacked, and felt the need. 

What is true of the 6gares is true of the 

We now begin No. 5. • tteuded letters 
with a few, leaving the resi --f the class all 
along the skirmish line. A .-h«irt explana- 
tu)D may, to .idvantage, precede any class- 
work. Yet, when pupils arc taught to 
rely upnn their own powers, and gain ad- 
vancement by individual efforts only, each 
pupil, without exception, will ask the very 
questions that will lead to the eariiest and 
best results. The advancement of any set 
of pupils is in proportion to the responsi- 
bility they bear individually. There is 
nothing beyond general respousibility when 
pupils write from copies as prescribed by 
our leading systems, and why f 

required to write the same 

opy , 

t the e 

2. The class being made up of fair, poor 
and good writers, the results mast coincide. 

3. The work prescribed cannot be within 
the ability of all. 

4. Personal attention is of but little 

5. A failure to understand work gone 
(i. Carelespuess encouraged. 


He went into his new position— not Billy, 
the street-boy, but Mr. Clarence Steadbam. 

Some months after, the reporter, as he 
stood by the young man's desk, in the large 

house of & Co., said: "Do you think 

of going home now ? " 

And the young 

wered, "Yes, but 

A short time brought him the success he 
wished. So, hiddinif the reporter good-bye, 
he started on his way over the distance that 
was between him and his home. 

It was autumn when Clarence Steadham 
returned to his borne- autumn, with its 
great pomp of reddening woods and purple 
grapes. A soft alteruoon-tight rested over 
the little town as ho reached it. The hiUs 
Ily in the fading light. 
^ hiwer and lower, and 
was almost down ae he crossed the little 
rustic bridge and laid his hand oa the latch 
of his own gate. His steps baited here : 
what should he find within f Was it too 
latet Had he put off the coming to.. Iouk f 
These are the questions that haunt bim as 
he lifts the latch and passes up the walk. A 
servant admits bim as he rings, and he 
the sitting rooiu she joints out. 
be shown the way. How 



he has romped through that hall wh. 
boy! Nothing is changed; it only seems 
'-- night that be stole out of that door, hie 
anger against his father. He 
>r of the sitting-room; his 
him, but sits, gazing 
the fire that has just 

heart hot 

opens tbi 

mother does n< 

sadly and wearily 

been kindled upon the hearth 

heart smites him as he looks i 

worn face, and knows he has caused it all. | 

The Peircerian System o! 


And Method op Instruction in 

Public Schools. 

Continued. — Article VI. 

By C. H. Peirce, of Keokuk, Iowa. 

So many charges have been given the 

"Jury," that I would not bo surprised if 

some would he forgotten and thereby impair 

the rulings of the "Court." If, however, 

there seem any inaccuracies, mysteries or 

inconsistencies, no pains will be spared to 

satisfy any reasonable inquiry. 

It might he well, just here, to embody in 
direct instructiim, what has been given in a 
general way through preceding lessons. 

Programme "A" is made up of eleven 
distinct classes of instruction. Under each 
class is f..uDd so many parts, and each of 
these parts constitutes a copy, and each copy 
is to be passed, singly, by one or more 
etforts, according to the " Rules Governing 
Class- Work," in copy-hook or in October 
Journal, Ifei. For example, a pupil is 
making a figure 4 for the first time in the 
present course of lessons, five or ten Hues 
(per agreement) have been made and the 
work is ready for criticism. The teacher 
finds it carelessly done, or poorly done or 
done with reference to a wrong impression. 
Whatever may be the cause, the work must 
be done again with an honest criticism from 
the teacher. The next effort of five or ten 
lines is still uusatisfactoiy. Again the work 
must be done over, and again, if necessary, 
until you are positive the child has done his 
best, and produced reasonably satisfactory 
results for bis years. Deal honestly, and 
study the child's nature. The majoriy ..f 
children advance slowly at first, but as their 
age and judgment increase, so will their 
progress be accelerated. The result is, 
that generally the number of efforts is 
diminished with each succeeding class of 
work. The child having passed the No. 4 
satisfactorily, he is now able to cope with the 
next copy and the next, and the next much 
more readily than if pooriy done. Never 
pass any class of work without having made 
fair improvement, and this i- sure to be the 
result when both pupil and teacher have 
done their best, with a systematic course of 
development applied in each and every 
case to individual want and requirements. 

7. In case of absence (ftjr any c 

«) the 



8. In case of transfer, the copies, and 
often the books, do not tally. 

J>. In case of promotion or demotion, the 
present book which is, or is not, suitable is 
cast aside for another, which may, or may 
not, he suitable. 

10. Grading necessary to awaken interest 
or compel application. 

11. If the grading of copies be sys- 
tematic, and the pupil thorough, many 
known causes fail to do the work given, the 
remaining part cannot be satisfactorily 

12. When pupils become conscious (and 
tbey always do) of an easy mode of getting 
along, they adopt it at once. 

13. Criticisms are made difficult and un- 

14. No work secured out of school hours. 

15. The anxiety and worry is thrown 
upon the teacher. 

16. The entire class go from t 
another regardless of results. 

17. Confidence destroyed. First. As to 
pupils' ability, in not doing good work. 
Second. In the teacher, because the pnpils 
have failed to reach any satisfactory resutta. 

I repeat it, each pupil must earn his own 
way and never be allowed to advance, ex- 
cept by his own merit. Bvery pupil is now 

t paget 


rith a will. 

pass the 

next time. There are none so far behind 
but what have some company, and even 
with them there is ambition. Now is your 
chance to show partiality by helping the 
slow pupils more than you help anyone else ; 
take advantage of it, and you will be counted 
the best teacher on record. 

The work of No. 5. is passed like all 
other— one letter at a time— each effort con- 
sisting of five or ten lines as you may de- 
cide upon. There will be no unnecessary 
hurrying, because each one knows that if 
the work is not well done the dose will be 
repeated. One by one the letters are passed 
until each in turn is ready for words in long 
letters, which constitute No. 6, Programme 
" A." As fast as prepared, each continues 
Ibis class-work the same as all others 
passed over. 

{To he continued.) 

The progress of languages spoken by 
different people is said to be as follows: 
Euglisb, which at the commencement of the 
century was only spoken by 55 millions, is 
now spoken by 90 millions ; Kuesian by 63 
millions instead of 30 millions; German by 
6(> instead of 'S6 ; Spanish by 44 instead of 
22; Italian by 30 instead of 18; Portugese 
by 13 instead of 8. 

Remember, yon can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-c«nt book free, for $1 ; 
or a $1 book and the Journal for $1.25. 
Do your friends ft favor by teUiog them. 



PnbU»hed Montlilr at «1 jiei- Year. 

Uiifla ooplM of (h« JoiiiWAL •enl on receipt of I0«. 


SlBtU iDMitloD. 30 cenu p«r line Donpar«il. 
.oolamn ^^ ' fM.OO |l-iO,ob $\h.m 

ftecb, u'Udh!'.'.'.' 3,25 6^30 lOW 18.00 

AdrsttlMtDmti lor on* and three months, payable Id 

•dTSnoe ; for all moniha and one year, payable qiiftrtorlv 

la tdrsnc*. Nn deviutioo frum tlie aboTe nU». Head- 


alTlbMe who are Intefetled lii ■kllinil vrriting or lewhioff. 
but tbelrevnMt and Bctive po-operatlon as comwpond- 

of bis hire, ne 'inVr t'liir 1..\\<.nh>g 


"Amee'a M.n i 
•IIH. BC„|.V . 



nil ™,,y ol 11 


In ptm of Ibo obov 

Any •abMriber, remini 


Til. Cml"ool«1 P« 


lire tif Pn.,rre» 

nill mall, fto-, lo 
of ellhet of 11.. 


■nbeoriben, enoloslog |3, > 
JOUBMAL and premium one ] 


Congdon'e NoraiBl System of loitering 

Or " " ■' Flourishing. 

For three names and t3 we n 111 romard tbe large Ci 

tennlal picture, 38x40 tn. ; retnlla for tS- Or, a oom- 

For I 


■ Hund-book of Anialb Peni 
'Stiiiidunl Prm 

iiibMriptlons ni 


of Penmanship "; reC« 

Without « BPBCIAI 
BISU the JOUIUtAL, on 


4 " ... 

8 " , 

10 " 

Bubeoriptiuns to the I'EXMAS'a Art JouaXAL. f. 
prompU^ attended lo by the 

11 Boiivene Sireel, |Ple« 

a by 1 

wiper will, to 

New York, Ma 

, 1683. 

Time of Mailing the "Journal." 

It has been our purpose to mail the 
JotlRKAL as early us possible od the ISlIi 
of each mouth, yet iu aouieiustaoces, owtDg 
to unexpected demands upon our time, and 
other causes boyoud our ooutrol, sucb as 
delay iu cugraviug, etc., it bas beeu mailed 
Bome daya laler. Wo trust our readtrs ap 
predate, at least to some oxtent, (and yet 
those wbo have never conducted an illus- 
trated periodical must cume tar short of 
doing bo), tbe great labor uf conducting sucb 
a paper as the Juurnal, and this, in ad- 
dition lo the time and labor demanded for 
the prosecution of an extensive and laborious 
business. If the Juurnal has sometimes 
been tardy in ita arrival, it has been from 
the unwillingness of its editors that it should 
go robed less boautifully-or having a smaller 
decree of excelleneo. And who of its 
readerB have ever beeu unfavorably disap- 
pointed in these respects when it has arrived I 
If any, tbey have failed to report to ua; 
while, upon the other baud, the most Hal- 
tering commendations flow iu by every mail. 

In a former issue we reriuested subscribers 
who had not received their paper by the 15th 

of any month to give as notice; bat we 
have found occasional delays in publication 
onavoidable, and delays in transmission 
through the maila so frequently, that we 
deem it best that notice should not bo given 
before the first of the month following pub- 
lication, when, on receipt of same, we will 
at once mail an extra copy. No subacriber 
can be more desirous of receiving every 
number of his paper surely and promptly 
than are we that he sliuuld do so. And we 
shall certainly use every reasonable en- 
deavor to remove any cause of each delay 
or failure on receipt of proper notice. 

Nearly 250,(yj0 pieces of mail are an- 
nually dispatched from the office of the 
Journal. Who among its readers would 
undertake, under bonds, to perform all the 
labor of preparing this matter for the post- 
ollice without a mistake, to say nothing of 
guaranteeing a safe transmission and de 
livery at its destination t Truly, to do this 
would require something more than human. 
And anyone once having tried it would find 
it a task more difficult than writing testy 

The King Club 
For this month is tbe " King of Kings"; it 
numbers two hundred and si-xty-nine sub 
scribera, and was sent by G. W. Michael, 
teacher of writing at Oberlin, Ohio. So large 
a club, not only tells well for the work bo- 
ing done by Mr. Michael, but for the grow- 
ing popularity of the JoiJRNAL, where it 
has found its way, it has not only stayed, 
but its friends have rapidly multiplied. The 
Queen Club comes from L L. Williams, 
Preaident of the Kuchester (N. Y.) Business 
University, and numbers one hundred and 
twenti/six. The third club in size numbers 
one hundred, and is sent by W. E. Donson, 
assistant teacher in tlie Theory Departmeut 
of the Miami Commercial College, Dayton, 
Ohio. A club oi fifty-six comes from S 
S. Packard, of Packard's New York Busi- 
uess College. It will bo observed that four 
clubs received during the past month, alone 
aggregate 551 aubscribers, while clubs of 
leas magnitude have been received by the 
score. Nothing like it in the history of the 
Journal. Our largest hopes have been 
more than realized} verily, "nothing suc- 
ceeds like success." 

Quackery in Advertising. 

Next to the pride of personal standing 
and success, should be that of the general 
welfare and dignity of the special calling in 
which one is engaged. There can be no 
donbt but that writing is among the moat 
necessary and useful of human attainments, 
and that an intelligent and successful teacher 
of writing, should, therefore, hold rank with 
teachers in other departments of education. 
Yet, while it is true, that most of our writ- 
ing-teachers are personally highly esteemed 
as a claae, they do not rank witli those of 
most other branches of education. That 
this i-> so, wo conceive to be the fault of the 
ft'W rather than the many. 

A few noisy quacks, who, after the man- 
ner of showmen, resort to all manner of 
tricks and frauds to attract attention and 
secure patrons, whom they, iu some way, 
victimize, can and have done more to de- 
grade the profession of penmanship than 
many skilled, faiihlal and quiet workers can 
do for its dignity and popularity. When- 
over we see a circular or other advertia- 
meht, wherein the author stylea himself a 
"Champion," " Prince," " The Recognized 
Chief," etc., of penmen, we instinctively 
feel that he is, if not a charlatan, a per- 
son whose instincts and breeding are very 
much better suited to the jockey or the pre- 
siding genius of a bar-room than to a teacher 
in any department of education. No aensi- 
ble person will associate honest, skillful and 
successful teaching, or even true manliness, 
with that species of bombastic and idiotic 

Sample copies of the Jodknax sent only 
on reoeipi of price — ten oenta. 

Packard in His Glory. 

On the evening of tbe 6th iosl., the grad- 
uating exercises and twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary of Packard's Business College of this 
city took place at the Academy of Music. 
Notwithstanding the extremely inclement 
weather, the immenae hall and galleries 
of the Academy were filled with the elite of 
the city. Chief Justice Noah Davis pre- 
sided over the meeting. Besides the speak- 
ers, graduates and faculty of the college, 
there were, upon the stage, W. H. Sadler, 
of the Baltimore (Md.) Business College; 
A. J. Rider, of tbe Capitol City Business 
College, Trenton, N. J. ; Coleman, of the 
Newark ( N. J.) Business College; H. W. 
Wright, of Brooklyn, and D. T. Ames, of 
New Yoik. Tbe music of the evening was 
by Eben's 23d Regiment Band. The Ad- 
dresses were admirable. After an opening 
prayer by the Rev. W. H. Lloyd, Justice 
Davis hrietly addressed the assemblage, in 
part as follows: 

ss endeavor. Suob an iDstitiiliun d 

serves llio bom 

all. Education lo our roiintry lie 

s at the founda 

all our inslitutions. for upon the vir 

ue and ioteUige 

gbt to pay homage (o Ihoie whose p 
leyoulh. Among ancient peoples It 
noiigall proressiona. Alexander co 

govern mem. 

was placed forem 
nqiiered the wor 

il AristoUe, his tutor, will be rein 
eat warrior ia forgotten. Through 

i long personal 

moDg the fi.OOO graduates ol 
life. Nobody leema to have 

Mr. Packard was called upon by Justice 
Davis to speak, and he responded to the in- 
vitation iu part as follows : 

, Ibe Brooklyn Bridge lay dor.nai 
duplex aud i[uadrii 

tallow dipo n 

Tfn, for 

legistato™, judges 

Judge Larromore then gave au account 
of Mr. Packard and his work, and spoke 
warmly in favor of co-ediication. When- 
ever that subject was mentinncd by any of 
the speakers — and most of them spoke in 
favor of it — the audience applauded vigor- 
ously. President Hunter, of the Normal 
College, followed Judge Larremore, and 
spoke in favor of giving every man an edu- 
cation better than that which his father had 
enjoyed. After a piece of music had been 
played, ex-Judge Fithiau »|)oke. Then 
A. Oakey Hall was called upon by Justice 
Davis. Mr. Hall spoke in part as follows : 

be a night o 

f Wiggi 

> and Facltnr 

It unpopular 

man U 

e who makes 

■cry profeMio 

bos its 

deal, however- 

After a short speech had been made by 
the Rev. Dr. J. M. Buckley, William II. 
Lloyd delivered the Valedictory to the Class, 
and the diplomas were distributed by Presi- 
dent Packard, to fifty graduates, among 
whom were several young ladies. 

The Address to the graduates was de- 
liveied by the Rev. William Lloyd. The 
Hon. Chauncey M. Depew had been ex- 
pected to deliver this Address, but was de- 
tained unavoidably in Poughkeepsie. A 
I read from him, in which he 


What I would \ 

Back Numbers of the "Journal." 


Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others: All numbers of 1876; all 
for 1879, except J/ay and November; for 

1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain; all numtfers for 

1881, and all for 1883, except June. It 
will be noted that while Spencer's writing 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was iu the July number, so that the aeries 
of lessons are unbroken by the absence of 
tlie Juno uuinbcr. Duly a few copies of 
several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All tbe 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4 UO, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 

The Next Convention. 
It will be seen by an announcement in 
our advertising columns that the time of 
holding the next Convention of the Busi- 
ness Educators' and Poumeu's Association 
has been fixed for the 10th to 15ih days of 
July, at Washington, D. C. Everything is 
promising for the largest and most interest- 
ing Conventiou yet hold. The early an- 
nouncement will enable everybody to get a 
good ready. Let each member begin at 
once with a resolution that he will con- 
tribute to the full extent of his ability to a 

Remember, that if you renew, or send in 
your subscription to the Journal, you 
will get a 75 cent book free, or a $1 book 
for 35 cents extra. 

An I .JOl'K.N.VI. 


G. W. H., loglewood, Va.— How roanj »ub- 
■cribera flliall I evod a( the full rate of SI "ach 
in onl«r to gvt tbe CoiumoU'SeDBe Binder aB a 
premium T Aa». — Four. 

H. II. Segiir. HilAuJ Park, 111. Can you 
furolBli me tlie buck numbers of tbe JouitNAL 
up to laet Maj f Am.— "We can lurnish all the 
back numbeni <-xct>i>t ihxl fur Jimu ^wcq 


or Mil 

Subscriber asks us to explaiu tbe late arrival 
of tbe February number. Ant. — Our great 
anxiety to give bim tbe wonh of hU money, 
wbich led us tu undertake more tlian we could 
ter time, in tbe way of cute 
We bopfi to do better in 

fur illuBtratiuiie. 

: tbe 


llie llui 

-Wben will tbe 
! of holding 

Valuable Aids to Good Writing. 

-Tbe Stftudard Script liuler" which 
places coDStaotly before the writer correct 
models for all the large and small letters. 
figures,aad,iD combinations, the proper scale 
of size and proporttona of writing. They are 
tuvaloablc to the pupil, teacher, accouut- 
ant ; in short, everybody. The counting- 
house ruler, tifteen ioches long, brass edge, 
mailed for 30 cents. School ruler, same as 
above, without brass edge, 211 cents. If 
you order either of them, yciu will certaiuly 
be delighted withy our investoient. 

"The Portfolio of Standard Practical 
Penmanship" contains tbe best and most 
complete series of copies and exercises for 
enabling the learner, by home or office 
practice, to become a good writer, ever pub- 
lished. Mailed for $1.00. 

" The Spencergraphic Straight and Ob- 
lique Penholder Combined" mailed for 12 
cents; two for 20 cents. 

" Ames's Hand-Book of Anistic Penman- 
ship," ^2 large pages, contains all tbe 

C. L. Martin is now teaching plain 
lamenlal penman^bip at the Normal a 
less College at Macumb, III. 

E. L. Bui 



has 1. 
N. Y. 
D. H. Farh 


E. K. Brvau's BiiBiues 

College at Canton, 

Ohio, was lately desiro 

ed by fire. Beside 

the loss of scbool-furnit 

i-e. etc., Mr. Bryan 

lost a valuable library 

and tbe electrotype 

I of J 

of u work which be bad in 
course of preparation on book-keeping. We 
may not fully balauce tbe account, but Mr. B. 
is at full liberty to place our sympathy upon 
the credit side of liii« gniu ami loi 

is teacher of penmanship »ii 
the State Normal and Mod. 
School, Tn 

id a popular teacher. 

Prof. Soutbworth coudut 
penmanship at the Northi 
School, Valparaiso, lud., 
about oue huudred pupils 
scribe for tbe JouiiN,\ 

I a special class in 
a Indiana Normal 
which there are 
all t,( whom sub- 

W. G. SluBBor, Inglewood. Va., will pi 
accept our thanks for a number of notei 
Coufederite money lately received. Any par- 

Educators' and IVnmeu's Convention T 
Am. — Tbe mHller has been iufurmally 
cousldered, and the time will probably 
be the week following the Fourth of 

J. D. 11., Worcester, Mass. — 1 noticed, 
some time since, a question in the Pen- 
man's Ga:ctU, by a Bubscriber, respect- 
iug tbe period of the Stag and Eagle in 
tbe PiiSMAX's AiiT Jouhnal. 1 be- 
lieve tbat there has never been any 
question respecting their paternity ; but 
there seems to be a grave question as 
to tbe ciealor ol a certain Lion, which 
appears as tbe ninth lesson for practical 
writing in GaBkell's Compeudium; also, 
iu Sbalor'tt Compendium, and in a later 
work, iu which it appears to be about 
the same, the imprint of one Jones is 
branded -oa tbe beast. Can the Jouit- 
NAL throw any light on the chirographic 
pedigree of tbe animal f and, by the 
way, is it appropriate to give, as a copy, 
a picture of a lion, for tbe uiuth lesson 
in practical writing T Ana. — We liave 
our views as to the authorship of that 
Lion, but prefer not to give them until 
tbe returns are all in. As tu tbe last 
questiou, we will sny, if, in learning to 
write, you find a lion In your way, you 
can pass by ou tbe other side, and sutler 

W. E. B., Stanberry, Mo. — As through 



life \ 

< the < 

meroial pen, why not teach with them 
instead of the liner surtsf Ans. — i-irsi, 
it is not a fact that we all use a "com- 
mon conuaercial pen "through life; all 
really uriistic and professional unity re- 
quires a liner grade of pens. Who can 
know, when learning, tbe precise use to 
wbich be will put his writing in after 
lifeV Second.- 'A line and more perfect- 
ly pointed pen produces perfectly any 
desired quality of line and ebade as well 
B8 form of letter, an<l the pupil and in- 
structor are belter enabled to judge of the 
writing while practicing from the copy. 
Third.— M] the copies in the books and '" 

ontbettlipBusedin most of tbe public schools are 
from delicately engraved copper-plates, to imi- 
tate which requires a line and perfectly-pointed 
pen. With a coarse. stiH", and often very im- 
perfectly-pointed pen the exercises of evf n the 
skilled pupil can bear little resemblance iu his 
copy, aud he cannot therefore judge as well of 
Fourlh.~A person 

Thx oJoie UiUr is phxtto-engraved from an original letUr, writUn. by G. W. Michael, teacher of penmanship 

at Oberlin, Ohi), on March 6th. Mr. Micltael added nine names to the Club mentioned 

therein — making S69. 

C. W. Kice, of the Denver (Col.) 
I College, a letter. 

J. M, Frnsher, Business College, 
Wheeling, W. Va., a letter. 

T. E. Vouniaus, card-writer. Savan- 
nah, Ga., a letter and cards. 

H. C. Spencer, of M'asbington, D. C, 
a letter in moat elegant etyle. 

S. D. Gutchese, WriRhl's Business 
College, Brooklyn, N. Y., a letter. 

W. P. Cooper, Kingsville, Ohio, a 
letter, specimen of copies and capitals. 

D. H. Farley, Trenton, N. J., a 
photograph 6f skillfully engrossed 

J. E.Ockerman, penman and teacher. 
Tell City, lud., a letter and Nourished 

U. McKee, penmen at ihe Oberlin 
(Ohio) College, a letiei- most excel- 
lently written. 

D. W. Sinhl, teacher of \vriiing at 
the Normal School, Peirce, Ohio, a 
letter and card specimens. 

J. M. Goldsmith, penman at Moore's 
Business Univei-sity (Atlanta, Ga.), 
an elegantly-written letter. 

Charles Hills, penman at the Crit- 
tenden Commercial College, Phila., 
Pa., a letter and set of capitals. 

G. W. Ware, Bonham, Texas, a 
well-written letter, flourished bird, 
and whole-arm capitals, wbich are 

George Spencer, teacher of penman- 
ship and accouniB, B. & S. Business 
College, Detroit, Mich, a letter in ele- 
gant etyle, 

C. L. Stubbs, penman at Nelson's 
Business College, Cincinnati, Ohio, a 
letter, and a list of twenty-aix sub- 
scribers to tbe JOUHSAL. 

having learned 
i& aftertvard usitig a 

e well, with a lin. 
xperieuces uoditKcully 

Send Cash with Advertisements. 

Wo widh to remind all persons wishing 
to have advertisements appear in the Jour- 
nal, that it is entirely useless to send copy 
unaccompanied with cash, at the rate of 
thirty cents per line (nine words estimated 
as a line) for space less than an inch. See 
rates at the top of the tirst column of the 
centre page of the Journal. No adver- 
lisemeut mserted fur less than $1.00. 

Sample cepies of the Journal, 10 centa. 

principles, with numerous designs for flour- 
ishing, with twenty-six standard and artistic 
alphabets, and a page of monograms; also, 
hints for designing aud exocutiog fine artis- 
tic pen-work. Sent by mail, iu paper covers 
for 75 cents; in cloth, for Si. 00. In paper 
covers it is given free, as a premium, to 
every aubacriber to the Journal for Sl.OO, 
In cloth, with the Journal, for $1.23. All 
the above articles are promptly mailed from 
the office of the Journal on receipt of the 

t the first thing 
nbera is of loving all the 
Some of the girls are 

Packard says "that 
in his life he remembe 
nice little girls." 
wondering if he has j 
should think not— from the large number of 
nice young ladies who every year graduate 
fiom Packard's Business Collogo. 

Remember that for $I.OU you can get the 
Journal one year, and a valuable book on 
artistic penmanship, free. 

ties wishing 

to sect 

re sin 

iiihtr specime 


nominal cost 

can do 

so by 

addressing hi 


The Oberlir 



1 says : " Forty-two 

new cane-sea 

?d chairs ba\ 

e lately been 


with other ne 

V turn 

ture I 

the college- 


rooms." It 

pays a 


and well-de 


compliment I 



B as a popul 

nr and 

successful teacher ol 


g ; his clafse 

s uum- 

ber upward of oue b 


and filty. 

Fielding Schofield, who has long held high 
rank among tbe skillful and successful teach 
ers of the East, is now engaged in the Normal 
Peunmusbip Department of Mussetman'e 
City Business College, Quincy, III. W 

pleased 1 

t this 

Eugene E. Scherrer, Galveston, 
Texas, pholu-engraved copies ot two 
elaborate and well-executed specimeua 
of penmanehip. 

Chas. A. Erney, Patent Office, Washington, 
D. C, a pbolo-lithograpbio copy of an en- 
graved memorial, which is very creditable. 

W. II. H.Ave, Waukegan, 111., a photo-en- 
graved copy memorial chart, wbich is ingeni- 
ous in its design and creditable iu its execution. 
R. S. Bonsall, penman at Carpenter's B. 
&, S. Business College, St. Louis, Mo., a letter 
and a gracefully executed specimen of tlour- 

C. Carver, penman al the La Cros 
'( Wis.) Business College, u letter and club-1 
for the JuuuNal, numbering twenty - livi 




hundred studei 

Frank B. Lotbrop, of South Boston, Mass., 
will please accept our thanks for a copy of 
"Foster's System of Penmantbip; Or, Art of 
of Kapid Writing," published in ISJi. It was 
evidently a work of rare merit in ite day. Tbe 
copies ore all finely engraved, and printed from 
copper-plates. We shall say more of the work 
in tbe future. 

J. A. Kendall, penman at the Mound City 
!7ommerciul College, St. Louii», Mo., a letter 
uid a list of Ibirty-tivti subscribers to the 

A. M. Palm 
Iowa) UuHu 

, penman at tbe Cedar Kapids 
I College, a letter, set of capi- 
ty of really superior plain aud 

J. E. HoaU, of Boali^a B. & 8. PhiUdclpb 
Bu«in*>M College, an •>l«gaDtlj-wrilt^ii Ie«*r. 
»od ft BupCTb pboln of himii'If for our ncrsp- 
tMMik— thftnkB. 

H. B. HcCrwrj. ol Ihe (!tic«, (N. V.) Ruai- 
OMW ColI«v«, a iellwr: alM a apecimra wrirtao 
i>j MaaUT C, 1^. OnmaDn. a pupil in tbat In- 


C. \. Crandlv. penman at tbw Weatern Nor- 
mal Coll.K^ and Commercial Inatilule. Ruah- 
nell. III., a letter and » club of tbirt^-bre 
aubacribeni Ui the JoL'KNAL. 

J. M. Holm»B. Wilkiua Runn. Ohio. B|»-oi- 
ujena b«for« and aioce practicing from the lea- 
■onu giren in the JOURNAL, which apecimena 
■ how r*f/ marked improvement. 

Thoa. K. Phillip.. Pouj< 
letter. Mr. Phillipi' anja: "I hare 
.lOrHNAI. a little lea. than a year, an 
inreated a dollar where I got a greate 

. E. New 

• College. San Frauciaci 

Mmena of practical 

the i'. 

onler of 1 

cord.: all are of a high 


lokahurg, Pa., an elaborate 
and akillfully-ejteculed specimen of Houriab- 
ing. and a aet of aplendidij-execnted eapilal 
leltera. Attention ia'invited to Mr. Miller'e 
card in our advertiaing colnmna. 

When to Subscribe. 

For several reasons ilia desirable, tha', so 
far as is practicable, snbscriidious should 
begin with the year, yet it is entirely op- 
tioDftl with the subscriber as to when his 
BubacriptioD shall cnininence. Those who 
uiay be specially interested in the very prac- 
tictll and valuable caurap of lessons com- 
meDo*d by Prof. H. C. Spencer may have 
their subscriptions begiii with the May 
number, in which is the first lesson of the 

Spencer Memorial Library. 

The association of citizens of Geneva, 
Ohio, have secured a charter, and are now 
raising funds to build a Hall and found a 
free library, to be called the P. R. Spencer 
Memorial Hall and Library. It will be a 
shrine of chirographic art as well ae litera- 
ture and science. Certainly, a most fitting 
memorial to the founder of the Spencerian. 
Under the name of Spencer, over the p,>r- 
tal» of the hall, should be inscribed, in 
the words of the late President Garfield ; 

" He wrought out that system of pen- 
uuiusbip which has becoms the pride of our 
country and the model of our schools." 

Our Premiums. 

Inasmuch as the JouENAt, will, this 
month, be mailed to many thousand persons 
who have no knowledge of the character or 
Btyle of the premiums, one of which is 
given free to every subscriber, we have 
added four eitra pages for the purpose of 
inserting outs— reduced sile— of a portion of 


Our stock of the Cenlenuial Picture of 
Progress, 22 x2«. being exhausted, and the 
I dates, from which it was printed, destroyed, 
it can no longer be sent free w> a premium. 
We, however, have a stock of size 28 i 4 ■ 
finely printed on heavy plate-pa|ier, which 
will be mailed with a key as a premium 
for 25 cents ettra. Many thousands of this 
picture have been sold by agents at *2 per 
oopy. There i> no more interesting and 
valuable picture for schoolroom or office 
than this picture. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by P.>st-olEce 
Order, or a bank draft, on Kew York ■ next 
by regUtered letter. For fractional p'aru of 
a dolhlr, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
peraonal checks, especially for small sum,, 
nor Canadian poetage-stampa. 


New Yokx, ifarch 3rd, ]883. 
Editors Pbhhah's Aet Jocrnai.: 

SiBs : In the last issue of your paper I 
nolic« H clipping, said to have come from 
the Atlantic Monthly. The writer pro- 
nounces the Compendium system " rank 
humbuggery," and claims that the auto- 
graphs in many cases are not written by the 
parties who claim to have written them, and 
"in other cases are ' doctored ' before they 
are engraved, until the writer himself would 
scansely know them." 

This fellow, whoever he is, is talking 
wild. He knows nothing whatvever 
about the matter. These autographs have 
always corresponded with the handwriting 
of the letters inclosing them, and I do not 
believe that any of them are fraudulent. 
As for the doctoring process, any real pen- 
man knows very well that it would be much 
easier to write the entire signature over — 1<) 
make a good counterfeit— than to " doctor " 
it, and thus make it better. Whatever they 
may lay at our door this doctoring business 
is a little too big a load. It would be more 
sensible to charge us with writing the whole 
thifg, and to declare that even the portraits 
are fictitious. 

As for the style of writing, the same ob- 
jections weigh against it as are brought to 
bear against all other Spencerian or system- 
atic penmanship. The writer says the hand 
. lacks "character." This is a questi.jn for 
writing-teachera. It don't prove that the 
Compendium is a fraud or its publisher a 
swindler. Very truly, 


Packaeij's Business Colleub, 
805 Broadway, 

Nrw York, imrci 1st, tux:). 
My dear Ame.s: 

Enclosed find check for $5li to cover Sii 
subscriptions to the Journal, made by our 
young men. This is only the first install- 
ment. We are pledged to 100 at the least. 
V.iure truly, . S. S. Packard. 

Ames's Hand-Book of Artistic 


Packard'.^ BustNESs College. 

805 Broadway, 

New York, itarch uth, 1883. 

EditoTi of the Journal : 

I have never seen anything more gener- 
ous than your offer of the Hand-book. It 
is a golden inducement, and should speedUy 
boom your subscription-list. This is a 
book which nobody can afford to be with- 
out on such terms. Our students promise 
a BtUl larger list of subscribers to the Jour- 
nal than they have yet sent. Yours 

Wm. Allen Miller. 
What a few aioong many others say : 

Mr. Ames has made an admirable little 
work for beginners, and it will prove of 
great value to those who desire to learn 
flourishing and to make fancy alphabets. 
Of the alphabets there is a great variety, 
an.l all are elegant. -i\r. T. School Journal 

Questions for the Readers of the 


Bt C. H. Peiece 

1. What are tracing 

2. What are extended movements T 

3. What is the philosophy of 
capital letters T 


5. What 8 
c4jntinuous t 

6. Whati 
ing movements f 

7. What 

8. What 
phy of 

U. What 

the objects gained in trac- 

•bjects gained in ex- 

the objects gained in philoso- 

Ihe objects gained in com- 

penmen lack 

10. In what do 
the most ? 

11. Is good, excellent or superior form 
dependent upon speed t 

12. Is the movement tbat enters into 
good, excellent or superior results pure in 


Are combination 
Are combination 

15. Ar. 

practical f 
a necessity ? 
more difficult than 

applied I 

ti taste a consid- 
lapitals of a high 

into the 

W. P. Cooper, Kingsville, Ohio " It is 

a perfect gem." 

J. D. Holcomh, Cleveland, Ohio " It 

U a valuable little work, worth at least 
twice the published price, and those who 
take advantage of your liberal offer will 
have rea8.>n t.i congratulate themselves 
upon the investment they have ma.le." 

John F. Shepherd, Harrison Switch, P.O., 
I Tenn.— " I am surprised at the exceUence 
I of both the Hand-book and the Journal." 

W. C. Bonham, Sidney, Ohio— "Hand- 
bmik just received. Would not part with 
it lor anything. It is perfectly splendid." 

ogle capitals t 

16. What is movement a 

17. Is the proper selection of capitals 
necessary to success t 

18. Is the development 
eration in the execution of 

19. What movement 
second part of a small k f 

20. Why are extended movements which 
ccmtain capital letters easier to execute than 
single capitals ? 

21. How is any one to determine the 
variations of movement in different capi- 
tnls and small letters f 

22. What is a figure t 

23. What 

24. What 

25. What 

26. What 

27. What 

28. What kind 

2!). What kind of stroke in 
p and final t ' 

30. What are the exceptions 
tere.aa to bight t 

31. How many letters begin with aright- 
ourve » 

:)2. How many letters end with a rieht- 

33. How many letters begin with a left- 

:)4. How many letters end with a left- 

1 letter f 
i short letter f 
I semi-extended letter f 
in extended letter? 
9 the longest loop-letter f 

stroke in main part of 

lain part of 
u short let- 

Writing in Country Schools. 
Id the January Jouenal, " G. N. S.," in 
discussing our article under the above title, 
says that he " is dissatisfied with the present 
condition of onr country schooh* as regards 
writing," but tbat he "agrees with the 
scholar who thinks that if he can write 
legibly, that is good enough." Which 
statement implies that, in his section of the 
country at least, the average pupil of the 
common school, upon the completion of bis 
schooldays, cannot write legibly. He also 
says-" I think the student may consider 
himself very fortunate if be can learn to 
write a rapid legible hand." 

In our former article we said that we did 
not agree with the student who thought if 
he could ivrite so it could be read it was 
good enough. There is a great difference 
I between a schoolboy's writing- -which is 
barely legible enough to read— and a rapid 
legible hand. Does the pupil who is satis- 
fied with a barely legible handwriting ever 
attain a rapid legible hand ? As far aa my 
observation goes, he does not. On the 
contrary, his writing is very slow, cramped, 
and laboriously performed. He always 
dreads to write, because it ie such hard 
work ; and as the majority of people whose 
education is limited to the curriculum of the 
common country school seldom do very 
much writing, they naturally write a better 
hand on leaving school than they do after 
being " out of practice " for a long time. As 
a person never exceeds his ideal, and seldom 
equals it, I claim that it is necessary for 
the pupil to strive for something more than 
mere legibility if he would ever attain any 
proficiency worthy the name in plncing his 
thoughts upon paper. Again, a pupil will 
always write better when using his copy- 
book, under the direction of the teacher, 
he will when writing his own thoughts 

? present to criticise 

■■«. How many principles in continuous 

31!. What are theyt 

37. How are the lengths of loop-letters 
to be made equal 1 

38. What produces unilormlty of stroke 
in any class of work f 

39. Who will answer these questi ons T 

Mr. Packard has inaugurated a practice, 
which, sooner or later, our progressive and 
comfortably situated business college men 
must adopt—that of weekly social leception. 
For the past three years Mr. Packard has 
kept "open house" for bis students and 
their friends, at his residence. Ii4 E. 73<1 
Street, on Wednesday evenings, from Jan- 
uary to May. These weekly receptions 

have been very pleasant, and 

A New AUas. 

another column, of i 
John W. Lyon & Co 

r bu.i 



No library, acbooln 



The Penman's GazelU for AprU is just 
out, and is an unusuaUy interesting number 
Send for a copy to G. A. GaskeU, P 
Box 1S34, New York. 

I this great and valuable work. We apeak 

observation (having bad copies both in our 
business-offlce and private atudv for some litne 
past ). when we say that it i. Ihi most complete 
and valuable AUa. publiahed. See advertise- 
ment in another oolnmn. 

upon paper, with 

his faults 

them. It is only too true, as " G. W. s7' 
says, that the desks in many of our school- 
houses are narrow and of improper bights. 
There are also, in country schools, many 
other drawbacks to the proper teaching of 
writing ; some of which " G. N. S." men- 
tions, as, lack of time, frequent change of 
teachers, etc.; but the same arguments may 
be used, with equal force, against any other 
study in the school. 

" G. N. S." asks, if it is " possible to 
train the muscles of the wood-chopper or 
fence- builder to d<. anything more than plain 
writing, if that." What mare do we icon! 
to teach in a country school ! Yet there is 
no reason why these should not learn to 
write a good hand. It is not necessary to 
be a soft-fingered student or clerk to be able 
to do good, neat and rapid ivork with the 
pen. I have seen "horny-banded sons of 
toil" who could not only do good, plain 
writing, but could also execute quite credit- 
able ornamental work. But as the average 
intry youth spends from two to four 
)nths in school each year, for from eight 
to ten years, there is no good reason why 
he should not, under proper instruction, 
learn to write a neat, rapid, legible and 
fairly symmetrical hand, which is good 
enough for all ordinary purposes. 

I do not agree with " G. N. S." in the 
statement that " the average teacher can 
and does write a better hand Ihan the aver- 
age business man." The teacher, in ivriting 
copies, of course imitates the standard 
forms of the letters more closely than the 
average business man Hoes in hia corres- 
pondence. But an ordinary letter, written 
by the average business man, compared 
with one written by the average tewiher, 
will show that the former, while exhibiting 
more of what is termed individuality in writ- 
ing, shows K neater page, is more easily, 
rapidly and smoothly written, and is fully as 
legible. That " writing is an art " is true, 
but tbat it is more difficult to learn than the 
other branches, with the same amount of 
time, study and labor bestowed upon it as 
given to the others, we do not believe. 
There is one tiling which, by the majority 

■s±i^ .pliT aLvfa t^ 

-*- '*^ 

of leacher», seems to be almost eolirely over- 
looked, aod which should always be taught 
in coDnectioD with writiog, aod that is, the 
proper form of writiog Icttore, and the more 
commoD fiiriiis of buHiDeiw paper. We hope 
that Prof. Ames's series of articles on L»t- 
ter-Wriling will prove a valuable lesson to 
oar teachers, and that we may see the ef- 
f«vts of it in their teachiog. 

Mental Condition ; Or, The 

Spirit of the Room. 

By C. W. CoopEH. 

If we carefully look over the pages of 

history we shall liud tliat mental conditions 

have often uot only modified and directed 

the course of events, but decided even the 

destiny of uatious. If such is the fact, cau 

it be a matter of surprise if, in the labor of ; possess 

acquiring aa liuiiible an art a 
tal conditions may have mor< 
feat or success than we may 
or imagine f 

The old master is no stranger 
or influence ot tnenlal conditioi 
class, nor does ho fail to give 
both weight and importance to 
the spirit of the room. The 
writer of this article has often 
fonnd, when he least expected, 
the spirit and temper of the 
room favorable to intelligeut 
labor and suct^as ; at other 
times, when every other oir- 
oomstance eeeina favorable, be 
has been defeated by an antag- 
onism that he could Dot under- 
stand, and a spirit which he 
oould neither aocoont for nor 
control by any means within 
the grasp nf his invention or 
reach. Ho has found this con- 
dition oftener in some locali- 
ties than others, aud when 
certain kinds of teachers had 
charge of the school the bal- 
ance of the time. 

We all know, or public 
speakers at least know very 
well, the tricky and vacillating 
temper of public assemblies: 
now, in humor, and now out ; 
in fact, a condition not un- 
common in theatres them- 
selves. The writer has wit- 
nessed things more discredit- 
able still : conventions made 
up of men of ability, in which 
a spirit qf inconsistent disor- 
ganization was rampant, with- 
out reason, aud as thoroughly 
devilish a» disobedient. 

often m public assemblies as anywhere else, 
and writing- classes are no exceptions. The 
teacher or speaker, highly impressible him- 
self, catehes very often, at a glance, the 
true sense of the situation. Expecting a 
most happy reception, his soul goes back 
upon himself, and, as quick as thought, he 
mentally asks, what is first to be done ; and 
now all iuvention, all previous experiences, 
and alt previous artifices, are overhauled for 
the right expedient — meritorious, indeed, is 
hie effort if he make the right hit. 

Sometimes the teacher, perhaps unex- 
pectedly, finds all in his favor. With or 
without reason, he is the idol of his class. 
On such occasions, in all things he is an 
oracle, and his will is law. This condition 
he secretly hails with delight, aud, if ex- 
perienced, is uot slow to turn its advantages 
to account. If the master loose not his self- 
quick to discover ex- 

< do with de- 
first suspect 

the effect 
upon his 

pedients, he will, by some felicitous hit, not 

unfrequently re-establish a working tempei 

in his class. Or it may happen that a 

judicous introduction or happy bit, by some 

friendly teacher, in a restorative speech, may I business of a good master, and generally e 

put all things to rights, open the gates to I much as he would wish t 

thing but stable, and the temper, Bteady, 
and even in its legitimate work and place. 
Every face is a study, aud every student a 
book — to be early read by a good master, 
and although in mHtters generally he is to 
treat all. alike, there is an under e,pecifll 
treatment for a majority, and this side work 
must be uot publicly but quietly, rapidly 
and secretly done. There is in the individ- 
ualism of each, a structure — spiritual aud 
mental as welt as physical — to be studied 
up ; and if we consider that the work of the 
class takes the whole man, instead of a part, ' 
of course the whole are to be manipulated 
more or less. Indeed, there can be no 
greater error than to teach a class as a unit. 
One pupil has a strong wilt ; another has 
none. One has faith ; the next, none. 
One has hope; his neiglibor, uot any. One 
has nerve; the next has uone. Oue, the 
uiocliauical eye;. the next does uot know C 
from A, etc. To take into your hands one 
liuudred of these fellows for an hour, and to 
steadily by aids put and in character to lift 
but all, steadily up. This is the 

on, ultimately, to suc<?«ss. To thus success- 
fully handle one hundred pupils, this man 
must be iio laggard. He must quietly place 
an obstinate pupil in position ; he mast, 
with a simple whisper and touch, arouse 
some sleepy clown to action and willing 
work ; aud so on, reaching iiuiokly, even in- 
stantly, the nei-essities of every sort of con- 
dition and case. In short, he must be a 
silent but determined worker — everywhere, 
at once ; all eyes, all ears, all touch. Butif he 
carry not tliis spirit with him to the end — I 
am right, aud I will have my own way, and 
I shall succeed — he will end, whatever the 
beginning, with a dead class. 

Consideriug the immeuse labor piled on 
the shoulders of good teachers of penman 
ship, and the variety of qualification essential 
to bear along these huge clitsses,! have been 
surprised that Boards of Kducatiou should 
often stick on half-pay, and that teachers iu 
attendance should strive to thrust an extra 





of Iht 


r-^/U^^/iiaJuAxa/ k9: 


HaHD^CDT- OF- mh0lC[, 



He has seen things worse 

aan this : Boards of Arbitra- ~ ~ ' """ 

>r9, and Associates on the Bench, wilfully I uncommon progress and success. The 

'arped and fully comuiitted to false judg- | teacher will, furthermore, find the spirit 

r plwto-fnffraved from pcn-unrf-tnjt copy, prepared at the offlee of the "Journal," and \ 
aa a tpecimen of pen-work practically applied to bu»ines$ purpose. 

could ha 

ment unpaid, where 
no hope, and fair dealing n( 
all through the spirit, by sot 
inant; hateful euoueh, but 
for the time to force all parti 
cution of its nefarious will. 

Probably, among orators, no man in 
America so quickly reads and divines the 
spiritual status or temper of an audience as 
Mr. Beecher, or ia so ingenious in shifting 
an untoward drift, or putting a favorable 
condition to good account. 

Mr. Moody, above all men, understands 
spiritual conditions in great bodies of 
people — their use and their abuse, and 
how especially, with the aid of music, 
to OToroise an anarchical devil, or attune 
many discordant tempen 
consistency, aud obedi 
note. But not even the most gifted can 
always subdue the spirit belligerent, or ex- 
oniiso tlie devil fairly enthroned. Great 
orators have, upon the stump and else- 
where, suffered unaccountable defeats, from 

of his class changing from lesson 

son, and from day to day, and often in the 

means, dom- I same lesson. He will often see it unei- 
ithroned, and | pectedly seriously modified in the same les- 

to the exe- j son. Sometimes it means, obedience ; and 

trifling; at others, csreful work — aud, very 

likely, unexpected and remarkable progress. 

On one day all conditions will be favorable; 

every moment requires artifice to 

New perplexities 

keep the 

will now multiply, 
an abrupt adji 
occasion will suggest, 
now and then, on such 
ordered pern 
finished the 

the best thing the 
The writer has, 

rcAsions, suddenly 
and paper laid aside, and 
itting with a pointed aud 

There are times when all difficulties art 
thrust upon teacher and class by 8om( 
stealthy and bidden head. Quietly and 
handsomely to dispose of this class-rooic 
good and handsome thing, 
properly con- 

Mtill, othei 
and great teachers, of their I wdered. Each pupil has a tempe/and spirit 
' - -' ' '■ ' of bis own, as well 

discouragements and perpl 

best efforts had to record only disasters 
failures. Mental or spiritural conditions 
eternally at work upon the boman mind as , with, 

sider the above perplexities and difficulties 
with which teachers of writing have to con- 
tend, we shall not be slow to understand 
that a professional teacher is better than a 
Tyro in this business ; we shall further be 
able to understand that a little experience 
may prove of great value to him who has 
charge of this department. Boards of Ed- 
ucation who have of these matters the 
superintendence, and teachers in no way re- 
markable for endowments and heavily bur- 
dened with other labors and cares, may not 
be exactly the persons to make writers any- 
where, or manage writiug-classes. In public 
schools, where the day is oppressed by both 
tea* her and pupils with many labors, a 
teacher of penmanship walks in ; the desks 
are cleared, and the host is at once handed 
over to his charge and his manipulation. I 
He is at once (for lime is precious) to get I 
and to hold attention, arouse the old en- i 

times seen this thing doi 
provement was doubly 
the treasury loaded with the weight of sur- 
plus funds. Masters such as 
I have seen are too often far 
too much men of ambition 
and public spirit to temper 
labor to pay, aud so give a 
consideration for which not 
even a thank is returned. The 
pupils, scores in number, come 
into the hands of a master— 
a stranger— with all <if their 
faults, incapacities and weak- 
nesses. The art to he learned 
is the most sensitive of all 
arts ; tools and materials are 
out of place, and unfit ; there 
are all degrees of qualifica- 
tion; the spirit of the room 
is indifferent ; the time is cir- 
cumscribed.aud the hall badly 
desked and encumbered with 
books. The scribe, orator, 
teacher, artist, disciplinarian, 
must work almost with the 
rapidity of liehtniog and the 
sleight-of-hand of a wizard, or 
he cannot possibly compass 
his work. If he <lo€S reach 
desired results, and make 
troops of writers where others 
have left scarcely the impress 
of one good mark, he closes 
not seldom with a silent hall 
and a thankless Board. 

Still, if it happens, as it 
sometimes does, that in a hall, 
filled by that previous prep- 
aration which onlygood teaoh- 

I ing furnishes, ushers him to 

the presence of a right spirit : 
where all good aud skillful labor, on his 
part, calls forth a ready response, and all 
labor is crowned with hearty appreciation 
and abundant fruit; where faith, courage, 
hope and goodwill lighten and brighten 
every task ; then, in the glad fruition of 
these better days, all old sacrifices are made 
up, and with himself and the people the 

more, on terms of jolly good-fellowship. 

the time to subscribe for 
nd begin with the year and 

I for the 


response to work. His authority is limited ; 
and for the rales of his class teachers or 
pupils care but "ery little. How shall hi- 
succeed f He must bring a spirit strong 
budget of 1 enough and determined euough lo take the 
tend j class— teachers and all — and carry thei 

With a majority, tbe spirit is any- I stoutly through the labors of his hour, and 

Send $1 Bills. 

pur patrons to bear in mind that 
for subscriptions we do not de- 
postage -stamps, and that they should be 
it that every sent only for fractional parts of n dollar. A 
nd call for a doUar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit than the same amount in 1, 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The actual risk of remitting 
money is slight— if properly directed, not 
one miscarriage will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and where letters contain- 
ing money are sealed in preaeno* of the 
postmaster we will auom* «U tb« risk. 


Penmanship in Public Schools. 

The qnestioD, "How eliall I teach peo- 
maDshipt" is do doubt aiiked bjr everj 
teacher. It is certainly, nue of great im- 
portaoce. Teachers are likn the remainder 
of hamftuity, cither radicjil or indifferent in 
referoDce to certain dulits ihey have to per- 
form. We find one making a hobby of his 
peomaDship to the cxcliiBioo of other im- 
portant subjects; another, totally indifferent, 
tbiQks if be can nrite so it can be read 
he is doing all that is required, no matter 
how slow and labored, or if rapid, how de- 
void of form and symmetrical combination. 
The latter do doubl has obtained and holds 
the idea that penman, like poets, are " horn. 
Dot inaie." No idea could be more crrnn- 
eoiiB. Wo hear people speak of " Natural 
penman." How consoling to him who has 
eful study and prac- 
11 are endowed with 
the same genius for acriuiring penmanship 
we would not claim for a iiiomeut, any more 
than we would claim that all have the same 
aptitude for acquiring the other arls. 

We look upon it, however, as a. mark of 
imbecility for a person to RBsert that he can- 
not learn to write the twenty-six script 
capitals and the twenty six small letters, 
with their proper arrangement in word and 
page, in a good businesslike style, neatly 
and rapidly. Henry A. Spencer, one of the 
authors of the justly famous Speneerian 
System of Penmanship, said, recently, "Any 
person who has good common sense, one 
or two eyea, and five fiugers on cither hand 
can, under proper instruction, Icaru to write 
well." Much has been done by business 
colleges and epet-ial teachers to improve the 
penmanship of the people, aud their efforts 
have been in some degree, successful, yet a 
large per cent, of our populatiuu are not 
reached, and as they never get higher than 
the common school their business qualifica- 
tions are therefore very meagre. They are 
taught to Write, or rather draw, a slow and 
cramped hand, sacrificing movement to 
form. It BGoms that wo should aim to teach 
writing as business men are expected to uee 
it. Form and movement should he taught 
at the same time. Our long experience has 
convinced us that this can be done, and there 
is na reas.m why tlie young man in school 
should not write just as rapidily and busi- 
Dosa-like as the one in business. We have 
heard teachers say, " When our young men 
go into business or hold positions in busi- 
ness houses they break up the hand we 
taught them and acquire a stylo of their 
own." This, in ouropiuion, is a confession 
of the inefficient work of the teacher. The 
young iimn tiuds that ho must increase his 
speed if he would meet tho demands of the 
business world. To a great extent business 
writers put themselves into their writing, or 
in other words, exhibit their iu.lividuaUty. 
It is not ho who uudertakes to put himself 
or his style into the work of his pupils, 
who does iho best work, but ho who, full of 
enthusiasm and love for tho work, dcvolopes 
form and rapidity of execution, allowing 
the pupils to express ikeir individuality in 
their work, is tho successful teacher. It is 
difficult for teachers who 
to inspire their pujiils with much I 
the work, and I may say that a largo num- 
ber of our public school teachers are quite 
indifferent writers. 

It is not to be expected that all can be- 
come adepts, but certainly, most of them 
can, with Ijitle trouble, improve so as to do 
efficient work in teaching. In most schools 
we find tho writing-book with printed or 
engraved copies ; this is objected to by many, 
but we believe it is almost a necessity at the j 
present time. No teacher should use it ex- 
clusively, but should supplement the black- 
board and foolscap with movement and dic- 
tation exercises. Every teacher should bo 
able to writt well on the blackboard, for 
that is one of the essentials of good teach- 
ing. Tho most successful teachers of pen- 
uship are those who use the board most 

' penmen 

freely. It 



teachers to know what improvement they 
could make by writiag one line a day on the 

blackboard, as a copy, for one term, trying 
to fidlow what is suggested by the six S'a — 
size, slant, shape, space, shade and speed. 
Copies of one word at a time arc not enough. 
Many persons can wiite words as they stand 
alone very well, but fail in the arrangement 
of words in the page. Whole lines, stanzas 
of poetry, business forms and letters should 
be given frequently with definite instruc- 
tions, as to spacing and arrangement. No 
careless practice should be allowed, for uo 
amount of it will make good writers. Ca 
ful study, combined with practice, will pi 
duce the desired effect. ^' Labor omt 
vincit." — Minn. Journal of Education. 

Selected Wit and Wisdom. 

Make yourself necessary, and success is 
A bad sign — to sign another man's Dame 

Nothing is denied well-directed labor, 
and nothing is to be attained without it. 

A theory about the dead languages — 
that they were killed by being studied too 

" Well, wife, you can't say I ever con- 
tracted bad habits." "No, sir; you gen- 
erally expand them." 

A minister once took for hie morning 
text, " Ye are of your father, the devil," — 
and in the afternoon, " Children, obey your 

A witnops in court was asked if a party 
to the suit was a truthful man. " No," he 
answered, " he'd rather lie at sixty days 
than tell the truth for cash." 

Young lady (caressing a spaniel) : " I do 
love a nice dog." Dandy (near by) : "Ah I 
would I were a dog ! " Young lady (sharp- 
ly) : "Never mind, you'll grow." 

Always add a line or two on the margin 
of a letter to a lady. You can't imagine 
the satisfaction she will obtain in turning it 
upside down to read tho postscript. 

Life is like a harness. There are traces 
of care, lines of trouble, bits of good for- 
tune, breaches of good manners, bridled 
tongues, and everybody has a tug to pull 

Parson, to hoys playing on Sunday: 
" Boys, do you know what day this ist" 
"Heigho, Billy, here's a lark. Here's a 
cove as has been out all night, and don't 
know what day it is I" 

" Goods at half price," said the sign. 
"How muali is that teapot!" asked ao old 
lady. " Fifty cents, mum," was the re- 
sponse. " Guess I'll take it," she said, 
throwing duwu a quarter. The sign was 
taken in. 

A lawyer once asked the late Judge Pick- 
ens, of Alabama, to charge the jury that 
"it is better that ninety and nine guilty men 
should escape than that one innocent man 
should be punished." "Yes,'' said the witty 
judge, " I will give that charge ; but in the 
opinion of the court the ninety and nine 
guilty men have already escaped in this 

Tom Marshall was using quite abusive 
language in a Kentucky court at one time, 
aud the judge, after one or two reprimands, 
fined him ton dollars for contempt. Mr. 
Marshall looked with a smile at the judge 
aud asked where he was to get the money, 
as he had not a red cent. " Borrow it of a 
friend," said the court. " Well, sir," an- 
swered Mr. Marshall, " you are the best 
friend I have ; will you lend me tho money t" 
" Mr. Clerk," said the judge, " you may 
remit the fine. The State is better able to 
lose than I am." 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Hand- 
book of Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers; :i5 cents extra in cloth). Price 
each, separate, $1. 

One of Brother Gardner's 

"Am Brudder Stepoff Johnson in de ball 
dis eavnin' ? " asked the President as he 
arose and looked up and down the aisles. 

" Den he will please step to de front." 
Brother Johnson appeared to labor under 
the impression that a medal was about to be 
presented him for having the longest heels 
of any man in America, and his face wore a 
broad grin as he stook at the desk. 

"Stepoff Johnson !" said Brother Gard- 
ner in his most solemn tones, "I was in de 
back room of a grocery on Beaubien 
Street de odder night to bargain fur ten 
bushels of 'latere, an' I heard your voice as 
you cum in to order fo' pounds of buck- 
wheat flour, and to remark dat your ole 

DiaD sra. 

s ravin' cr 

azy wid do 


' Yes, sah, ilat w» 

s me." 

• De ole 

man Cli 

nax soon 


it wasc 

't five in 

nutes befo 

you hac 


'bout de 

aige of de 


' He doa 

n' Itnow uiiffin, sah. 

' You called liim a fool." 

' At.' he 

called me 

a liar." 

" You said he was a bigot." 
"And he said I was a humbug." 
I heard it all, Brudder Johnson, and now 
I want to talk to you a little. In the first 
place, what do you know 'bout de aige of 
de world ? " 

'* I — 1 — well, sah, what does de ole man 
Climax know 'bout it?" 

"Dat's it— what do either one of you 
know 'bout it? Nuffiu'— nufEn"t all. Dat's 
whar de trubhle cums in. Two men will 
dispute harder ober wha' they doan't know 
dau ober sidemn facks. De worf^t enemy 1 
eher had was a man who got mad at me be- 
ka<e I wouldn't bel eve in ghosts.. What 
we doan't know we often try to make up for 
in argyment. AVhat we lack in argyment 
we try to make up for in blah. It am easier 
to call a man a fo .1 dan to produce facks 
and figures to convince him dat bo am in de 

" What you believe in wid all yer heart 
may, arter all, be wrong. 

" De man who drops argyment fur epi- 
thet has no case. 

" It am only de fairest -minded men who 
ahmit deir ignorance of what dey doan* 

"Abuse may silent a man, but it won't 

"a only de bigot who prides him- 

ia cast-iron opinyums. 

n only do fool who believes asaer- 

! beka: 
"Now, Bruddor Johns 
to yer bench an' sot dow 

, you drap back 

I li'ar somebody boldly an- 
nounce dat dis world am fifty millyon y'ars 
old pick up your buckwheat flour an' walk 
home wid do refleckshun dat it wouldn't 
establish de facks in der case 


' kick I 

war' to gouge 

deir wasn't a rod of sidewalk left 

nerville.''— Zlc(*-oi7 Free Press. 

claw till 
in Gard- 

The Hand - book ( in paper ) is now 
offered free as a premium to every person 
remitting SI for one year's subscription to 
the Journal. Or, handsomely hound in 
cloth, for 25 cents additional. 

l^To those eubscribing at club rates, 
the book will be seut ( in paper ) for 2.5 
cents; (ia cloth ), 50 cents extra. Price of 
hook, by mail (in paper covers ), 75 cents • 
cloth, $1. Liberal discount to teachers and 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equaU> open to him to eay eo and teli 

It is related of a certain clergyman who 
was noted for his long sermons with many 

, divisions, that one day, when he was ad- 
vancing among the teens, he reached, at 
length, a kind of resting - place in his dis- 

j course, when, pausing to take breath, and 
asking the quostirm, "And what shall I say 

I moret" a voice from the congregation 

' earnestly responded, " Say amen ! " 


K. HQLCOMBJc CO.. Bookwllen and PublUben. 
■I'-'i. Cl»vblasd, Ohio. 

On T«c«l))t (if eiKhl Scent itampt I nill lend to Ihc 
■ubicribor a set iif a grac«riil ilyle of OlThnnd (band, 
mode) Capitnli, eimplifled in lorn— the preollce of wbich 
tana enabled me lo acquire greater profloleocy in move- 
ment for fine writing and floUTl»liing; Including, uljo. n 
■et of a neat «iyl« of ourreul ■mall letter*, and your 
■igiiatnre nrriltea and prepared lor photo-en graving. And 

choice package of a grea 

. by, 

and whlob 1 deaigtied and executed exprcMly for il, and 
wortb alODo one dollar) is an elaborate piece, eutltled, 
"Tlie Queen." This beautiful piece (invaluable alike 

of an inllnito Dumber of lines (Bimple and oompouud) in 
the execution of a single design, and so arranged as to 

■ubjeot appear grotesque. My numerous patrons will 

mpl« of my * 
II. February, 


lokesburg, Perry Co., P& 


National Indexed Atlas. 

From Government & Special Surveys. 

Iiivtilmiljie fi.r the library, the countiDg-room. scl 

JNO. W. LYON & CO., 

PRICE, $18. 
Sent from the olllce of the Joitknal on receipt of price. 

205 Broadway, New York. 

4>JUif Ibrcitit'h udvertisomcuts in the JOL'ltNAU 
holder by return mail. Address 

Peirce's Businass College, 
12-&. Eaokak, Iowa. 

ile ftutiigraphs for, Surtlif not II is only such 

npond with about this busiuess. Tbo poorer tlie 

ne figures of last mouth, ive nlll write autogruphs 
r m(ti>th— that Is. Iiir a variety of samples, iS^oeots. 
1- lEiii'. f» before. W P. COOrBH, 

X/ISITIN'O Cards written 
V Liwing rates; Speoeria 

and sent by mail at Iho lol- 

D Script. 35 ots. per doi.-l-J 

free. ». t.KRL[,ET. 

305 Broadway, New York. 

Has Experience and CapttaL 

Address BOX 493, MEDIA, 1 


(I f ' f^ /^/ ^ v/""^ — ' — — "~^ — — ^ — ', ~^^y^ ■ " ' 

f <-^ 


' "''"'Zl! '*;.':'''-''7'<fJ";<", •"»;<'-»-''■ <>fJ"Mc P^^„,Uip-^ SS-pag, S»J,5i,,„, M ,hc pri„o>fc, and ma„j d,,i,j„. for jh^ruhm.J. ,dth n,a„y ,kin.j .t.„Jard 
a«d ar„.,. alphal,,.. iM,d fr,, u,„it fur.l.r „MU,. in pap„ „„„. (f. .„^ ^™ („ ,fo,J). ^ „„^ y„„„ ^LiKin, // /Jr a „^.4<i»» '^ 
reiuiool /or t4< "Jonrno;." frict o/ Hit hoot, hj mail, in paptr, 7S cctiU ; in cfcIA, p. 

AK 1 >J<)1 I,'\AI. 

^T^Jif >»SH!»>s 


LAPILINUM 'Stone-Chih\ 

A r* 

R«II« llflilly. like K m«p. wllhoiil Injury. Un«»<m«j«rt 
mkrhhc *arfiM Kur^rior «nu>iV.1« (iiiahtlM. 
W iDCbM -Id*. I mafkiDji .T>rfiu-*. psr linmr jiird. •l.5(P 

Pot PJi In I*.IU «r ly yftfvl* iMi-h. »<»lil 111 uny •(iinTilily. 

Black Diamond Slating. 

Th- linl l.i-/i',./ Sl.itiw, [irith<-il'yepli'm)for 
Halh >t.„i lt:,>nlf>,<U. 


P>nt,ll.:»; Quvt. U; Iltltr-(>allou.«3.»); GKltOD.»li,SU. 

■lie nuinlwr luuAlly Mppllml. 
I'ted and ijivtt Ptrftcl Salu/aetwn in 

nDtven.try..f IlieCilynl New York . - " •■ 

VoH^i-M Phiirmmy * •• ■• - 

LBfayelle Cullfir^ Easlon, Ps 

Hoduoo UnWenlty Httiniltan, N. Y. 

fltevBDi Irwiiiul* of TMihnnloKy ■ - - Hulioken, N. J 
HlflTmx HIjlh «<.bool 

Bingl,am Noh.H.I ' M^lmnevil'l^.'N. c; 

I^Uff lilaD.1 EI<,.,.irHl MHt,.-a1 CnMe«P Bro,.klyL,, N. Y, 

Bqiiilnbl* Ofnlii aod Prudura BscbaDg«. 
/n tt^ Public Schools iff 
WushliifrtuD,D .(oicluMtvely). Pstcraon, N. J. 
Nen York Olty. FlunliinK. N. Y. 

San Pren<ilioo. Oal. Mt. Vemon. N. Y. 

N«WMh, N. J. PougUkeepsie. N. V. 

HontolBlr, N.J. Wuvt-rly, N. Y 

Bloomfleli), N, J. Hctiirunl. Ci 

Jereey City. N. J. Nauiruiuck, C(. 

Ber^D PoiDi, N. J. BiMthaiiiptoD, Mbm. 

Houth Orarae. N J Stiorville, Tenn. 

HobokM, N J. Ralsifth. N. C 



No. 1 ... . sii.. a.:! tMi |i,j5 

;; a - . . ■ •■ Si.3i ■• 1.7.-. 


Plain. Wllhoul Slielf. 
No. 1^ .... \et2, iooi„ . n.2.1 

TM* U vifivmialhj admitted (o ht tke heit 
material far blackboard in ate. 



Youn truly, R, BOLToJi, 

1 received youf beautiful picture to^doy. My family 


1 p«y t 



Manufjctufera of 

Strictly First-Class Veiucles Oni 
columbus, ohio- 

I Abo Qi Kwivu Ciiy. Iodi«uipol» and CtDoicitati.) ; 

The Packard Commercial Arithmetic. 

Bv S. S. PACKARD, op Packard's Business College. 



1. COMH-KTE. *W pp.. Urgf wtavo, 2. SCHOOL. a7;'> pp.. duofiwitno. 

illuD of pmclicNl teuotien. lit. They «r» apecim«Da of fine modoni bw> 

liDif. tM Tliey aiv. each in its »phere, complel* expwiiora of prncUc 

lorily te«t«I by II 

The <y>iDUl«te bnnk oovera. In the aiMi ulUboton- way. th» 
itilboul doubt, Ou moti thorough, u well aa t/u nuMl rtliabU-, biutne** 

Retail Pricen: Coiiipleie Edition, $1.50; School Edition,*!. 
Pricet to School*: Complete Edition, $1 ; School Edition, 75 oentH. 

A.J. RUUr, Treotou. N. J.; LUlibridgt i- TalMiliiu. Davenport. Iniva: A •' »'"'■•>" Ri-iin, n y ; E. A. 
Uall. L*wBD»parl. Ind; C. A. FUinittfi. Ow«n Soiinil, Onl : W. A. Fnd'lf >■■ V.,u m r c CtirtU*. 

8j-rera*e. N. Y. ; J. Geo. Crott. BloomtDgiOD. 111.: Xtr. AddU Atbro. Bait <>r i i i i. Mniili. Kuv\e 

Cn^ek, Mich r Slrunk rf JIammonit, New Albaojr, Ind,; .1. C.Jenningt Dr^ M i ■ i . n ;t.fni Qmnlia, 

Neb.; J K. Soulc. Plilladelphia. Pn.: Rrald it- Woodburs/. San Frnndeoo. (m ' > ' r > NiiOivillc. end 
Knoxville. lenn : Ittv. C. H. Dunlon. PonUmy. Vt.-. FoUom a Carhart. A\ha(,y. S V H. h HiM^rJ. tio*\oo. 
Mau. ; a. A. OaatuU, Jeracy City, N. J. ; Prektri d: Bradford, Boetoti, Mau. . f. C. Jiuuudt. Furmiugton, Me. ; 
MiUer rf SUimtU. Jeiacy City, N, J. ; S. C. Shortlalge. Media. Pa. ; J. r. Srerill. Union Springa. N. V. : Centnl 
High k^CAaoI. Brooklyn, M.Y.: & A'err. 8l. Jobni, N. B.; Bertha Barm. Lowell, Mau ; C. ir ifnlbtru, Sediilia. Mu. 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 80s Bko.u.wav. Nkw York. 



p Series of 


lacliei- xlioiild stiul; 
What win 'save tliousands of dollars. 
AVhal will prepare wvpry boy for biieiiifss. 
What will aToiil Iroiihlesome litigalioii. 
What la more imptirlant than "ulogies.'' 
What will make Ihla study teachahle. 
What liraiKih han bpen too much neKlfcted 
What Khoul.lhp used in everv achonl. 
What pvery it'acher tihnuld adopt at oiicp. 


Nkw Y 

Tenih Annual Meeting 
Business Educators' Assoc'tion 


Will be lield in the City of W<i.<hitujton,D. C, 

Beginning Tuesday, July 10th, 



On reciMjit of the pncvj< annexed, wo wlU for 
witrtl by relui-n of mail, or by exproM aa slated, 
any jiriiclc named in the following UsL 

Hy ordtring from na, patron:^ can i\'ly not otUy 
uitun locc'ivliiff a superior urtlclc but upon dnJM 
Bo ptxidiptly. 
Ames' C'onipendkum ot Om'l Penmanship, $4 so 

Ames' Book ot Alphabets i a* 

Btyant's Book-ktwpin^. Counting House Kd 3 M 
Ames' Copy Slips, for ln»lniction and prao- 

tlce in vrltlng, per sheet, containing 40 

50 sheets, (Mfiill sots of copies) 8 00 

100 •• (100 full sets of copies) & OQ 

Bristol Board, 3-sheet tbk'k,^i.iil!6 in., protit M 

" 22x2d,pcrsln;el,byexprcM.. SO 

i-rench B. B..S4XS4, " " ;» 

•• 80x40, " " .. 1 25 

Black Card Board. 22x28, for wbitc Ink 50 

Black Cards per thouButid. by tixpresa 2 OO 

perabttct, qntre, 

What's dTnii«>papeT,boi-preB».iaxa().i 15 i\% 

17x22, SO 8 W 

'I 19rM, 80 S 20 

" " " 20x<o| M 7 -w 

" " " »lx5>. I 74 JO W, 

Blank Bristol Boortl Cuda, per 100 a 

" " 1000 'by«, 1 50 

WlmiorAKe«ton'Bniprnip.Ind. Ink, srick i m 

Joe Bhcet of writing (Sirl 1 ) , including two 

atylM of 

)ne beautifttl set of Off-hand Ca[>ilal» 

o! ',> — Gili-edfte, round or'iquure' corneri ' . 
1o 4.— Oilt Bevel, extra heavy (best in" 

■-30 ■■'.,' 

- Plain Hea.yBevBl(2grtl.v.ryilyli8 


I Koplds Biuioeu College. Cedar ltii[>i( 

Cirexilari free. 

Penmanship and Art Department 


BunVmell, 111. 



Assorted expressly Tor the use of Ponmon and Card- 
wrlters-Brilllant and Durable. 

Put up lu 1-01. Aint glaM boitleM (except gold, l-vz.f -, 
one doxed In a box. i^aaX oa receipt of (1. Ctivular, 
■howiog wInn, fteut tk«o. i*ARKER M'F'G CO.. 

1-at. 735 BkoauwaT, N. Y. C. 

<!ipl«a, fi^urea. alphabets, 


aU(-«lgo. tum^ wmeV 30 !I^tmT*Kri^'^nii (very 

ronperinieti. pric«-lUt and ciroalar. addrc** 

j C. N. CRANDLE. Manager. 

: ^W BusHNELL, III. 

lifiiwl and eoKTOved e.p.^ially for displaj-ing IlandbUlB, 



MarlonvlUe, Onondaga County, New Tork, 

Pul<li«h«r of Swii^'tt IlANIi'iiOOKS OP LVK RECIPea 
l " (50 Heripe.) Content*: Black, Ifi 
id*: Red. * ynd.; Greeo. 2 kind*, 

" (100 R«oipe«) Comenla: BlKok. 3S 

"- -TO, Violet, 3 kind*. 

oe, GohU SllTc 


; Sympathetr. 
and Japan Ink*, Ink.powder. Ink* fnr marking package, 

fl for the Prkma.n'h Aut JOUanAi. (with premiam) lot 

Kiar. or 11.60 for bolh JocbMal and Otuttu. or pob- 
her'* full prioe for any Uadirifi periodical. 0. » 



Superior Writing Inks. 

lU by cbMolokl exp«ni aad 

mitiw o( hue and body. 
■Iimiioo Lh be*t> gtvcn to 
of iDk». iuJsplvd to the r* 

«uctiDg and M 

higrhert iodofw^ 
e, UDiforailty and 

he pmparaUon of 
quiremmU of ao- 

)»nn)Pn. cardwriteri aad 


MlJ. and Ibe 

Aod* of my pouoD* tbroogbou 

»«1 by Heir 

n o( tb0 opiniou of experU 


ttaMe Diuiv- 

nr Japao Ink tlie b«tt ink 
oniamenlal p«o-work. cord 



ii;aTA BveKKsa Coi.lbub 


ffiula. Ga. 

ihB market. PHLOT ii OsBOKKK. 


itwDka la your esoelleni fiaoUog. I uDooni 


RoctiMter, N, Y., Ap} 
Dear Sir: Your MercBDtile aud Carmine 


. . . . N.'V. 

■ 'o "^iy lo yoat iaqairy. 1 Ukn rjeuw ii 

yi proved it»elf (o pocseu mos 

Ukmbv McPablakd. Trea*. 

ly oominvud IIm quality, and lay it i* worthy of adaption 
by, and the txiufldeuoe of, buslueu men. Please Mod me 
over another dor.en iiuartR, uod ubllK«, 

ALLING'S JAPAN INK afTorde a fint^r line, a blacker' 

Music. Conlnut and DiBpli.y Wfnmg. '"™'"" 'P" 

rre«ly, nimlerinir the li^btetil •troheit perfectly legible and 
entire, do not ruh or apread. and oaa be employed Id Pen- 
flounihing. \..iiu.K, Price or Show Card Writing. 

ALLING'S DEEP BLACK INK.-Teachen ol Peaman- 
beat adupiwl to their um, u It wrilM blaeV, flows (roely, 
nor ihlckeua, U oou oomwive, aod fuUy raUta the action 


Japan Ink. per pint bottle, by ezpreu $1,00 

While Ink. i-o*. iwtile, by expreaa i>5 

g^Jof t^l'verliik, 1-c* botUe. byMprew 50 


5-gal. kcg». eaob. not 16 25 

IH " " ■' " 9.00 

*S '■''''• ' 33.00 

2-01, ooM buttle*, per griMs (pooked in 4-gn>. wuod 

PeMiiiau'a Ink Caljinot No. 1 (Price, SS) 

Cannine. Blue, Vi..l#i. Green, Contrast Carmine? 8o^' 
t^*ir''("bo h r ''^'"^5 ' ***' ^"''' ^'''''"" '°'^" **"* *'™* 

PeuiuHira Ink Cabinet Nu. 2 (Price, S^) 
CoDlaiu the following Ink*: 'i-oi. boiile each of Japan. 
Carmine. Bloe, Vialei, Green, Cooirait CarmiDe. Scarlet,' 
Merrantlle. Deep Blaoki toL.butlle While Iiik, and t-oi. 


and OrMmental Ink*; Price-W. with "Special Rate* to 
Agent*. Ctrculan. etv.. xrill be •eat. Addieaa, 

FRED. 0. ALLING. Ink Manufacturer, 

S^— .Vo auuihoii giMm to poUai^anl rtqii4tu far 


J Work of Surpassing Beauty, Combining Instruction in 


By a simpU, fascinating and effective «y»tem of illwtrations and explanations. 

a knowledge of the above branchex may be acquired by the student. 

toUh comparatively littU labor on the part of the teacher. 

Better than the Best of its Predecessors. 

The work has rt-ceived the higheit euilorticnieiit of tiiHiiv ol ibe mo!i>t emiiieut commercial 
teachers, who have pronouuced it •' better than the best ol its predeceaBorB." 
The completed book appeared September 10th. 1882, and has been already 

Adopted by Leading Business Colleges nnd Commercial Schools 

Throiigliout ibe country. Circulai-s containing a large itunilier of ringing testimonials, and 
giving a description of the b.K.k. itw inelhodB. confeiiin, pric**, fio.. will bf maiM to anv 

A Reference-Book and Key Free of Charge 

Will be furnished to schools adopting the work (and to schools only), by the <ih»* of wbirb the 
book can be inlrodnced at any time without inconvenience. Addreas. 


Rochester Business University. 
1-6, ROCHESTER, N. Y. 




American Popular Dictionary 


^pepmafp's ^ 

Ibo. obaplerti on Teaohin 

iIGaake s Compendium 

Learn to Write. 

a cop AGENTS WANTt.Il 



Peirce's Business College. 

And School of 2 elegraphy. 




3. Tuition, only ($35,00lthirty-8M dollan.. 

4. Board and Lodging in private family, $3.00 per week. 

ttttl, who are meeting with ordinary hoc 
tier tbeir condition, ty tboroughly und« 

ready), per pa 

mdlum in parta (6 

CoDgdon'i Nomml Lettering 

Moenta: both 

Standard Practical Penman 

Family Record. ISiti. 

Marriage Oertifloate, 18x23. 

Gartield Memorial, 19x24 - . .' 


d Flooriahed Card*, 13 dengn*, n 


J-^'t- ^ -XS Broadway, New York, 


Thiouirh this moolh 

I will tend, to any penwo's 

drew. Inoloemg fifteen 

<enl8, also their autograph, a v 

etyofaoWgiuph*, thr« 

only for practice. 

I will, upon oonitill 

ig their uutogrsph sent, prep 

thege with an eye to the 

ir taste and abiUly to develop 

good autograph by pnw 


■2. To bunt op other 

eople'e autographic vagaries u. 

produue your own »ignaUir« 

that of fnead or oorreep. 

ndeot well may l»e a great i\ 

wuer aod better. 

3. Bui one pemon m 

re in fifty can produoe a daof 



1-1. f. 

Klogiville, Ohio 

Prop. C. H. PEIKCE, President, 
keokuk. iowa. 



Landscape Paintini 

f l^*'ri'"*/M"''' °"" Illustrated M Vaut Catalogue 

J. R. HOLCOMB i CO., ATWATBii Block. 
'' '"■ Clkvbland, Ohio. 

"Laws of Book-keeping." 

AddjMS DAVLD VOOEL, Po'keepele, HA 





Wyckoff. Seamans & Benedict, 

it. ':J8L A' 283 BroadWKy, M. 


Saratoga, 35 c 

.. SCUILL., Foxbury, I 

te^ilg^ Var^ 

The Book-keeper 



Published Fortnightly. 

Selden R. Hopkins. irv,y„, 
Charles E. Spracue. f ^'""^'■ 

The Leading AccouNTANTSof America 

Devoted to all matters of special 
to Accountants. Bankers. Merchants, 
Manufacturers. Counting-room 
Atuchcs, Instructors of Ac- 
counts, and all persons 
having to do with 
the keeping of 
of account. 
Ancient and modern systems of Book- 
keeping reviewed and exemplified. 
Practical problems and questions discus- 
sed and elucidated. 
Subscription. $3.oo per annum. Single 

copies, 8 cents. 
Specimen copies sent free to prospective 
An Agent wanted in every city in the 
United States and Canada. Full com- 
pensation guaranteed. 

Thk Book-keeper, 
29 Wan en Street. New York. 
Post-Officc Address. P. O. Box 2126. 

New York Book-purchasing Agency, 


priDETO AliTHOnSIUP. rtprartlralffiiide. jivintir 
:i-6 JEMR IUnBV Ai CO , 10 Spruce St, New Toilt. 



co>nio> simiui, r.o(iK.Ki;i,i'iNr.. 





'oimd tu do llio re<niliva wnik in Im.-^ 
effci and htRli eolioula bvltci tliait u 
voi-knowU-tuie tbv public. 


>3 Broadtnty, Nen York 


I, by EsprvM 4^ 

8«d for CLivalkr. &ufiplM SENT FREE. 

D. T. AMKB. 905 BmdwBf K«w Twk 





The name ^enecrioti has been identified with a leftding 8,V8 
for over fort V years. Our Copy-books liave borue iliai deeigaali 
Peno since 18()0. More recently it haa also been used by ub aa a 
penmansliip piiblicalioufl and atalionera' Bpecialties. . . - . . , - . , 

It ia recognized everywliere aa a guaranty of the aupenorUy of anything which beare 
that well-known and etaudard designation. 

' nsed by all the beet peiinn 

lothneSB of point not found 

Samplea of the F 


ill the country. They combine a degre 

any other pena. 

'.-POINT pens sent on receipt of 3-eeDt 


I noveltiea ar 
_ _ I free from th 

iBna) defects. Tlie original receipts from which th.' Sp. n. .-i i;iti I'.hnk lult is made hare been i 
lee ill England fur over one hundrrd year*. Tli-- )iii>|m i. tn,s li;ivf devoted the greatesl car 
,nd pei-flonal attention to their preparalions, ami lully t-tUtve ihal their excellence will b 

nay prt 

led by all who 




I of superiority wbioh we claim for these pencila are, the FINEST GRAPHITE, 
Grit, and Uniformity op Grades. 
Sample-box. containing TEN pencilp, of one grade, or assorted sizes, will be seat, 
lor trial, by mail, on receipt of 40 cents. 


PreBents not only Standard Alphabets and Figures, hul a teat sentence, embracing the entire 
small alphabet. The mastery of this sentence gives, in practical writin^r, the key to all combi- 
nations of pmall letters. Tlie various scales of writing required in book-keeping, business 
forms and correspondence, as published on this Ruler, makes it invaluable to college-students, 



This new and improved penholder enables one to write ok the points of the pen, instead 
o{ across them, as with the ordinary straight penholder. The result is at once apparent in a 
greatly increased ease and smoothness in the work of writing. By the use of this holder the 
pen itself always acts upon both poi:ite, on the up and doum strokes, and besides, by the oblique 
priticipU, without cramping the poaition of the band, the pen is thrown at the proper angle to 
the letter. 

For the convenience of teachera, we will send one dozen, postpaid, ou receipt of SL 

We Cannot Fill Orders for Less than One Dozen. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway. New York. 

t^If you order phase mention this paper. G-12u 

H. W. KIBBE, Utica, N. Y. 

The Leading Work on Commercial Law. 
Class-Book of Commercial Law 


Tli.s TTnrl. II It ]>luio. pmciicAl exrlanatioB of the liiws of biiiiness, iles;^iM] and arranged esp«:ially for clua 
..r iTM'i- in.iriiiiu>ti It cuDiainH u onDiplele explauittioD »1 biLaiaew-intper, fucli as note*, dr^l*. ebtckt. bUli of lad- 
,„., f...,,,f, „u.i lu.iortemtnt*. It iiln-.) treats of oonCractr parlmTxhip. agency. inUrttt anil uniry, iaU of ptrtonal 
yr.ijiTt,,, i,„,l,iir„t. oomirum oarritrt of freight and pcuHngtrt, innktt.ptrt. rtaluliU.fornuofbatinen-paptr, eto 
1 iiiB Qo» pi.piilnrbook wu flret iuued a lilllo over one year ugu, amoe which time m peat haa beon the demancl 

ally J. 

I llioroughlij by 1M but legal talent. 

«Iil to any addrra on ivoeipt at Ooe Dollar. Addreu, 


Piisdpftl ol the Alb&oy BualncH Colls^s. 

UQ •■Unci 
t Oi Itkl 


Ihomngbly tauKhl by mfcil. 

Work 1. equal id ev.ry nsptwi tu my Obllqu. 

oua. Addnu, Puuci'a BUUKUS 





Bryant & Stratton 

Counting-House-Book keeping." 





jfD 121 WiixiAM Street, Nkw Yd 

Shading T Square. 


pidly B. lb„. 




Mired lengib 

made Ilorizonlallyor upon 



by . 

KP«M to anypivrl of Ih. 


aod d.«>nt. 



Broadn-ay, New York. 


give here 







V YORK. July 27, 1880. 



. 01 onr de Igna : 




d. Reapec 



THE above cut REPRESENT 

uAx'e Art JouHMAU 


X writing. Addrur. ] 

Pl'blisiikd Monthly 
AT 20:> Broadway, foie $1 pe 

„v...^^^' TEACHERS' GUIDE. 

New Yon 

K, N. Y., 


AS Second-Class Matter. 

D. T. AMES. EdUof and PropriHor. 


Vol. VII.— No. 4. 

No. XI.— By Henry C. Spencer. 

Copyrighted, April, 1S8S, by Sptneer Brothers. 

s and practice, aru oinhmced in each lossou of our course, 
se gives control over arm anil hand — power to execute; the 
II, spiicing and arrangement, give to the niind a clear under- 
> l><j doue; practice or application, secures the desired result — busi- 

C(M'Y 1. This h-flso,i hi.^ins with wlu.leanii-innven 
iiiiilr or loaf form. Draw a square aud a half, two ruled spaces in hight, as in copy. 
Bc^'iu in upper right-hand comer, descend, as indicated by the arrow, (with wholearm- 
iiioveiiicnt), forming the bold compound curve ; sweep round with full oval turn, and, with 
i>l.p()sitr compound curve, return to starting point; repeat the strokes about twenty times, 
1111.1 fiually teniunate with horizontal left curve, forming egg-oval, half the hight of the 
sliiii. Pnictice until freedom and good form are secured. 

The second form in the copy is the capital stem, or seventh principle, upon which 
haif of the alphabet of capiUtI letters depend for their formation. The stem must be 
mastered, as the surest and shortest means of learning tlirse letters. Observe the oval 
s\v('ep, with shade well down upon its under side. lu making A, N, after striking the 
stem with wholearm-movrmrnt, many good writera prefer to make the left and right 
curves that follow, with combined-movement, the forearm lightly poised upon its full 


Next, ])ractico the copy wlxdly with fm 
half ruled spaces in hiyht. 

taking the fun 

A, iV 

>py 2 introduces M, T. F. Mak.- sla 

(lightly raised, and make tlie left and rigli 

I t!u' couibiuod-movement- 

.srrve that the firstcurve of tlie stt-ni in T nm\ Fis 

lid M, and more upriglit. Tlie T and F may be 

f M with wluileanii- 
irve strokes Ihat folio 

<ne-lialf spaiT shorter than in 
ido throughout with wli.ih-- 

Afu-r pei-si-veiing wholearm practice, make the same letters, with forearm-movemeut. 
one luid a half spaces in hight. Ri-niember that tVa-earm -movement is simply the whole- 
iirm -movement modified by bringing the full muscle of the forearm lightly to the edge of 
the desk. Do not begin the oval shade above the middle of the stem. In striking lower 
lialf of stem, give the hand a nuirk roll leftward, to bring the pen luorr nearly in Hue 
with Ihe oval shad.-. 

Tlu- peuh..l.l.-r produe.s this sit-in iiu.i shade better than a straight huhk-r. 

Copy li. Ayain is shown IIm- .hvclopment < 

He wlio does not live in a .sludl, and is not 
relations of this art !o nature, may lift his cyci 
the gniccful elements of penmanship. P. R, Sp( 

severely praetiral to appreciate tl 
see around him, in nature's form 
9 pen, whi»di was both practical an 

We will now consider the formation of these letters more in detail. They should be 
made to fill eight-ninths of the ruled space (medium ruling), and with the conihined- 
mi.vement— •'. e., with the forearm -movement attended by contraction and extension of 
the liugei-s and thujnb. 

Capital A begins with a stem made from top downward. In this, a slight left 
cuHii', well slanted, descends half way ; continuing, an egg oval is formed on an angle 
uf fifteen d.-grtcs, two and one-Iialf spaces U-ug and one and one-half spaces high. The 

shade is entirely on the right curve of the oval. From top of stem, on the right, draw a 
slight left curve to base line; then finish with left and right cuives, short, aa per copy. 
Strokes : left, right, left, left, left, right. 

COITAL N. Form letter A to point where left curve touches base j turn short and 
ascend with left curve, two spaces high, finishing one spaco to the right. Strokes : left, 
right, left, left, left. 

Capital M. Capital stem and left curve as in ^ / naiTow turn, left curve ascends 
even with top and one space to right ; angular joining, left curve to base ; narrow turn, 
right curve on cminective slant, one space. Strokes : left, right, left, left, left, left, right. 

See in tlie monogram how the capital stem is modified at top for T and F. Describe 
the modification. Do the stems and caps join in these lettei-s ? Whore is the highest 
point in the second left curve of the cap ? 

Capital T. Capital stem, five-sixth full hight of letter, with first left curve a trifle 
fuller than in A, and more upriglit ; begin cap one space to left of atom ; loft curve one 
space, right curve one space, horizontiil waved lino three spaces. Strokes ; left, right, 
left, left, right, compound. 

Capital F. Cap and stem as in T, with ujipor curve of oval completed by a right 
curve crossing the stem. Attach the slight left curve as finish. Strokes: loft, right, 
coinpounil, left; k'ft, right, compound- 
Notice that J'has three compound curves or waved lines, two of which are horizontal. 

Study and practice the monogram containing all the letters taught in this lesson. 

Copy 4 gives practice in word-writing. See how A and JIf join to small letters. In 
■riling iVoo. and Fir, do not begin the small lettora too far from the capitals. What is 

Copy 5. lu previous lessons wo have referred to the constant tendency in our 
country, especially, toward greater simplicity in the forms of letters used in current 
writing. The capital stem, a graceful and beautiful form, hut somewhat elaborate ami 
rather ilifficult of execution, has been gradually undergoing a change, jlnd it is not uncom- 
iiHHi, now, to see it employed l)y excellent penmen, men of correct taste, omitting the 
final curve of the oval-sweep, as shown in tlm copy which is given for free practice. 

Would suggest that additional words and some jihriiscs be practiced to secure the 
greatest auiount of good from this lesson. Such as, Amendj Amendment, Amount due 

on account ; Nine, Ninety days after date ; 
Freight paid, Friends, Friendship. 

Mdse., Merchandise, Memorandum ; To 

, lei 

' If liiiily and hoiiesll; 

the high and uidih' 

kind. He who love.s u 
cutiou aufl study of thit 
mind — something to m: 
around liiui. Let, tli.'i 

1, the art of v 
which have done so mm 
lly to the refiiuunent and 
lure and admires all thai 
art s.juu'thiiii; to enlarge 

ode by side with all 
rdorn the world, and 


,,l devidi 

ike hi 

imlyli.'aulihll will find ill the 
.1 d.'velop ll,e hi^ll(■st lacultii 
■liii-li perlain.s to the welfare . 
nirtifiil knowl.'dge of tlii.^ art 

A Remarkable Maine Girl. 
In the plantation of Oaktield, Aroostock County, Maine, there is a girl wlio poasesaes 
the faculty of apelliug difficult ivords backward without hesitation. Her name is Hattie 
M. Drew, she is just past tier twelftti birthday, and reaidea with her parents, who are 
people of moderate education, living upon a farm. Wliile the little girl is bright and 
smart as the average of her mates, elie never attracted any particular attention until, a 
little more ttian a year ago, it was accidentally discovered that she possessed the aingular 
gift of spelliug any word witli which she was acquainted, backward and without hesita- 
tion. \\. a spelling-match recently held in the school which she attends, without any 

warning fitie stood before the audience for some 
random — some for their difficulty of combinatioi 
of wliat they were to be, rapidly and correctly, 
spell in the proper way, and when prompted in 

-but wii 
icept on. 

, spelling words selected at 
ut any previous knowledge 


uld I 

rrect spelling would immediately 
reverse it. Among the worda which she spelled were theae: Galaxy, syzygy, astronomy, 
robin, phonography, difficulty, attendance, indivisible, etc., and many other \iords of 
equal length and difficulty. All of these were spelled as rapidly aa the eye could follow, 
wilhoul a sinple misplacement of a letter. Has any other person without any training 
been al)le to do this or similar feats t In addition, it may be said, upon the testimony 
of the girl, that " alie can see the words in her mind, and knows no reason why she 
hould not read the letters backward as in the uaual way." -Boston Journal 




The Pen's Part in Literature. 

Bv Paul Pastnob. 
This little ida^c iDilnimeiit, the pen, 
H««iii8 no clusel; tu coonect iUelf vitb the 
thought aod perBonality of hitn who Dses it 
an to become, in a cerlaiu sennp, part of 
himself — a power, aju it were, working cod- 
joially with the micid in the production of 
that which pasffes iiito the form of writing. 
So real, indeed, is this relation, that it h&s 
been eTerjwhere noted and accepted. We 
Mj, that such and sQcfa a person wields a 
facile pen — we mean, that he is a ready 
writer, that bis thoughts flow easily and 
gracefully. Another, we say, has a trench- 
ant pen; he is a strong, terse writer. Still 
aLother, we say, is gifted with a sharp pen ; 
the qualities of keeo wit, rapid analysis, 
Biid the power and boldness of a quick sar- 
casm transferriug tbeiiiBelves, by a per- 
fectly natural figure, to the instrument 
which he uses to express them. All these 
varied allusions are, of course, the mere 
play of fancy between thought and that 
which reproduces thought, and may be ap- 
plied with equal readiuess aod propriety to 
other means of expression. As, for instance, 
to say that an orator whose opiuioDS are 
very pronounced, speaks " with no uncer- 
tain lone" — here again the instrument par- 
taking of the nature of bim who uses it. 
Or, by a still wilder flight of fancy, do we 
nut say that a sharp writer " wields a keen 
blade " T The blade has nothing to do with 
the writing, plainly, but it is entitled to a 
comparison with the thought of the writer 
because of its quality of sharjmcHS. I would 
not, therefore, urge in any servile, literal 
way the close kinship of pen and thought. 
Wliat I shall aim to do, in this paper, is to 
show tliat the pen is wedded to thought and 
personality, in writing, by other ties than 
those of mere association. I would show 
that the writer comes to depend upon the 
pen as a sort of vade mecum, without which 
he cannot attain his usual facility and grace 
of expression ; that the pen endears itself to 
bim who uses it, and comes to he a personal 
force in all that be writes. And thus I 
would show that the terms by which the 
pen is associated with the mind— terms so 
frequently and so aptly used — do not depend 
upon servile association for their appropri- 
ateness, but are true aside from all figurative 
allusiou and fanciful application. 

Men of literature — constant writers — are 
those who especially come to value the pen 
as the fit partner in their labors. It would 
be hard, indeed, to say what would have be- 
come of literature if the pen had never been 
invented ; if men bad been restricted to the 
use ot the old stylus and the pencil, and other 
rude and imperfect writing-instruments, up 
to the time of the invention of the type- 
writer. It is, at least, safe to assume, I think, 
that wo should have had very much fewer 
modern books, and that those wc did have 
would have been very much less finished 
and delightful in style than the best books 
of to-day. There seems to be a siogular 
Hjipropriateness in the pen as an instrument 
for iuterpreliog and sustaining thought. 
There must be a most delicate and complete 
harmony between the mind and the symbols 
it employs, in order that thought shall flow 
freely and consecutively ; and this harmony 
the pen suppUes. It has two qualities which 
are eminently essential — positJveness and 
fineness. Both these the pencil lacks ; it 
makes an indeterminate, faint and compara- 
tively coarse mark. It does not present 
firmly, and yet delicately, to the eye thn 
ideas which the mind is striving to put into 
outward form. I venture to say that very 
few, if any, of the leading literary works of 
modern times have been composed with a 
pencil. And as to the type-writer, I am 
very sure that no original work of perma- 
nent value will ever be accomplished by its 
means. It is well nigh impossiple to con- 
duct a long train of reasoning, or to paint a 
brilliant picture in words, without the de- 
IaUb before one's eyes. As well might an 
artist think of painting a noble landscape, 
sitting behind his easel and touching keys 
which impress certain colors on the canvaa! 

e that cold assem- 
I had been placed 

The background and the "atmosphere," io 
writing as well as in painting, most be kept 
constantly before the eye. Cons'stent and 
harmonious work cannot be done under any 
other conditions. The pen is the only in- 
strument which will ever be used with real 
success in making the original draughts of 
the best literary work. It is perfectly 
adapted, by a sort of final selection and sur- 
vival of the fittest, for that purpose. It is 
thus that literary men come to depend upon 
h a* the necessary condition of their best 
work. I have been a little curious to know 
if writers generally would be converted to 
the use of the caligrajih ; but, so far as I 
have been able to observe, very few literary 
men have been led to make use of it, except 
in their correspondence or for copying pur- 
poses. "Why do you not use the type- 
writing machine?" a friend asked of an 
author. " Its work is so much more rapid 
than that of the pen, and makes better 
copy." "I have tried it," was the reply, 
" but find that I can do nothing with it in 
the way ttf composition. I am as much 
lost for ideas, sitting beft. 
blage of keys, as thougli 
before a piano and told to compose a sym- 
phony. No. there is nothing like the old 
familiar pen for literary work." 

A strong attachment grows up in the 
writer's mind for the little instrumeut which 
has strved him so faithfully and with such 
sympathy during the years of bis solitary 
labor. A tenderness and consideration almost 
like that which is felt for an old and tried 
friend, inspires his thought of the tiny servant 
of his genius. I remember seeing the fac- 
simile of a letter written by Oliver Wendell 
Holmes to Mabie, Todd and Bard, the 
makers of his favorite gold pen. One of 
the points of the pen had been accidentally 
broken, and Mr. Holmes inclosed it with 
the letter, requesting that, if possible, the 
little friend which had journeyed with him 
through the pages of the " Autocrat of the 
Breakfast-table" might be granted another 
lease of life, for he could not bear to part 
with anything which had rendered him such 
long and faithful service. 

Every constant writer knows how his in- 
dividuality comes to adapt itself to a cer- 
tain pen, or grade of pens, till be feels lost 
and embarrassed if another is put in his 
hands. It is but natural to suppose that 
much of the spirit and power of a literary 
production depends upon this familiarity 
with, and attachment to, a particular pen. 
The mechanism of thought is exceedingly 
delicate, and its fine balance-wheels are at- 
fected by the slightest disturbance. The 
annoyance and embarrassment arising from 
a ])en which does not fit one may very easily 
bo imagined to afi'ect a piece of fine writing, 
where every touch must be as delicate and 
artistic as the lines of a picture. So the 
pen, the fit instrument of the mind's higher 
expression, has its part., and an important 
one, in literature. It may fitly he called 
one of those ideal inventions which immedi- 
ately and perfectly fulfill the end for which 
they were designed. Without the pen, our 
literature would have been scanty and im- 
perfect, compared with what it now is, and 
the world would have lost much precious 
thought for lack of a ready and adequate 
means of expression. 

A Mysterious Warning, 

I found myself alone upon the earth at 
an early age. My parents and my four sis- 
ters had been swept away, oue after the 
other, the latter by pulmonary diseaaes, and 
the former by fever. 

Having buried the last survivor — my sis- 
ter Juliet — I determined to go back to my 
native village (Greenmount), from which 
we removed when I was a child of eight 

In my lonely condition, I fancied that the 
scenes of my childhood were better calcu- 
lated to revive the home feeling than those 
of the multitudinous city, where nobody 
knows whether anything is alive or dead. 

Knowing Bomething of medicine and the 

use of drugs, I believed that I could do well 
in Greenmount with a little apothecary shop; 
and, accordingly, I went thither and sbeU'Cd 
my latinized jars and bottles, in a small one- 
storied tabernacle, by the roadside, where all 
passers by might observe the sign of ^scu- 

I had been established in ray new quarters 
a couple of weeks, our old acquaintances of 
the village bad begun to find me out, and 
my custom was rapidly increasing, when I 
received a note, through the Post-office, 
couched in the following terms : 

"Sib: — As a friend, I warn you that 
your life is in danger. If you consult your 
own safety, you will leave this part of the 
country without a moment's delay. Time 
presses ; you have not a moment to spare. 

It was warm weather; the wiudow was 
open, and, with a loud laugh, I flung this 
missive out of the window. It alighted upon 
the long grass without, which some laborers 
were preparing to mow. I then very philo- 
sophically proceeded to read a medical trea- 
tise, determined to treat the foolish note 
with the contempt which it merited. But 
when the day was far spent, and the sun 
was obscured by the western clouds, and the 
night was approaching, I could uot remem- 
ber the words of that note witliout a shud- 
der. It is true, thought I, that I have not 
an enemy in the world; but why, then, 
should anybody be so mean as to try to 
make me unhappy — to alarm me with such 
threateningst Surely it is uot a friend who 
would do such a thiug as that, unless he 
had cause. Nobody bui an enemy would 
wantonly send me a note of that description. 
It must be either an enemy or that thing 
worse than enemy — a professional mischief- 
maker — of which almost every village may 
claim one. 

The night came on apace, and in her sober 
livery were all things clad. Silence accom- 
panied for beast and bird ; when I beard a 
gentle tap at my shop-door. 

" Entrez ! " said I. 

I heard departing footsteps, and going to 
the door, I called to a retiring individual 
and asked him why he didn't come in. 

"Because you told me to go away," replied 
a man in a blouse, as he came back to the 

"No; I said, 'come in.'" 
Accordingly, the man came in and sat 
down in silence, as if about to hold a Quaker 

"Well, neighbor," said I, at length, "what 
can I do for you ? " 

"Nothing's I know on," observed he, paw- 
ing his hair with oue hand, and thrusting 
his other hand into his pocket. 

After waiting another five minutes, the 
stranger handed mo a crumpled piece of pa- 
per, which he signified was my property. I 
spread out the scrap, and discovered that it 
was the note which I had thrown out in the 

" I've seen this before," said I. " It is a 
note which I received to-day, and I served 
it as I serve all anonymous letters : I threw 
it out of the window." 

" Yes, sir. I was mowing out there, and 
I found it on the grass. What are you go- 

" Do ! what do you mean t " demanded I. 

" This note means that somebody is seek- 
ing your life — " 

"Pshaw I man! I'm not fool enough to 
believe that note." 

"Then, sir, you'd better believe it, I 

" Come, come, neighbor, don't go too far, 
or you'll get yourself in a pickle," replied I. 

" You seem to know too much about this 
matter. Will you say that you know my 
life to be in danger?" 

" That's nyther here nor thar," answered 
the rustic. " I know who rit that note, and 
I think you'd better 'tend to it." 

" Well, who wrote it ? " I asked. 

"It's a 'sponsible person who wouldn' 
write such a note for mere sport, I lino^ 

" How do you know it was written by 
such a person?" 

" I know the handwriting," said he. 
" Thar's only one person in the village who 
can write like that thar." 

Again telling me that I had better heed 
the warning given me in that note, the man 
got up and left. As soon as ha was gone I 
examined the chirography of the note. It 
was certainly neat — much like copper-plate. 
It was, thereftirc, a person of some preten- 
sions to education who stooped so low as to 
write an anonymous letter. The more cause 
to suspect that the note contained some 
truth. The man who had just left seemed 
positive, though bis thesis was grounded en- 
tirely upon the respectability of the anony- 
mous writer. He did not pretend to speak 
from his own knowledge. 

Who then was this important personage 
who subscribed himself " Your Friend " ? 


surely, if there was only one person in town 
who could write well, it ought to be no diffi- 
cult matter to discover him. I would ask 
the principal meu in the village for their 
autographs. I had an album in which were 
already the distinguished names of John 
Quincy Adams, Levi Lincoln, and George 
Bancroft. I would send it around the vil- 
lage, and in that trap would I catch as big a 
bug as " Your Friend." 

On the next day I commenced. 1 sent ray 
album to three of the selectmen and the 
towu-clerk, all of whom gave me their au- 
tograjths readily, and although I did not 
thus achieve my object, yet so flattered were 
these gentlemen when they saw their names 
beside those of Lincoln, Adams and Ban- 
croft, that they instantly transferred alt 
their custom to me, and I felt myself abso- 
lutely in danger of becoming a rich man. 

But in the midst of all this success there 
were not wanting mementoes »f the fatal 
note — reminders that the sword of Damocles 
was continually suspended over my head. 
The principal one of tiiese happened at my 
boarding-house. Owing to the hot weather 
I slept with the lower saah of my window 
raised. A light from a house opposite 
shone in at my window and illuminated the 
opposite wall. My back was towards the 
window as I lay in bed, and I was on the 
point of dropping to sleep, when I perceived 
that something was diirkening the light ou 
the wall. I lay perfectly still, though now 
wide awake, and soon became convinced 
that a burly human head was slowly rising 
above the sill of the wiudow, and this head 
it was that threw its shadow upon the light 
spot on the wall and partially obscured it. 

I turned suddenly, crying, at the same 
time, " Who's there ! " 

The head immediately dodged down, and 
a muttered curse f<dlowed, and alt was silent. 
I jumped out of bed and ran to the window. 
I saw a fellow just turning the comer of the 
house, and I regretted that my clothes were 
ofl", otherwise I would have pursued the 
villain till I discovered who he was. 

After this it did seem to me as if I w<ta 
rushing ruefully on my fate by remaining 
at Greenmount. Yet I was pleased with the 
place and with the people of the village ; 
my business was good and rapidly improviug: 
but, above all, I had my eye fixed upon a 
lovely young lady who led the choir of the 
village church. Thus far I had not dis- 
covered her name. I only knew that I was 
charmed with her appearance, with her voice 
and manner. She appeared to be the moat 
amiable of human beings. 

Could I leave the village under such I'ir- 


t the I 

) of the 

beautiful singer ; but I durst not make any 
inqniries. Had 1 done so the fact would 
have been known in every house in the 
township before night, and finally the story 
would have run that we were engaged to be 

At length I met the young girl at a party- 
She was introduced to me by the name of 
Smith; and as there was more than one 
family of that name in town, I still remained 
aa much In the dark as ever, except thatahe 

noon gave me to DDcleratand that the fancy 
which I had conceived for her was bj no 
means reciprocated. 

It was evident that Miss Smith regarded 
me with aversion. She looked at me fre- 
-lucnlly. Turning ray bead suddenly, I 
would detect her in the act of perusing my 
features with close attention. She seemed 
lo regard me with a great deal of curiosity; 
but that was all. She avoided me on every 
occasion; and this she did in so ingenious 
and stealthy a manner that it was not cal- 
culaled to attract attention. It was, there- 
fore noliccJ by no one hut myself. 
This conduct on the part of Miss Cornelia 

Smith discouraged uw for mak- 

ing any advances. Although, 
whenever I looked at her, she 
appeared handsomer and more ' 
attractive than when I saw her 
last ; yet such was my peculiar 
nature that the slightest suspi- 
cion of being unwelcome was a 
sufflcienl bar to my intrusion— a 
fence too high to he overleaped. 
I could not endure the idea of 
forcing myself upon anybody. 

It will be seen, therefore, that 
there was but a slender prospect 
-more slender than the most 
corseted waist even of a Mary- 
land girl— that Cornelia and I 
shoulil ever tread life's thorny 
path together. 

Yet I was curious to know 
why she hated me so bitterly, or 
what she saw in my appearance 
or in my manners that revolted 

Cornelia was the first girl in 
whom I had felt a peculiar in- 
terest; it is not strange, there- 
fore, that I wauled to know why 
she shunned me. 

With me things were not in a 
happy condition. My life threat- 
ened, an,l I not knowing from 
what quarter the blow would 
come, deeply in love with one 
whom r felt myself forbidden to 
approach, my spirit began to 
sink, and this had a sinister ef- 
fect on my business. Customers 
were not so well satisfied with 

lo cmel, so miserable a hoax. 
At any rate the partition wall v 
B no longer any r 

I should he 


aelia Smith 
for, if she had gone so far as to send me i 
note before she had been introduced to me, 
I might well claim acquaintanceship with 
her and seek for an explanation to thai 
note. Glad was I of the excuse lo open a 
correspondence with Cornelia. 

I wrote her a note immediately, in which 
I mentioned the discovery I had made 
and begged her to inform me whether my 
life waa really in danger. 

ipable of threatened, and that a young Udy should 

he mixed up in the affair, 
s broken I Sauntering through the principal street of 
that 'lie village shortly after receiving Comelia'i 

:e, I passed an apothecary shop and noticed 
the name on the door, "Caleb Smith." 

Now, I had always known that my rival 
in business was one Smith, but, till now, I 
had never perceived that he bore the same 
name as the girl whom I loved, and now 
I I recollected that I had heard Cornelia 
spoken of as the daughter of "Doctor 
' Smith." 

This apothecary must, then, be the father 
of Cornelia. This seemed lo account for the 

^^ f, NVEETmc OF r;/£ 




I ,,, . ' ^ — i.i<>iir>t l<>.l<S(S;i- 


cTlV„U,.t,,o wai. ajo l!u- w(a oC Coni '.vfilX 


;o,ivctoo) iiVii' .V ivilictiu 

; /?ief/?fia/tMvt' 

ind I had b 
lusly of lea> 
ng employn 

I the 

to think seri- 
^wn and seek- 
3 the city when 

my resolution. A Mis 
had sent me her alhun 
request that I would wi 

As I turned over the leaves, I 
was struck motionless by en- 
countering the name of Cornelia 
Smith at the bottom of one of 
the pages. It appeared that Cor- 
nelia had written some lines in 
the album, and I judged them 
to be original. There was noth- 
ing remarjiahle about the com- "' 
position, but I was forcibly struck 

by the handwriting. It seemed 

to me that I had seen that style of penman- 
ship before. 

I lost no time in hunting up the warning 
note which I had received from "Your 
Friend," and on comparing the note with 
the piece in the album, signed Cornelia 
Smith, not a shadow of doubt remained 
that both pieces were wril 

md out my anonymous correspond. 





\ ought to be tarred and feathered and ridden 
upon a rail. 

Timeworeon,aiid"Dr S mm h" complained 
that I got away his best ciiMuoiers. About 
that time, Siriith wrote tlu words of that 
warning note on a slip of paper and told his 
danghter Cornelia to copy them off on a 
sheet of leller-paper. Cornelia knew no 
more than the dead what use her father waa 
going to make of the letter after she had writ- 
ten It ; and it was not until I wrote demand- 
ing an explanation that she discovered I waa 
the person whom her father intended to 

U wUI be seen, therefore, that the note 
— - was sent to me by a rival 
apothecary in order to frighten 
me out of the village. As for 
the big head which appeared 
one night at my window, it 
stood on the round shoulders 
of one Buttrick, a man-of-sll- 
work who had been employed 
by Doctor Smiih to hack up 
. his terrible warning by stick- 
ing his head into my window 
in the dead of night Sehcted. 

, Religious Ideas. — The 
I new idea, if it is religions, 
I however rapidly it may ad- 
vance, never advances like a 
Hood or a tire ; never affects all 
it touches, but leaves bits, 
I spaces, eections of humanity, 
, individual people, as wholly 
I unaffected as if it had not 
I passed by at all. In some 
well-known cases whole races 
I escape; in others, whole casts; 
in others, single men. Christi- 
anity waa founded by Jews, 
preached by Jews, died for by 
Jews, yet Jews are the only 
people living directly and al- 
ways within its influence, upon 
whom, in 1,800 years, that 
creed has made no impression 
at all. They have shown them- 
selves the most receptive of 
races of all systems of thought, 
except that single one. There 
are probably more Jew Kan- 
tians than Jew Christians. 
Christianity is Asiatic, yet be- 
tween it and most Asiatic races 
there seems to exist some in- 
visible wall, capable of being 
pierced, for it ia pierced for 
individuals, yet as a whole as 
durable as adamant. 

Protestantism was fifty years 
conquering England, counting 
from Latimer's eermon to the 
Aot against priests, and during 
all that time there were broad 
spaces, classes, families into 
which it made no entrance, or, 
entering, was abhorred.— ITie 


'.!,ra„rf/„„ cepy ,«c„«i a, ,*, „^-„ of ,U-J.^„.V' (,;„ of „Ujin.l. 1,^18^ . | ... 

and w fftirn as a specimen of enyrotting. 

— ^ Leigh Hunt, Superintendent 

On the Ktme day I received the following ! fact that the young girl had alwavs avoided TTT^ 1 *"'"''''» 7"' »" Moines, ha« 

answer : ' jouug giri nau always avoided adopted a plan of giving practical in- 

- Your note is ins. received I , rn,''a1 '"""«t'"^ '! '" "'''' ""^ ''"■ """'"°° '" """'"S "■"' ""ing """-"J'- 

received. , «<■» - """- She had m all prohabiU.y In the first place he encourage' all the 

hlr '"f*"^'!""''' °f ""= ^ "» i«er- children to open bank accounls, and to 

loper who had set up shop in the village to ' learn how to do business at a hauL. Bov, 

would give you a full anii satisfactory 
swer if possible, but that my duty to a third 
party forbids. 1 cannot speak the who 



- I "■"<^> liut of one thing 

the same , sured, your life is not in danger. That was 

a false statement. Nobody has threatened 

pu. I am not at liberty to say any more 

correspondon w Corneha Smith. She had N„„. .his I deemed a great conques^to 
my life was in danger, and | receive a communication from Cornelia and 

tell why I get away his customers 

Peeping in at the front door,' I ..„ 
nelia behind the counter. In I popped 
found that the young girl was alone ii 



bad bidden me Hy hence. What could h 
been her motive! I was a perfect stranger 
to her. Why should she seek to annoy and 
terrify me in that manner unless she had 
diBoovered that my life really waa threat- 
ened! But waa it probable that th" • 

' vj.^uug I iiiover in ine disrei 

girl could make any such discover, t Still { seemed very strange 

less DrohahlA vcaa W tl . /l n. _i 1. . ... ' ° 

less probable 

ase in regard 

w strange that Cornelia sliould 

it, and (in heaven's pure name .') 

third parly of whom Cornelia ; 

ho was doubtless the prime 
the disreputable affair t But it 

As we had been introduced to each other, 
' entered into conversation ; and thus 
iimenced an acquaintance which ripened 
^ months the town-clerk pub- 

t that Somebody I when 1 

fast. In th 

After our marriage, Cornelia let out the 
whole tnith in regard to the note which had 
given me so much trouble. 

that her father was very wroth | The work 
Ulage and set up my good effect 

with rich fathers, boys with poor fathers, 
and boys without fathers or mothers were 
incited to earn money in honest and manly 
ways. They black boots, deliver papers, 
shovel snow from sidewalks, and carry in 
coal. Not a few are learniug trades during 
odd hours, and many have tools which they 
work witli at home. Those who are doing 
mechanical work which requires considerable 
skill meet and compare the articles they have 
made. There is a friendly rivalry to see 
who will have the largest bank account and 
furnish the best specimens of handiwork. 
;hool is said to have a 
work done in school. 

^vewrittentheno.i'trg^r;:^^ \ t;^:^,^:^^:'^^^ ' ^T e^^ r r ""^ "-■^--'- 1 —"» a reputation for thri,., 

danger wa. enough for Creenmount and that I | skiU and economy as weU as for scholarship 




Articu IV. 

Bt D. T- Ames. 

DItp«lcb U tba •onl of baiiii«u.— Eakl CBSffTXR- 

Id oar prcMDt article we purpose to treat 
more especially upon kusiness comepood- 

Letters of Itasioees ehoold be character- 
ized by coarteny, l-revity and clearnesa; the 
writer should aim at the greatest degree of 
coDcisencss consistent with a clear state- 
ineot of biB purpose, and confine biiimelf 
Htrictly to the businesu in hand. We are 
informed by a Post-office official that up- 
ward of 2,000 letters are daily delivered to 
many of the large banks and business 
houses of this city. In moat of these houses 
the hours of business are from i) A. H. 
to 4 P. M., giving seven hours, without in- 
termissioo, 420 minutes, thus allowing to a 
single correspondent about one-fifth of a 
minute to open, read and dispose of each 
letter. Our readers may imagine the de- 
light with which such a correspondent would 
open a letter covering three or four badly 
written psgea of letter or cap paper, with 
matter irrelevant, perhaps impertinent, or 
asking tguestions and personal favors, to an- 
swerer grant which would conBume, not min- 
utes, but hours of time. We lately received, 
in a morning's mail of about one hundred 
letters, one miserably scrawled over nearly 
four large tetter-sheet pages, from au utter 
stranger, detailing all the circumstances of 
his late venture at hop-raising, and Unally 
asking us if we would not "please ini|uire 
the true state of the present hop-market, 
and write mo what I can get for my hops, 
which are of A No. 1 quality." A stamp 
was inclosed, which, of course, would notonly 
pay for postage and stationery, but leave 
H large balance to ])ay for some half a day nf 
our time, required for investigating the hop- 
market, and reading and answering his 

We scarcely need say that such letters 
nhould never be written, and when received, 
if courteous, they should be answered briefly 
by postal-card ; it otherwise, consigned un- 
answered to the trash basket. 

All legitimate business letters should be 
promptly answered, and under no circum- 
stances should a discourteous or au anony- 
irous letter bo written, nor need such be au- 

To the end, that a letter upon any sub- 
ject may have the appropriate arrangement, 
aud be complete and elegant in all its parts, 
a writer should devote sutEcient thought to 
its snbjeet-inHtter before even beginning to 
write, to euable him to mentally arrange the 
loading features of the contemplated letter; 
he will thus often avoid the great iuconveu- 
ience of an awkward beginning and con- 
struction throughout his letter. There are 
few things iu which tlie old adage, "that 
a thing well begun is half done" is more 
true than of letter-writing. 

Arranged in accordance with a proper 
method, its composition becomes natural and 
etuty; otherwise, it is awkward and harass- 
ing. Phraseology that is careless or am- 
biguous should be carefully avoided ; from 
such, much mischief is liable from annoy- 
ing coutroversies— not to say costly litiga- 
tions. While reading important business 
letters, to which future reference is probable, 
it is well to mark or underscore, with a blue 
or red pencil, the most important parts ; after 
which, the letters should be filed for conven- 
ient reference by writing upon their backs the 
name of the writer, date on which written, 
and the prominoni points of their contents. 
The forms and purposes of business let- 
ters are altogether too multitudinous to ad- 
mit of the presentation of exami>le3 ap- 
plicable to every phase of business; nor do 
wo deem it necessary ; for in all cases the 
leading eiwentiala of a business letter are the 
fame, the philosophy of which being under- 
stood all the details of eorreepondenco will 
come tasily and naturally. 

Business correspondence may, however, 
be cltssified, generally, under four heads, 
viz: Firs*.— Announcements, which are 

. Busixess-Let 

,nd-ink copy prepared at the office of the "Journal." 

circulars and letters giving notice of the 
establishment, purposes and changes of any 
business. Second. — Solicitations, which are 
letters aud circulars inviting patronage. 
Third. — Management, which embraces all 
letters or notices relating directly to the con- 
ducting of the business, i^our//*.— Miscel- 
laneous, which embraces a largo class of 
letters which, though not directly pertaining 
to business, are incidental thereto, such as 
letters of credit, introduction, rommeuda- 


Business Letters. 

New Yokk, March 10th. 18SS. 
Mj{. Henky Faithful, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Sir : — We beg to iufonn you that the under- 
signed, on the 8th instant, entered a partner- 
chip under thu tirm name of CuE>hmaii &. Jeu- 
iiiDgs, fur the purpose of couduciing a retail 
iiudjobbiug eommisBion business at 478 Broad- 
way, New York. 

Long aud varied experience in this line ol 
business, united with ample meaus, enables m 

that any buHiiieas tbey 
11 receive prompt and 


Soliciting your patronage, we are. 
Very Reflpeolfully, 

Jamks M. Cusuman, 
William Jennings. 

New York, March 10th, IHSS. 
Mjwshs. H. B. CLAiaiN iSi. Co. 

Gentltmtn : — You are hereby informed that 
the partnership hitherto existing under the 
tirm name of Williams, Jones & Hunter, has 
been this day diesolved by mutual couaeut. 

The busiueee will be continued ai the same 
place by Mr. J. M. Hunter, who is authorised 
to settle all partuerehip matters. 
Very espeotfully, 

James C. Williams, 
John E. Jones, 


Letter or Credit. 

Boston, Jan. lotk, ISSS. 
Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., 
New York. 
Omtiemtn . — Please give the bearer Henry 
M. Mason, a cash credit tu an amouut not ex- 
ceeding $10,000, for which Bum draw on us at 
short eight. 

Inclosed you will find the signuture of Mr. 
Mason. Yours Truly, 

WiLLAKD &. Hastings. 
Mr. Maton't lignalure. 

Henry M. Mason. 

Order for Merchandise. 
103 State Street, Chicago, 111., 

March lit, 188J. 
D. T. Ames, Puulisiier, 

205 Broadway, New York. 
Sir : — Please send me per U. S. Express. 
"250 copies of Ames's Hand-book of Artistic 

Penmanship, in cloth. 
150 copies of Ames's Hand-book of Arlittic 

Penmanship, in paper, 
'25 copies of Ames's Compendium of Orna- 

meutul Peumansliip. 
50 gross of Ames's Penman's Favorite Pens. 
.\ud oblige, 

Yours Truly, 

Thos. E. Hill. 
Notice of Draft. 

Boston, Jan. lOth, 18S3. 
Messrs. D. Appleton Jt. Co., 
New York. 
Gentlemen : — We have this day drawn upon 
you, at sight, hs per your advice, for fifteeu 
hundred dollars ($1,50U), amount due us for 
balance of nccoimt. Trusting that you will 
honor the same and oblige, we remain, 
Very Respectfully, 

Lee &. Suepard. 

REyUEST for Settlement. 

PlIILADELflllA, /''ei. loth. 1S8S. 
Messrs. Jones &. Carter, 
New York. 
Gentlemen : — Permit us to remind you that 
your account is now past due, and to request 
you to favor us with your check lor the amouut, 
^7i>, if poasible. that it may be available to us 
before the '20ih iust., as we ahall then be iu 
need of all the funds at our command. Trust- 
that you will oblige us, we remain, 
Yours Respectfully, 

Williams & Johnson. 
Request for Extension op Time. 
New York, Feb. 12th, 1S85. 
Messrs. Wiluams «t Johnson, 
Gentleman : — In reply to yours of yesterday, 
requesting our check for the balance of our in- 
debtedness to you, we regret to say that, owing 
to our late very heavy losses by tire as well as 
our slow coIleciioDB, we are unable, at this 
time, to comply with your request. Our los8e!> 
by fire are, however, fully covered by iusur- 
ance, of which there is a prospect of immediate 
payment; in which case we shall favor you at 
ouce with our check for amount due you. Hop- 
ing you will sufler uo inconvenience by our 
delay, we are, Very Respectfully, 

Jones & Carter. 
(To be continued.) 

Educational Notes. 

nale County Supei 

[Communications for this Department may 
be addressed to B. F. KelleV,205 Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational items solicited.] 

Illinois has eight 
intendents of schools. 

Pennsylvania has appropriated $15,0UU 
for a city superintendency of education. 

Gov. Crittenden »ay8,"ParBimony towards 
education is hberality towards crime." 

Canada has forty colleges, the United 
States 358, aud England 1,300.— PubUc 
School Journal. 

Johns Hopkins University has an endow- 
ment of $3,500,000, an income of $200,000, 
and 132 students. 

The University at Lewisburg, Pa., has 
received a gift of $100,000 from William 
Bucknell, of Philadelphia. 

The Board ot Education ot St. PauI, 
Minn., have introduced temperance text- 
books into the city schools. 

The annual report of the Hampton (Va.) 
Indian School, shows thirty Indian girls and 
fifty-four Indian boys iu attendance. 

According to the last census, there are in 
this country 4,9*23,451 persons unable to 
read, aud 6,239,959 unable to write. 

The Pittsburgh Dispatch complains that 
more than ten per cent, of the public school 
children of that city are near-sighted. 

Williauis College receives $50,000, to be 
added to its general fund, frotu tlie will of 
the late Edward Clark, of Otaego County, 
N. Y. 

Texas yet has 50,000,000 acres of unsold 
school lands. This will soon give her the 
grandest school fund of any country on the 

There are 40,0110 children iu Cincinnati 
of school age who do oot know their alpha- 
bet, and are growing up in ignorance. — 17« 

John Welles Hallenbeck, of Wilkesbarre. 
Ponn., has presented $50,000 to Lafayette 
College, at Easton, Penn., to endow the 
chair of the President. 

George Munro, the publisher, has en- 
dowed three new tutorships— Latin, Greek 
and mathematics — in Dalhouai College, 
Halifax, N. S., with an income of $1,000 


j^jL:u-ni^fQ f-.\ 

The fioest duine io this country, except- 
iog that of the Capitol at WashiDgtoD, is 
to be placed upon a new Catholic Univeraity 
in Notre Dame, Ind. It is to be 200 feet 
in higbt and will cost about $.10,000.— JV^. 
r. ffcrald. 

Educational Fancies. 

[ In ever^ iii8l»rice where tlif source of any 
item U8«i in this department is knowu. the 
proper oredit is given. A like courtesy from 
olheps will be appreciated.] 

Yes, Cora, the verb " speak " is jpsthetio 
— it'a loo utter. 

Give an example of a figure of speech 
— Naught set down in malice. 

" Time is a good deal like a male," wrote 
Johnny in his composition. " It is better 
to be ahead of time than behind time." 

An enthusiastic student of history traces 
base-ball back to the times when Ilebecca 
went down to the well with a pitcher and 
caught Isaac. 

Greer Recitation : Benevolent profes- 
sor (prompting): "Now, then, Eipaa " 

Somnolent soph (remembering last night's 
studies): "I make it uext." He goes il 
alone before the faculty. 

Harvard University is to have a veteri- 
nary department, and the New Orleans Pica- 
yune thinks this new annex was necessary 
for the proper treatment of donkeys who 
have rich fathers to send them to college. 

"What are you going to do when yon 
grow up, if you don't know how lo cipher.^" 
asked a teacher of a rather slow boy. " I 
am going to be a school-teacher, and make 
the boys do all the ciphering," was the 

"How is this, my son?" asks a fond 
parent. " Your school report for last month 
said, ' Conduct— exemplary,' while for this 
month it reads, ' Conduct —execrable.' 
What did you do ? " " Just what I did the 
month before, only the master noticed me." 

In a class of little girls at school, the 
question was asked, " What is a fort?" "A 
place to put men in," was the ready reply. 
"What is a fortress, then.?" asked the 
teacher. This seemed a puzzle, till one of 
the girls answered, " A place to put women 

The president of Tults college was re- 
cently made a happy father, and the follow- 
ing morning at prayer in the cbapel he in- 
troduced this rather ambiguous sentence : 
" And we thank thee, O Lord, for the suc- 
cor thou hast given us," which caused a 
general smile to creep over the faces of the 
c]&s&.— Haverhill Gazette. 

A Frenchman who took to learning the 
English language persevered till he came to 
the word " ague." When told that its two 
syllables might be leduced to only one by 
pretixing^ and /, and making plague of it, 
the philosopher remarked that half the 
English might have the ague and the other 
half the plague; as for him, he wouldn't 
bother with the lingo.— You//*'*- Companion. 

A i-ollege student, whose father makes 
him render an itemized account of his ex- 
penses, received an order for him to "ex- 
plain how the large sum for ' incidentals ' 
was spent, and then I can judge whether 
you are having enough fun for your money, 
for I have heou there, you young scamp." 
That is the sort of father the average col- 
lege boy likes. 

" Young man," said a college professor 
to an undergraduate who had asked for and 
obtained leave of absence to attend his 
grandmother's funeral—" young man, I find, 
on looking over the records, that this is the 
fifth time you have been excused to attend 
the funeral of your grandmother. Your 
leftve of absence is therefore revoked. Your 
grandmother must get herself buried with- 
out you this time." 

" TU-jmas, why have you not learned 
y->nr lewou?" asked an Austin teacher of a 
fiupU B-bL" waa uoied for his impudence, 


" Because I did not feel like it." The 
pleased the teacher immensely. It 
really refreshing to hear a new excuse, so 
he said : " Tommy, I'll give yoa a good 
mark for your truthfulness. "Now, Billy," 
turning to the next boy, " what is the rea- 
son you did not learn your lesson f " " Be- 
cause I didn't feel like it," replied Billy, 
thinking he, too, would gel a good mark for 
his truthfulness ; but, instead, the teacher 
took out a strap, and said : " Billy, I'll liave 
to punish your plagiarism. You stole that 
answer from Tommy." — Texas Si/tings. 

Scientific Instruction; 

Or, True Teaching - Power. 

By Chandlkii H. Peirce, Keokuk, Iowa. 

How to preach the gospel, is answered i 

s there are doctrines. 
) complicated that reversed 
t at, all uncommon, 
well as preachers, doctors, 
i of the situation. 
ie that soien- 

The law is 
decisions are 

and lawyers i 

The physician 
tific instruction does win. 

The minister of the present does not talk 
in the same strain as did that of our fore- 

The lawyer dignifies his calling in many 
ways, and, like the physician, is growing 
more and more a specialist. 

Doctors, lawyers, teachers, and preachers, 
have a grand and noble work to do. 

Each is a life_-work. Each is independent 
of the other. Each has for its base, things 
that must be thoroughly understood. 

Scientific instruction comes from true 
teaching-power. A varied, successful ex- 
perience accompanied by original thought, 
based upon all the good of former times, 
will develope results scientific in their na- 
ture. To read the thoughts of others, with- 
out reference to their promptings, will give 
but weak support. 

For a teacher to point out the effect, and 
attempt to change it without knowing the 
cause, is equal to giving medicine without 
first having diagnosed the case. 

All argument ia weak without a full 
knowledge of the case in point. 

The lawyer cannot hope to win if illogi- 
cal. The minister must not forget this 
" age of reason." The doctor must do more 
than look wise. 

The teacher must not be content with the 
efforts of others, and do only those things 
sanctioned by the noble few. To follow 
the advice and teachings — as a matter of 
course — of reputed authors, is not to be 
despised, yet to do the same with a sense of 
judgment is iodicalive of wisdom. 

The leaders of our noble band do not in- 
tend the balance to be ninnies j they 
to listen to the clatter and clang of di 
guns, and honestly contend the field. 

Among physicians are found poor doctors. 
Among lawyers are found pettyfoggere. 
Among preachers are found poor teachers. 
Everywhere we find indifferent, poor and 

To be good, excellent and superior, is a 
To be scientific demands 
d attention. To he suc- 
bo scientific ; therefore, 

call upon 

cessful 01 

essential to success. 

Scientific instruction 
demands it, and we nm 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are n<»t to be 
held 03 indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns ; all communica**.inB not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the colomns 
are equally open to him to say so and telj 

The Autograph Album. 

By E. K. I.>^.vacs. 
The Autograph Album ! The one soft 
ray of consoling light that illumines the 
dark chambers of our soul when we are 
lonely and despondent. Yes, that charming 
branch of literature that " ca^ts a lingering 
halo of hope-inspiring radiance" upon the 
dark clouds that at times threaten to over- 
' shadow our social world ; that time-honored 
souvenir, every page of which leads us into 
green pastures of the most sacred remem- 

Yes, the .4 we- too-graphic Album I Not 
a literary gem only, but a most splendid 
representative of the graphic arts. Who 
but one with mind unpolished, and with his 
love for the beautiful sadly deficient, can 
fail to appreciate tbe art display of the au- 
tograph album. We are almost afraid to 
open one of theae rare volumes of poetry and 
art when, once in a long long while, one is 
presented to us for our autograph ; not be- 
cause there is anythingfearful in iu contents: 
oh, no, its pages are all charming, " sweet," 
" lovely." But in gazing on those pages, 
composed, as they are, of the beautiful, 
either in sentiment or form, we are lost in 
amazement. And how can we help it, for 
here we find poetry of every style : Lyric, 
Epic, Didactic, Dramatic — yea, even Pas- 
toral. Then we behold birds of the most 
brilliaot hue— red, carmioe, blue, black, 
gray, and purple ; and such beautiful 

Again, we are bewildered by the number 
of attractive and ingenious autographs. 
Surely, there must be such a thing as " in- 
dividuality in handwriting," and there must 
be such a thing as " philosophy of motion." 
If there were no such a thing as individu- 
ality iu handwriting, how could each of these 
autographs have such a distinct individual 
characteristic f It seems to us they would 
all be alike, and we should get tired of look- 
ing at lliem ; but no, we do not get tired, 
for each new autograph leads us into fields 
of art yet unexplored, and 
in our belief that "art is 1 
If there were no sucli tli 

send them their autograph albama by mail. 
They would thus get specimens, from the 
pen, directly into their albums, aud thus 
save their mucilage and the trouble of past- 
ing them into their scrap-books. Inclose a 
letter of request, do the album up in abroM-n 
wrapping-paper, aud put on a three cent 
stamp. Any penman will he glad to pay 
fifty or aeventy-five cents due postage for 
the privilege of executing a specimen in 
your album. 

Back Numbers of the "Journal." 
Please Note. 
Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
hack numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others : All numbers of 1879 ; all 
for 1 870, except May and November ; for 

1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August and 
December only remain ; all uumhera for 

1881, and all for 1882, except June. It 
will he noted that wliile Spencer's writing 
lessons began with May, the second lesson 
was in the July number, so that the series 
of lessons is unbroken by the absence of 
the June nutnber. Ouly a lew copies of 
several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4.00, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 

Ink- Pencils.— We have to utter a word 
of ca-ition about the ink-pencils which have 
come so much into vogue lately. A most 
useful implement to tlio business man, this 
innocent looking pencil can he easily con- 
verted into a treacherous friend, aud on no 
consideration should be used to write the 
signature of anyone. The composition of 
tlie pencil is a peculiar combination, highly 
poisonous in itself, and— herein lies the 
danger to signature writers- competent to 
give off two or more impressions on damped 
paper— not tissue paper, be it understood, 
but ordinary writing-paper. Our attention 
was first directed to this peculiarity by an 
astute official of the Bank of New Zealand, 
and subsequent experimenta proved the easy 
begin m the upper left- practicabillitv of making a clear copy of tbe 
hand comer, and traverse the whole of ihr - 

I confirmed 

m commg. 
3 philosophy 

single autograph 

page, and finally terminate in disgust in one 
of the lower comers because there is no 
more ground. 

Again, the autograph album is tlie key 
by means of wliich many a penman unlocks 
the gateway to success and fame. What 
penman, professional or otlierwise, does not 
realize the pleasure of having a stock of au- 
tograph albums lying on the table before 
him. Not only is there pleasure in contem- | n^w York Times. 

plating it from a financial point of view, I ~ 

but iufinitely greater is the pleasure of know 
ing that every design of scroll, bird, oi 
beast that he executes will establish for hiti 
an undying reputation as a penman, or adt 
fresh laurels to his already establiphed rep- 

filling-in of a check with this ink-pencil. 
First, the writing of tlie check is trans- 
ferred — upside down, of course, to a slip of 
damped paper, and from that transferred^ 
right side up — to another slip of damped 
paper. We tested this recently in tlie case 
of a chock written with the ink - pencil 
and sent iu from the country, aud by simple 
hand pressure obtained a very perfect copy 
of the transferable parts of the doouiiient. — 

utation. A professional pen 

take special pains 

best style, a design in an autograpli albui 

We have no sympathy with those weak- 
minded and modest creatures who gather 
scrap-book specimens and pay twenty-five 
or fifty cents for tliem. A professional pen- 

of being asked to execute a specimen, and 
greedy indeed must he be to ask any pay. 

We recently had a postal-card order for 
specimens, to consist of scrolls, birds, let- 
ters of invitation, and replies, etc. In a 
thoughtless moment we sent a reply, giv- 
ing a modest estimate of the cost of speci- 
mens he desired; but we soon discovered 
our error, for in a few days we received a 
letter containing, not the amount specified, 
but a few expressions of goodwill, such as 
"greedy blood-sucker," etc., showing the 
manhood and good sense of our correspond- 
ent. Some time further back, we received 
an autograph album by mail on which there 
was fifty-five cents postage due; and for 
the benefit of those who desire specimens 
ft'om the difierent penmen throughout the 
country, cheap, we would suggest that they 

When to Subscribe. 

For several reasons it is desirable, that, so 

: as is practicable, subscriptions should 

with the year, yet it is entirely op- 

always ■ tional with the subscriber 
very | suhscription shall 

when his 
Those who 
may he specially interested in the very prac- 
tical and valuable course of lessons com- 
menced by Prof. 11. C. Spencer may have 
their subscriptions begin with the May 
number, in which is the first lesson of the 

What is Meant by Horse - power. 
---The power of prime movers is measured 
by horse - power. Watt found that tbe 
strongest London draft horses were capable 
of doing work equivalent to raising 33,000 
pounds one foot high per minute, and he 
took this as the unit of power for the steam- 
engine. The horse is not usually capable 
of doing so great a quantity of work. 
Rankine gave 2G,000 foot pounds as tbe 
figure for a mean of several experiments, 
and it is probable that 25,000 foot pounds 
is a fair minute's average work for a good 
animal. It would require five or six mes 
to do the work of a strong horse. Watt's 
estimate baa become, by geueral consent 
among engineers, the standard of power- 
for all purposes. 

s "» VIC r -louKN VI.. >\ 

Singing in Schools. 

»V Jri.lA A. PirKAltl.. 

Ttiero WM a time when Hiogiog io school 
wu coDsidered a matter of secoudary im- 
portaooe. Now a teaclier, alive to all the 
iDtereatB which tend t« the forther develop- 
meot of a high and oobh- type of pure man- 
hood aod womauhrjod, will fiad siugiDg one 
of the greatest and heet of aide. He will 
find, too, that with but little encouragement 
it becomes popular with all claaBea, for siog- 
iog ii of itself an incentive, and but few 
will bo found who cannot eater into it 
"with the spirit and the understanding 
also," and of those few the number is now 
rupidly diminishing. 

Singing was used as a tbanksgiviog and 
rejoicing when Miriam, the sweet singer of 
Israel, cheered her people to further efforts 
after the memorable crossing at the sea. 
David, the wise king, wrote psalms for his 
BubjectSjand found less occasion to govern by 
the sword. The French, among the first of 
nations, recognize the thrilling power of 
song when their Marseillaise hymn is sung 
to lead their armies to illustrious deeds of 
victory. Ministers acknowledge iu value in 
mellowiug for their earnest, tender appeals 
the stoic hearts of congregations; lecture 
associations feel its demand from the people 
and put a concert on the lists of entertain- 
ments; true homes know its moral worth, 
from the tender cradlo-soug that the fond 
mother sings, till the little occupant, grown 
to the full stature of manhood, is fully 
equipped by home melodies and their sacred 
associations to enter manfully into the 
world's strife. Our schools, instituted for the 
education of the youth of an untrammeled 
Republic, should not neglect so golden an 
opportunity for inatilting into the minds of 
its future representatives such sentiments fis 
ehall bo for the aggrandizement of the na- 

Not a noble thought prompted for liberty, 
freedom, patrioliem, temperance, religion, 
the social and home circle — not a tender 
emotion of friendship and love — not a feel- 
awakened by faith and charity — nor a fore- 
taste of happiness by hope— but has thrilled 
the veins of poets and been recorded by 
them in touching and inspiring rhyme, been 
set to music by some musician with heart 
overtiowiug with melody, and maybe wisely 
interpreted and taught by many a teacher, 
to still many more of our governors, and 
with them sung and re-sung till the noble 
eontiments become as familiar as household 
words to every heart. That teacher who 
aithfully does suoh work, follows closely in 
the line of him who said, "Let me make the 
songs for a nation and I care not who may 
make iis laws," and he was a philanthropist 
and a patriot. Smith, who gave us "Amer- 
ica," did more for his country than many, or 
we may say most, politicians whose voices 
huve resounded in the Senate chamber. 

A great deal depends upon having singing 

With small children, the simple song, 
"Children go to and fro," will be sung 
witli II will in a marching exorcise. Other 
oKtrcise songs, bringing in the action of 
body as well as voice aro beneficial as rests 
aftiT study. Lively songs may be song 
when all interest is flagging and scholars are 
listless ; while a restless school may be sub- 
dued by soothing melodies. Morning ex- 
ercises, if not of a religious character, 
should, Ht least, be elevated and devoid of 
levity, that the influence may be carried 
through the day. Here care should be taken 
iu clioicc of songs, that children may early 
draw the line between music for amusement 
and music for worship. Songs of birds, 
bees and blossoms will be appreciated when 
the air is filled \rith the twitter and buzz of 
auimate life and every breeze wafts a fra- 
grance of hidden perfumes. The songs of 
Ktus and fairies will then bring delight as 
iuiagiuHlion peoples the mossy retreats, 
ku.iwu only to childhood, with the wonder- 
ful liiile inhabitants, and curious shells with 
their delicate hues, found only by chUdish 
hauda. Will be the treasure-house for the 

gorgeous attire of the princess. The sur- 
roandiogs will stimulate to songs of brooks 
and fishes, seedtime and harvest, aud feel- 
ings of patriotism come spontaneously and 
find expression in hearty songs when nearing 
the Americtto's Independence Day. Winter 
songs, with winds and slcirms, will suggest 
sympathy for the homeless and suffering, 
will make the pulses beat and find outburst 
in the natural expressions. Music with the 
tinkle of bells, and joyous greetings of 
Christmas time will bring veneration as, 
still later, comes the birthday anniversary of 
Washington. So each change will awaken 
the dormant powers of the heart, lessons 
which seasons and history alike present to 
the willing learner. 

Local events may bring lessons of good 
to a school by appropriate singing, which 
might otherwise be the general scandal with 
its usualinjurious results. Of these, a single 
illustration will suffice. Years ago, our as- 
sistant-teacher in the high school, a grandly 
noble woman, was one morning absent from 
her accustomed place. Our questions and 
queries to the principal that such an event 
had occnn-ed met only with the response, 
"She is in the room below." The prayer 
that our teacher offered that morning was 
that bis scholars might be benefited by bad 
examples. Then he announced the hymn, 
" Cunfesaion," so full of acknowledgment 
and penitence for sin. Reverentially he 

By CiLtNDLER H. Peirce, of Keokuk. Iowa. 

To defend the profession and keep invio- 
late those principles that give it dignity and 
respectability is part and parcel ot the duty 
of every true " knight of the quill." To 
get Something for nothing is contrary to all 
law, and if an exceptional case might bo 
cited, the gift would not be worth the hav- 

To dupe, to defraud, to cheat, to get by 
dishonest means, to look for new victims is 
naturalfor every profession, and that ot ours 
is no exception. Verdancy reigns supreme. 
This green earth of onrs is covered by 
thousands of green people. Thousands of 
unsuspecting individuals are everyday pay- 
iug dearly for their whistle. Advortisemeuls 
of all kinds are read witli greediness and tho 
bait swallowed with a zest that gives en- 
couragement to an honorable calling. 

Eight to twenty-five dollars a day to 
agents. Turn out everybody ! The mil- 
dawning. Such an opportunity 

rill I 


Grand and glorious! Wonderfully sub- 
lime ! The Real Pen-work, Self-instructor; 
Or, White Elephant, for a dollar. 

Buy it, try it, and then think of the 
"maxim "that led you to " know-les " of 
the true condition of a beautiful art. 

We came from Massachusetts, near the 

sang, and his spirit and the expression of , 
the piece imbued each singer, and when we 
reached the line, " I had not sinned had I 
felt thou wert nigh," all were serious. Our 
hearts were ready for the lesson, and at 
recess a bevy of usually thoughtless girls 
sought the assistant, who, with glistening 
eyes, told us in few words that tbe brilliant, 

beautiful, accomplished Miss had 

committed a heinous sin for which she was 
expelled. Back to our room we silently 
retraced our steps with one more of life's 
mysterious lessons unfolded for us, but done 
in compassion. The leaf of our song hook 
was turned down that day to mark the , 
hymn, and a spotless page in life's book 
was written with thoughts tliat taught us 
how we might hate the sin all the more, 
nor love the sinner less. 

tS^To those subscribing at club rates, 
the book will be sent ( in paper ) fur 25 
cents; (in cloth ), 50 cents extra. Price of 
hook, by mail { in paper covers ), 76 cents ; 
cloth, $1. Liberal discount to teachers and 

Our stock of the Centennial Picture of 
Progress, 22 x 28, being exhausted, and the 
1 lates, from which it was printed, destroyed, 
it can no longer be sent free as a premium. 
We, however, have a stock of size 28 x 40 ; 
finely printed on heavy plate-paper, which 
will be mailed with a key as a premium 
for 25 cents extra. Many thousands of this 
picture have been sold by agents at $2 per 
copy. There is no more interesting aud 
valuable picture for schoolroom or office 
tbao this. ' 

Incorrect Talking. 

" Though tbe schoolmaster holds his re- 
ceptions in almost every nook and corner in 
the land there is a great deal of incorrect 
talking even among educated people. Bishop 
Clark ^ves a few specimens of these popular 
errors of speech in the form of a dialogue 
between a careless talker and his critical 

" Good afternoon, John ; how long have 
you been ' setting ' here t " 

"I have been 'sitting here' about an 
hour, watching these men 'set' the stones 

" It ' kind of seems to me that the work 
is done rather ' illy.' " 

" Perhaps it is not done quite as ' welly ' 
as it miglit be." 

" I ' kind of think that word 'welly' 
sounds odd." 

" It is as good a word as ' illy.' But why 
do you say, ' It kind of seems ' and ' I kind 
of think,' when you might as well say, ' It 
seems' and ' I think.'" 

" I've got ' sort of used to talking in that 

" It is a very poor sort of way." 

" I never had nobody to ' learn' me any 

" You mean that you have had nobody to 
teach you." 

" I am g.'tting tired, aod think I will * lay' 
down on the grass for a ' spell.' " 

"You can lie down, but it would be well 
for you to lay your cloak on the ground for 
you to lie on." 

" Be you going to ' stop ' here long ? " 

" I stopped here when I arrived, hut 
shall not ' stay ' long. Are you goiug home 

n ' ? 'Be you ' and 
and disagreeable 

" Hub of the Universe." Our missioD is to 
benefit mankind, both specially and gen- 
erally ; the special applies to ourselves, and 
the general to all the world. 

Now is the accepted time; don't delay, for 
you may lose your sole. 

What has been done can be done again. 
Mr. M. has been transported to a haven of 
rest. "Iu (5) (5) (5) (weeks) (weeks) 
(weeks)," (rather a weak statement), yet 
notwithstanding it, the gentleman iu ques- 
tion on eagle's wings passed from " an ordi- 
nary writer to one of the finest ornamental 
penmen in the world." 

Do you not believe it? Oh, why is this 
thus? "It may seem to you like a fairy 
dream," but we can assure you it is reality. 

Give us your hand ! You will not be de- 
ceived ! Give us your confidence ! It will 
not be betrayed! Give us your dollar and 
we will send you more paper and more 
printed matter to the square inch than any i 
publisher this side of Boston. Why do you 
tarry! We will prove your beat friend. 
Oh ! believe us and your name will be 
handed down to prosperty. 

Send $1 Bills. 

We wish our patrons to bear in mind that 
in payment for subscriptions we do not de- 
sire postage- stamps, and that they should be 
sent only for fractional parts of a dollar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
to remit than the same amount in 1 2 or 3 
cent stamps. The actual risk of remitting 
money is slight— if properiy directed, not 
one miscarriage will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and where letters contain- 
ing money are sealed in presenc* of the 
poBtmaiter we will uaume ftll the rlik. 

* I be ' are very 

"All right, OK ; but the master always 
says to the scholars, ' Be you ready to 
write ? ' " 

" Do you see him often f " 

" ' Him ' and ' me ' met at the deacon's 
last night." 

" What did * him ' and ' you ' do after you 
got there t " 

"We looked at ' them ' things he has just 
brought from New York." 

" Were 'them' tbirgs worth looking at f " 

" Tolerable. By the way, the deacon 
must have ' quite ' a fortune." 

" What sort of a fortune ? Quite large or 
quite small t" 

" Quite large, of course." 

" Why do you not say so ? " 

" My next neighbor has just put up a 
fence on either side of his front yard." 

" I suppose you intended to say that he 
has put up a fence on both sides." 

" Between you and I — " 

"Please change that to, ' Between you 
and me.' You would not say : ' There is 
no great difference of opinion between 'you 
and he.' " 

*' I usually say : Him and me agree 
pretty well." 

" Then you speak very bad English, and 
you probably say : ' It is me,' instead of ' It 
isl. '" 

" Of course I do, and so do 'most' of the 
people I know. My boy is just goiug to 
school, and as he is a ' new ' beginner I sup- 
pose he will appear to he rather green." 

" Did you ever hear of a beginner who 

" I wish to simply state — " 

" That is, you wish to state — " 

" That i)ur ' mutual ' friend—" 

"Please say our common friend. You 

would not call him a ' reciprocal ' friend." 
" Why do you interrupt me so often t " 
" Because you make so many blunders." 


If you want the best guide i 
for home instruction iu practical writing 
send $1 for the " Standard Practical Pen- 
manship Package," prepared by the Spen- 
cerian Authors for the Penman's Aht 

Stopping Hazing. 
Many have wondered why there has Lot 
been any hazing at Han-ard for the past 
three months. In all that time there haa 
not i)eeu a case of hazing reported, and 
some have roine to the conclusion that the 
bazcrs have met with a change of heart. 
It is D<»t exactly a chanRe of heart, hut a 
change of clothes that ails them. We are 
imformed that the hazing haa been broken 
up in that college, and forever, by the fac- 
ulty taking the advice of the Sun. Just after 
Sullivan whipped Kyan, be (Sullivan) was 
called to Harvard ; the Sun's plan of break- 
ing up hazing was unfolded to him, and be 
fell iuto it readily. He was to attire himself 
as a Quaker young man, and apply for ad- 
mission as a freshman, and let nature take 
its course. On the Brst day of April Mr. 
Sullivan appeared at College, under the 
name of Al>ija Watson, aud was assigned a 
room, and placed on the roll of freshmen. 
His appearance was commented on, and as 
he passed thnjugh the college grounds with 
bis peculiar garb, young follows shouted, 
"Shoot the hat," "Get on to his nibs," and 
other collegiate literature. It was all Mr. 
Sullivan could do to restrain himself from 
whipping a couple dozen of the boys then 
and there, but he decided to wait until the 
proper time when he would be able to 
enough for a mess. That evening he 
approached by a young man who 
to be his friend, and was invited to accom- 
pany him to a room where a few of the 
boys were going to open a few bottles of 
wine. Abija said verily he didn't go much 
OB the sinful beverage that stealeth away the 
brain, but seeing it was him, he didn't care 
if he did go down and drown his gopher. 
So they went to a large room where about 
seventy smart young fellows were congre- 
gated, with all the appliances of hazing. 
Sullivan says there were seventy, but the 
faculty only found s.xly-five senseless smart 
Alecks when the door %va8 opened, but 
Sullivan thinks a few may have jumped 
out of the window and took to the woods. 
It seems when they got the " Quaker" iuto 
the room they locked the door, and the 
ringleader told the peaeefol man to strip oil' 
hU coat and vest and shirt. He objected, 
but anally took them off. Some of the fel- 
lows who have since got out of the hos- 
pital say they noticed when he removed his 
shirt that he was put up like a hired man, 
and they thought it queer that a Quaker 
should have an arin as big as a canvas ham. 
They told him to prepare to meet his God, 
and got out the iron to brand his back. He 
told them he know he was in their power,' 
and was willing to submit to anything that 
was right, but be asked them as a favor not 
to bear on too hard, as ho was of nervous 
temperament and might faint. Then they 
decided not to brand him until later, but 
they would tie him up in a blanket first. 
So they got the blanket and tipped Sullivan 
over in it, aud about twenty of the smartest 
hazers took hold of the sides and tossed him 
up. When he came down he knocked four 
fellows senseless with his fists, kicked four 
more across the room, and then got on his 
feet and began to knock tbom right and left. 
He had knocked down about twenty, aud 
had stopped to spit on his hands when tlie 
rest of the hazers huddled in a corner and 
proposed to stop the slaughter. One said 
"Oil, good Mr. Quaker, please let us alone. 
We belong to respectable famUies, and won't 
do so any more." Sullivan looked at them 
and said, " It is hazing ye want. Well 
yez can have plenty," and he went at them[ 
and m about fifteen u.iuutes he corded up 
the whole gang, and hazing was broken up 
at Harvard College. As he threw his shirt 
and coat across his arm and walked out of 
the room, and met the faculty in the hall, 
he said : " Throw oold water in their faces| 
and they wUl all regain, cmsoiousness \n 
from ten luinutes to h.alf an hour," and be 
shook hands with the faculty, received his 
five hundrea doUars, and left for New York 
with his trainer, BUly Madden, who was 
sitting on tie fence outside waiUng for 

" Fot kind of a time did yez have wid 
de boysf " asked Mr. Madden, as be helped 
Mr. Sullivan on with his shirt ^nd changed 
the Quaker bat for another. 

"Verily, ftieud William," said the Quaker, 
as be counted the roll of biUs to see that 
the faculty bad not shoved any c<iunterfeits 
on him, " it was the event of the season. 
It is good exercise. " And they started for 
Cornell University at Ithaca.— P<c*'s Sun. 

Brother Gardner on Charity. 

" Las' fall," said Brother Gardner as he 
gazed down upon Elder Toots in a paralyz- 
ing way, " I made some remarks upon de 
subjict of charity. It seems dat my posishun 
was misunderstood, an' dis evenin' I hope to 

" De Good Book speaks of charity a 
thousand times, an' a big sheer ef de people 
believe dat de word as used in de Bible 
means dat we mus' open our purses to de 
poo' ! In de first place, I airnestly believe 
dat de charity of de Bible means lookin' 
lightly upon de faults of our fellowmen. It 
means dat we must oherlook, excuse, an' 
forgive. Charity covereth a multitude of 
sins ! Does dat mean a loaf of bread passed 
outer de kitchen doah to a beggar, or does 
it mean dat he who oberlouks de faults of 

each to 100 solicitors of charity, an' bow 
many would have a dollar left by night f 
At least half would spend a portion for beer, 
whiskey, or tobacco, and not twenty of d« 
lot would boy wood, flour, or clothing. 

" He who gives to a tramp encourages 

loaferism, thieving, an' a dozen other crimes. 

" He who gives to a man or woman able 

to walk de streets am a supporter of vice 

an' idleness. 

" Dat's whar I stan' on de one side of de 
queshun of charity, an' each passin' day 
turns up somethin' to convince me dat I am 
correct. But now whom do I feel fur, an' 
to whom kin I give T If I assist an able- 
bodied man to aim bis own bread, dat am 
charity. If I kin prevail upon a father 
who am waistin' bis money in drink or at 
cards to put it into his family, dat am charity. 
If my poo' naybur loses his horse, I have 
a $5 bill for him. If he loses a child, I 
have ten. If he breaks a leg or an arm, 
I'll sheer my meat an' latere an' wood wid 
him until he kin work agin. If a father 
falls sick an' has nuffin ahead, my kind o' 
charity chips in fur a shake-purse to pull 
him frew. If a stranger comes among us 
an' am ill, let us make him well. If fire or 
Hood devastate a section, let us send relief. 
If a widder am left helpless, let us fill her 
coal- bin an' fiour-bar'i. 

Tht above cut 

tat phato-enqraved from an original fimriih txecuUd hy R. 6'. Bomatl. 
1 Carpenler'i Bryant .)■ Stratton Bmiam ColUije, St. Louit, Mo. 
Mr. lionaall it a tuperior practical writer. 

others shall have some'of his own condoned! 
I hold to de latter. 

" But let us admit dat de charity of de 
Bible means aidin' de poo'. If I airn ten 
shillings a day an' work in cold an' heat an' 
rain — if my wife economizes an' I am keer- 
ful — if we go slow and dress widin our 
means an' manage to lay up a few dollars, 
what man or womau on airth has de right 
to tell me dat I mus' pass any part of my 
savin's out to people who am poo' frew their 
own fault t Whar" I have worked they have 
loafed. Whar' I have pinched dey have 
squandered. Whar" I have denied myself 
dey have cut loose wid a h-ee hand. 

" Dar' am not an able-bodied man in 
America who can't aim suflicient to board, 
clothe, and school a family of sir and send 
his wife to church on Sundays. Dar' am 
not a widder in dis kentry who can't airn at 
least a dollar a day at some occupasbun. 
Dar" am not an orfan who has de shadow of 
a right to ask any man fur a nickel. 

'■ Our public charities am so many frauds 
upon taxpayers. De *S5,000 raised by tax 
in Detroit fall into de hands of people who 
have no bizncss wid one sbillin' of it. It 
goes to drunkards an' idlers an' pretenders, 
who make it a duty to live upon charity 
from one y'ar to anoder. I defy de most 
ardent philanthropist in dis kentry to show 
me one case whaH a city poo' fund dealt out 
to paupers has lifted anybody above axin' 
agin. De city which raises de moas' money I 
has de most paupers. Figgers prove it, an' 
yet philanthropists won't admit dat it proves 

" Let me Stan oat to-morrow an' ban' t5 I 

" In twenty years America has raised up 
a class numberin' tens of thousands who 
shrink work, who make saloons pay, who 
have doubled the number of police an' jails 
an' prisons— who steel, rob, and ravish— 
who infest street corners an' prowl frew 
alleys-who adil nothing except illiteracy 
an' vice, an' she has raised 'em up by her 
system of mistaken charity. Philanthropists 
may squirm an' womeii make wry faces, 
but de preachin's of de one an' de sym- 
pathies of de odder have made de word 
charity synonymous wid Vice and Wicked- 
ness. Let us now assault de usual pro- 
grammy."— Befroif Free Press. 

Questions for the Readers of the 

By Chandleii H. Peirce, of Keokuk, Iowa. 
1. Which is preferable ; to change posi- 
tion of self or paper in 


2. Does intellectual development pre- 
cede physical, or should they go hand in 

3. Admitting that principles are the true 
basis of teaching penmanship, are they suf- 
ficient ? 

4. Does one extreme produce another I 
If so, illustrate. 

5. Do all letters require a given amount 
of force in their perfect execution ? 

6. Is the hight of a letter and the length 
the same f 

7. What comtitolee a system of pen- 
manship t 

8. What is the first objeot to be aimed 

at in teaching pupils beyond twelve or fifteen 

9. Wbat is the second object to be aimed 
at I 

10. How would you write straight with- 
out line on cards, envelopes, etc t 

11. Can equal results be gained in the 
simpler classes of work without looking f 

1*2. How would you obtain proper shade t 

13. In acquiring the best results, what is 
the plan of development f 

14. Why do combinations appear better 
than single capitals t 

l.'i. After forming o part of d, is the light 
line above curved or straight ? 

16. Why is the preference given to below 
the line in the formation of capital B and 

17. How can you determine the diflerence 
between the results wholearm or fore- 

18. Is the introductory line in a, d, g, q 
and cone space in hight t 

10. What is ornamental peumanshipT 

20. What is business penmanship t 

21. What is most difficult to learnt 

22. What is the dividing line f 

23. Is ornamental penmanship essential 
to the thorough understanding of business 
penmanship f 

24. Which movement predominates in 
the formation of good figures ? 

2.5. Can good figures he produced by 
purely finger movements ? 

26. Can children from eight to ten years 
be taught to make as good figures as any 

27. What regulates the proper turn at 
top of 3 and 3 when made with a point as 
abase of starting? 

28. Wbat is the location of the Philoso- 
phy of Movement before execution t 

29. Why can you execute small work 
more rapidly on paper than on blackboard t 

30. What is the position of crayon in 
ornamental work at board f 

31. Would it not be well in learning to 
write to practice the standing position at 
least one-third the time t 

32. Are the so called standard capital let- 
ters the practical ones for business T 

33. Is the capital stem ever used in its 
purity f 

34. Is counting essential to beginners f 

35. What is the best method of count- 
ing t 

36. To what extent ahould it be carried 1 

37. Are capital lettera that begin off the 
base-liu© more difficult to form than those 
which begin on line? 

38. What is the difference in calculation T 
30. Are combinatione more expreasive 

of beauty than single lettera ? 

40. Are combinatioaa of figurea pracri- 

41. Are combinations of tigurea a neces- 

42. What ia the firat object to be gained 
in producing figures? The second? The 
third ? The fourth? The fifth ? The sixth ? 
The seventh ? The eighth ? 

43. Wbat constitutes a perfect oval ? 

44. Do all points in writing have the 
same direction ? 

45. What is the main object in shading 

Answers to Prof. Pierce's 

In February Number of "Journal." 
By SunscRiBER. 

1. We aee no reason why lie can not. 

2. By its proportions, turns, curves, an- 
gles, etc., and by the rule for spacing. 

3. Not enough to be noticed. 

4. The proportions of the letter. 

5. It is not. 

6. Some are modified. 

7. Firat. Point too sharp. Second. In- 
ferior paper. Third. Holding pen too near 
vertical. Fourth. Writing on one nib, etc. 

8. We think not. 

9. We regard both, as being of equal im- 

10. That which secnrea the natural, 
most graceful, aud rapid i 


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New York, Aprii,, 188;). 

The "Journal," and Writing in 
the Public Schools. 
Some two years sim-e, Mr. H. W. Smith, 
Vice-Principal of Grftiiimar Sebool No. 20, 
of thia city, became a subscriber to the 
JouuNAL. Apprecialiug its value as a etim- 
ulaul atid aid to careful and interested effort 
«u tlie part of its yuuiig readers, he called 
tlie atteutioQ of his class — " his boys " as he 
is pleased to call them— to the Journal, 
and at the same time oflered a year's sub- 
scription as a prize to each of the four boys 
ehowiug the greatest advani-etnent in all 
their school-work at the end of the year. 
Since then, eighteen out of the class of less 
than thiity. have become regular subscribers 
to the Journal, besides several others who 
are now engaged iu business. A short time 
since we received from Mr. Smith a pack- 
age of specimens of writing, accompanied 
with the following note : 

New youK.JpriilSth.iSss. 
D. T. AsiKS. Esg,. 

•iOb Broadway, New Yoik. 
Dear Sir:— I hrrwwitli himd you sp^ci- 
mena of p^Dmauahip written at different 
neriods. and reprvaeutiiig the progress madeia 

writing during the past aix months, hj Iwenty- 
five boys und^r my charge. Will you do me 
and tliem the favor to examine the Bpecimens. 
and deeignate the one which, in your opinion, 
indicates the greatest degree of advancement t 

I auk you to do this for the purpose of enabl- 
ing me to award a prize for advancement. 

I am pleased to say that all my pupils are 
aubscribera 1o, or have excess to. The Pen- 
Man's Art JofRNAL, and that I have found 
the lessons and articles upon penmanship of 
great interest and value to me, while they have 
served as a powerful incentive to my pupils ; 
also, your articles upon " Letter-Writing" have 
been of great service in that department of my 
school-work. ' 

W. H. Smith, 
Vice-Principal. Grammar School, No.'iO. 
160 Christie Street. 

The specimens referred to above, were 
by boys whose average age was thirteen 
and one-half years — rnngiug from eleven to 
fifteen years. Several of these specimens 
exhibited more than au ordioary degree of 
improrenaent; while nearly all showed ored- 

teacbers of the land, can but be inspiring, 
and largely contribulive to a love for^ and a 
more earnest and successful effort to attain 
to, a good handwriting. While to those 
who are seeking to become good writers at 
home, or in the uflice, without the aid of a 
teacher, the Journal will be found to be of 
incalculable benefit. 

We herewith present a specimen letter, 
written as a composition, by Master Albert 
Levy, aged thirteen years, tbe pupil of Mr. 
Smith's class to whom was awarded tbe 
first prize, together with a specimen of bis 
writing only six months previous, which not 
only presents a specimen of his present 
writing, but shows progress for that period. 

Where ia the lad who wilt do better f 

Can Business-v 

Journal an editorial, ii 
that what is popularly ku 

■iting be Taught ? 

there appeared in the 
hich it was stated 
n as business wri- 

Specimen written stx months since. 


TIiu outs Kr« plioto engi-aved iu 
fac-siiiiile, two thirds the size of original 
maiiuscriiit, written by Master Alliert Levy, 
a pupil iu Gi-ammov School No. 2U, of this 
city, and shows his progress in writing for 
six months. The letter was written as a 

regular ,.ou,i.„.silio„i„.,el„„d,a> 
to the fullnwiiig ndvprtisciiioiit : 


etc., in applicanfi bandwtiling M„ l»x 
fio«. Cigaiette smokera need not apply. 

itable pro^rtes, all indicated careful effort. 
From the specimens, we selected, as exhibit- 
ing the highest degree of improvement, that 
written by Albert Levy ; second best, Louis 
Spoehrer; third, Albert L'. Fuchs. Mr. 
Smith assures us that he has observed a 
marked change in the " .-sprit-de-corps" of 
his entire writing-class since the iutroduo- 
tiou of the Journal. Pupils who formerly 
took little or no interest, and practiced their 
writing- lessons with indifference and with 
little progress, are now interested, even en- 
thusiastic, over their writing, and are conse- 
quently showing marked Improvement. 

The experience and testimony of Mr. 
Smith, respecting the good results of intro- 
ducing the Journal to writing -classes, in 
all grades of schools, is in full accord with 
that of hundreds of other teachers through- 
out the country. Its monthly visits, pre- 
senting tine copies and instruction from the 
pens of the most skilled and experienced 

ting could not be taught, Irom the fact that 
such writing is the result of long, habitual ex- 
perience iu business or professional life, and 
is moulded to suit tbe peculiar tastes, skill 
and circumstances of the various writers, no 
two of whom ever write alike. We believe 
our position was correct, notwithstanding it 
has been assailed by correspondents, through 
the columns of the Gazette, and also in a 
paper published by a western hnsiness col- 
lege, which says : 

"Any experienced businese man knotct that 
busiuefs-writing can be tauijhl. He knows that 
if one of his clerks writes a fine business hand, 
it will not be long before all ol the clerks of the 
eatabliahment will secure iu a greater or lens 
degree the same general style of wriliiig. This 
they will do, taking the writing of the superior 
penman as their standard. 

There is in this country a standard style of 
business- writing. It is a standard style which 
is recogni/.ed £nd followed liy iiiuely-niue out 
of every one hundred good busineBS-writers. 

The standanl style is seen io the counting- 
houses, the banks, tbe railroad oflices, the ab- 
stract offices, the iilate and national depart- 
ments, and the properly conducted business 
schools all over this land. It is the standard 
style which characterizes the Americans, as a 
class, as tbe best writers in the world. It is 
that style of bneinees-writing which was in- 
augurated in this country by the elder Spencer 
and bis early associates. It is the " Spencerian 
Style," but not the present " Spencerian Sys- 
tem." It is the style of business writing which 
was written and taught by old father Spmcer 
and olbere before " bigh art " had crept into it 
and utterly runied it as practical business-writ- 
ing. The early Spencerian style of writing 
was good business-writing; the present Spen- 

Tbe original Spencerian style of writing was 
practical and adapted to the masses; the pres- 
ent Spencerian system is very unpractical and 
can be acquired only by artists. The result of 
teaching tbe oi iginal Spencerian style was 
forty-nine sirccesees to one failure ; with the 
present artistic Spencerian system, it is forty- 
nine failures to oiif success. The formerstyle 
was ordinary, plain, graceful, natural and ad- 
mirably adaplfd to the wanto of business ; the 
present system is extraordinary, "artistic." 
stiff, painfully accurate and absolutely impossi* 
ble as business-writing. 

What is here said about the present " Spen- 
cerian system," is etjually true of the other 
" Standard Systems " of this country. They 
are all descended from the original Spencerian 
style, but vastly inferior to it for ordinary, ■ 
practical purposes. 

Taking all these things into account, it is not 
strange that " writing masters " wbo worship 
the system of penmnnship as now published, 
should begin to ask tbe question, "Can busi- 
ness-writing be taught t" These teachers do 
not write a business hand, they do not gen- 
erally use a business pen ; their pupils not only 
do not acquire a business hand, but very often 
suffer absolute injury from the inelruction re- 
ceived. But we are glad to know that what 
is here said of tlie professional "writing- 
master " is by no means true of all who are 
teaching penmanship. There are teachers wbo 
both write and teach practical business pen- 
manship. There aia scliools in which the pu- 
pils learn a handwriting which they are not 
obliged to abandon the moment they enter a 
business ofhce." 

Were arguments and proofs as easy as 
assertions, the writer of the foregoing would 
indeed be a formidable adversary. But let 
us briefly consider some of his assertions. 

First. — " Any experienced businefls man 
knoics that business-writing can be taught," 
etc. This is a mere wild assertion, and one 
contrary to fact : that a body of clerks will 
become good writers iu the manner men- 
tioned, every business man knows to be not 
true ; that one clerk may, to some extent, 
emulate the superior writing of another, as 
he may his superior breeding, habits and 
business tact, is truej but, unfortunately, no 
such plan can be relied upon to make good 

Again, ho says : "There is iu this country 
a standard style of husiness-writiug recog- 
nized and tidhnved by niuety-niuo out of 
every hundred good business-writers," etc. 
We can imagine no more reckless and un- 
warranted assertion. What does the writer 
mean by standardf Webster defines stand- 
ard to bo " that whic/i is establislied as a 
rule or modtV Nuw, will the writer af- 
firm that any two of these good business- 
writers write hands at all resembling each 
other, either as to the form of letters or in 
its general appearance. We think that he 
even would decline such an assertion; if so, 
where is his standard? Evidently, there 
would be one for each writer. He might 
with equal propriety claim that each of his 
ninety-nine business men should ignore the 
recognized standard for weights and meas- 
ures and set up one for himself. 

Again, he says, that " the result of teach- 
ing by the original Spencerian stylo was 
forty-nine successes to one failure. Why 
vary, in this case, his proportion from ninety- 
nine in a hundred f It sounds better, and 
we see no facts in the way. 

The early Spencerian writing was com- 
paratively unsystematic, and hence poorly 
adapted for use iu schools. All its changes 
to the present have accorded with the spirit 


of progress and the demands of acbooU 
room PitperieDc« and business. It is trne, 
that under the inspiring genius and example 
of Father Spencer, a large proportion of 
those pupils whom he personaliy taught be- 
camo g<.<)d writers. Yet we venture the 
assertion, that there is not a Board of Edu- 
catiiiu or a Superintendent of public schools 
in all the land who would, for a moment, 
consider the substitution of the first Spen- 
(xrian copy-books for those of the present, 
nor should they do go, AH experience 
proves, that writing as well as other things, 
to be successfully taught must have some 
fixed standard and prescribed rules, by 
which the pupil may approximate and judge 
of his success, and the teacher criticise his 
pupil's eflorts. 

The writer further asserts that " there are 
business schools, including his, where pu- 
pils learn to write a hand which they will 
not bo obliged to abandon the moment they 
enter a business office." 

We believe that there is not a school 
in the world that does, or can, impart to a 
pupil a style of writing which will' not be 
so changed in a year's, or even six months', 
practice, in a position reijuiring constant and 
rapid writing, as to bo scarcely recognized 
Iieside that with which lie left school. The 
writer might as well claim to convert the 
beardless inexperienced lad to the mature, 
polished and acute map of affairs. A busi- 
ness handwriting, like all thatgois to make 
up the genuine business man, is the outcome 
of husiuess experience, added to and modi- 
fying what he has previously acquired in 
school, and can be attained in no other way. 
That the pupil who has had the proper 
drill in all the elements of good, rapid writ- 
ing, and of business, as taught in our busi- 
ness schoids, will advance more rapidly and 
ultimately attain to a much higher standard, 
not only of business-writing, but all that 
goes to make the model busitess man, than 
he could otherwise do, we most fully believe 
and affirm. 


The "Journal" and Business 

Ill lb..' Business Collofc Record, published 
at J.icksnnvilU,, III., we hud au article froui 
the fiicilo pen of ..ur friend (i. W. Itmwu, 
relative to tlie establisluneut of a business 
c.dlego <»rgan, from which we clip the fol- 

Tlie Pbnman's Art Jouhnal. published by 
11. T. Ames, of New York, is conducted in the 
interest, solBly, of penmanaliip — and yet it is 
securing Bubsoribers by the tlioueauds from all 
parts of the country. It is doing this largely 
thn.ii^li the agency of business college teachers 
-tnd jiiijiiU. It ia ably and energetically con- 

i the 

Tlie great suecess of the Art Journal is a 
nioal forcible suggestion lo my mind of what 
might be done by a journal representing the 
whole field of practical education. 

Firsr wo wish to bestow our tluiuks upmi 
Mr. Brown for the comiiliinent he pnys the 
.lonnNAL, and to siiy wo nre in no wjiy op- 
posed t.. u cUege organ. What we desire to 
do, is r.. set Hrother Browu right where he 
ii* II link- off. " The Journal," he says, " is 
e.unluetcd, solely, in the interest of pen- 
niiinship." Has he read it F One would 
think not. Many columns of its matter- 
editorials and copied— havo related exclu- 
sively to business education. Not long 
since an entire Jiddress, by James A.Garfield, 
iipmi that subject, appeared in the Jour- 
nal, and scarcely a number has been is- 
sued without more or lotw matter relating 
to pnietiail and general education, and now 
in every number appears an article upon 
Con-ejipondonce. Its editor, fur nearly 
twenty years, was actively engaged in busi- 
ness college M-ork, and believes in it; and 
is not t^irdy in saying so. And it is due to 
the .louRNAL more than to any other in- 
strumentality that there to-day exists an 
assoeintion of Business Educators. Again, 
Mr. Browu says that the Journal is de- 
voted chiefly to artistic penmau.ship. Will 
ho please turn over tho pages of his file of 

ind measure up the .ditorials 
np'in the several departments of peuuiau- 
ship, and if ho dews not find four to one of 
space devoted to practical as against artistic 
penmanship, we will make him a subscriber 
for life, free. 

Again, he says that it is largely through 
the agency of business colleges that the 
Journal has attained to it« acknowledged 
!»nccess. We admit a liberal support by 
most of the really meritorious colleges, 
among which is that ^inducted by Brotlier 
Brown, but that its success is mainly duo to 
them is a mistake. Not one in five of its 
present subscribers are due to business col- 
lege influence, or from among their patrons. 
Its success is due to the fact that its col- 
Iiimns have contained matter which ren- 
dered the Journal valuable and inter- 
estiog to neariy all classes of persons, 
and we can but believe that with its 
wide - spread and rapidly growing sub- 
scription-list it is exerting, indirectly, a 
greater and niore telling influence in 
favor of practical education than will or 
can any publication conducted, avowedly 
and solely, as an organ of business colleges. 
Tlie lads, and even tlie misses, from our 
public and private schools and elsewhere, 
wlin nnuiher far up into the thousands 
upon the subscription-list of the Jouhkal, 
are, indeed, promising candidates for busi- 
ness schools. Once interested in good writ- 
ing, they will, very naturally, seek the best 
facilities f.,r gratifying their desire fur tho 
highest attainment, which will bo usually 
found in the well conducted business col- 
leges of the country. 

The "Journal " Your Medium 

If y<ni are a live, thinking, and snece 
ful teitcher, you have something worth sw 
ing to your co-workers. Remove t 
bushel, and let your light shine abr.i 
tlnnMuh the columns of the Journal. 

the result, an.l to such a degree as to be the 
subject of comment by school officials and 
patrons. The appreciation and patronage 
of the Journal in this direction has been a 
isfaction and strength to 

1 edito 

, which they, 


Writing in Public Schools. 



the ctiuntiy, that writing is less effectually 
taught than any other branch in our public 
schools. As a rule, but a short space of 
time is allowed for jiractico, and, frequently, 
that has more the character of au intermis- 
sion from real school work than otherwise, 
because of the inditfereuce of both teacher 
and pupil, as to the extent or manner of 
practice. The first requisite for success in 
any deiiartment of education is an atten- 
tive and iutere.sted pupil. The good teacher 
appreciates this, and calls to his aid every 
artifice and appliance which his genius can 
suggest for awakening and maintaining 
enthusiasm on the part of his pupils. A 
teacher, who can neither write a good han<l 
nor give skilled instruction, is not likely, by 
his own example, to sufficiently inspire his 
class with the beauty or utility of good 
writing to secure the effort and care neces 
sary to make good wtlters; and, unfor- 
tunately, such teachers are usually slow to 
avail themselves of such aids as are of- 
fered for supplementing their own poor 
efforts. The good teacher is so, because 
of his itjipreciation of, and readiness to 
avail himself of every source for valuable 
information and every good exaiiii»le in 
his school-work. Such teachers have been 
first to wtdcome and introduce the Jour- 
nal to their pupils and feUow teachers. 
They have recognized in it a powert'ul 
auxilliary to their own effort, not alone for 
good instruction, but as a means of awaken- 
ing and sustaining an interest in «'riting 
which leads to success. Among its sub- 
scribers there are now about four thousand 
teachers, of whom are in public and 
privat* schools, and make no specialty of 
writing; yet all of these, we venture, are 
securing far belter i-esultB on account of the 
monthly visits of the Journal. In many 
instances large clubs of their pupils have 
been induced to become substTibers. In 
such instances, so far as we are informed, a 
marked improvement in writing has been 

deavor to fully reciprocate, by rendering the 
Journal, to the fullest extent, a help to 
the teacher and pupil of plain, practical 
WTiting in our public and private schools, 
as well as to the learner at home. 

Dr. Dix and Education ot 

Id one of a series of lectures lately de- 
livered by the Rev. Morgan Dix, D.D., 
Rector of Trinity Church, of this city, upon 
the subject of *' Woman's Mission," he took 
occasion to denounce, in severe language, 
the efforts now being made for tho higher 
education ot women through the opening of 
the colleges of the country to lady students 
and more especially that of Columbia Col- 
lege of this city, of whirh Dr. Dix is a 
trustee. A petition lately presented by citi- 
zens and patrons of the college to its Board 
of Trustees, praying that lis facilities be ex- 
tended to female students, is said to have 
met with a most determined and fatal op- 
position from the enlightened and liberal 
minded doctor. 

The Dr.'s lecture has very properly called 
forth many pevere criticisms from the press, 
as well as citizens of this city, among which 
was a letter to the Evening Post, signed, 
"Communicant of Trinity Parish," which 
desrves to be widely read. We abstract the 
following : 

Dr. Dix lieated a question now much before 
the public in a very unfair «nd ungenerous 
manner. He so interwove the question as to 
make it appear to one not conversant with the 
matter that those who are earnestly seekiug the 
better and high 


n with all thattliatim 
Dr. Dix, IB all that i 

plies, which, according 

bad and immoral. The lecturewas like the ettort 
of a narrow-minded priest who dreads the edu- 
cation of man or woman, who is constantly look- 
ing back with longing for that priest's heaven, 
the dark ages, when the laity were sunk in 
gross ignorance and entirely under the power 
of the priests who stood upon a much higher 
plane because Ibey had learned lo read and 
write and were able to "launch the curse of 
Rome." He aeen with regret the fact that times 
have changed, that noweilucation and common 
Beuae are in the pews, or do not attend the de- 
livery of the puerile efforts called sermons, aaiis- 
fied to read the reports in the newspapers and 
smile with contempt upon the childish eflorts 
to atop the march of learning and intelligence. 
Here would seem to be, at least, one in- 
instance where a communicant should g.' to 
the pulpit and a priest should go to the pew. 

Spencer Memorial Hall and 

Wo loarn from vepurts in the Cleveland, 
0., papere, that the founding of the Spencer 
Hall and Library, at Geneva, 0., is now a 
certainty. Among tho contributors, M. J. 
Woodruff, Esq., of N. Y., is mentioned as 
having given five hundred dollars, and P. 
W. Tuttle, of Geneva, the same amount. 

Mr. Woodruff was a pupil of P. R. Spen- 
cer, and formerly a teaeher of Spencerian. 
He is now at the head of the Russell Irving 
Manf'g Co., probably tho largest hardware 
house in this country. 

The King Club 

For this month comes from the .Spencerian 
Business College, Cleveland, Ohio. It num- 
beis one hundred and nitte, and was sent by 
H. L. Loomis, penman and part proprietor 
of that institution. Mr. Loomis and his 
associates are not only doing a good work in 
the etticient and succfsshil teaching of writ- 
ing, but they fully appreciate the work the 
Journal is also doing in that direction, and 
earnestly commend, as all good teachers do, 
the Journal. The Queen Club numbers 

seventy-four, and was sent by W. F. Jewell, 
principal of the Gohbuiilh Hrjant-&-Stral- 
ton Business University, Detroit, Mich. 
The thini club in size numbers fifty-one, 
and comes from C. M. Immetl, a teacher of 
writing at Goshen (Ind.) and vicinity. He 
says : " I secured twenty-seven namee in four 
hours." A club of twenty six conies from 
A. L. Davison, Lockpoit, N. Y, One of 
twenty-five comes from Bryant's Buffalo (N. 
Y.) College, and twenty-three from J. D. 
Holcorab, Cleveland, (lliio. Other smaller 
clubs, too numerous to mention, have been 
received— for all of which the senders have 
our most earnest thanks. 

A young Buckeye sends .specimens show- 
ing remarkable improvement. Rewrites: 
" I take the liberty of addressing a few lines 
to you, hoping you will not be offended at 
me. I am a young man, and I nin striving 
to improve my handwriting at homo. I am 
studying and practicing your course of les- 
sons now going through the Pknman's Art 
Journal, and I feel very thankful that I 
am enabh'd to do so. 

I send a scrap of an old letter of mine, 
written before studying your course. 

Will you please inform me if I have made 
any improvement, as I have been practicing 
a half hour daily, since your lessons came 
out."— J. P. S., Upper Sandusky, Ohio. 

The specimens which accompanied the 
above letter exhibit most remarkable im- 
provement. The letter is of many sim- 
ilar expressions of the highest appreciation 
and thanks for the publication in the Jour- 
nal of the lessons in practical writing by 
Prof. H. C. Spencer, and tlie lessons on let- 
ter-writing by the editor. 

It m eertjiinly a pleasure to know that our 
•efforts are productive of such good results, 
and arc so liighly appreciated. And we as- 
sure our readers that our efforts will not 
be diminished in the future. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next 
by registered letter. For fractional parU of 
a dollar, send postage -stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums, 
nor Canadian postage -a tamps. 


The Writing-Ruler lias become a stand- 
ard article with those who profess to have a 
suitable outfit for practical writing. It is 
to the writer what the chart and compass is 
to the mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a re- 
liable penmanship chart and compass, sent 
by the JOURNAL on receipt of HO cents. 

Oblique Attachment. 
The newly invented straight and oblique 
penholder combined will, we believe, super- 
sede the use of all penholders, of the ob- 
lique order, of which the rapidly increasing 
demand gives abundant proof. It is twice 
as valuable, yet sells for one-half the price 
of old style obliques. The Journal mails 
one for 12 centa and two for 20 cents. 

Waves Above All. 

Thirty-seven pages <if model writing 
the Portfolit 
nshipj whiel 
twice as much matter as is atforde.l for 
dollar in any other writing publicat: 

The "Standard" is from unrivalled pen- 
work, eogrAVed facsimile on steel. .Single 
pages of it cost more than the cash invest- 
ment made by parties issuing entire, so- 
called self-instructors in scrappy form from 
comparatively cheap process. As a first- 
class work at * 1 , for self- instruction in prac- 
tical ohiiography, it has no peer. All orders 
for the Journal's edition of the Standard, 
prompt attention. 


(The Convention. 

Wf Acain call Htt<-iition to tin* Annual 
<'..tiv<'iitHm of til.- rciiiiH-n nml BuRiue^ 
KducaUiTB, which M U* bf 1iel<] at Washing- 
ton, P. C, on July imh to the I4tli. 

Wiuhingtnu i» the handvointwt and most 
int^r'-Mling city on our continent. It is 
always a |il(-a8uro to go iht-rr. 

Aminui.'incnts art* hcing inatlr- providing 
for tlic comfoil and convpnicnce of incinbcrii. 
and for hn\ing a rich and rare progmmine 
r-m!h d»y during tliP m^saion. 

Gimthuncn, also ladic-n, who aro interested 
in huHinew cdncatiou in all or any of ito 
l.niiicticfi, fihoiild write to H. C. Spencer, of 
til.- Kx'Tutive Coinmitti-p. at Washington, 
Jind stnir what topics they nro willing to 
pn-Heiit^ and uanu' topirs which they deiiirr 
to have diKCUMr-d. ThoM- who hnvo been 
tliinking in spc-cial directions relating to 
hriHinesg education should come fonrard 
and givL- the hrncfit of their views. 

Each one should contribute sonicthiug 
to the puqinse of the meeting. Come 
one, come all, and Imve a rt-gulnr feast of 
good things. 

tl«r and list uf twelve 

Tleet, penmAD at Bryant's Buffalo 
(N. Y.) Businesa College, a letter and Hat of 
tweniy-tiv« names aa subecribers to the Jotnu 



A. L., Philadelphia. — I have received let- 
tei>. from piihli-shers and agents, of the most 
notable systems of writing ol 
I am pained to find the letters badly; 
some cases cxecrabJy, written, 
ence with steel-pen and penholder mauufac- 
(nrers, brings loltens which indicate that a 
flass of men most recreant to good vniting 
are encaged in supplying the witrld with 
writing materials. With a good system and 
(.'ooil writing iinplemoQts, cannot experts, In 
exemplifying their use, be found to act as 
ngeniR for their introduction, circulation and 
sale? Ans. — Experts with the pen are not 
usually witling tu accept employment at the 
Mtiiall sahiries offered poor writers ; ex- 

A. N. Palmer of Ibe Cedar Rapids (luwa) 
Buainees College, iit highly complimenied for 
bis ckillful writing and eucceesful teaching bjl 
the Evening CazttU of that city. 

In our March issue, F. B. Lolhrop was 
credited and thanked for the present of a copy 
of Foster's Penmanship, when W, H. Lothrop, 
of South Boston, was the gentleman entitled to 
euoh credit and thanks. 

G. B. Jones )ias lately been teaching writ- 
ing-classes at Bergen, N- Y. The press paye 
him a high compliment. It says : " Prof. Jones 
has shown himself master of hie profession and 
deKerving of every encouragement." 

The graduating exercises of the New Jersey 
Business College, conducted by Messrs. Miller 
and Drake, at Newark, N. J., took place at the 
Park Theatre, on the eveniog of March 21st. 
We return our thanks for ticket of invitation 
and regrets for our inability to be present. 

During a recent visit to Detroit, Mich., we 
had the pleasure of visiting our old friend Ira 
Mayhew, who is conducting a successful busi- 
ness college in that city. He is well-known 
and highly esteemed by all clasees of educators. 
We also visited the Goldsmith, Bryant & 
Stratlou Business University, now conducted 
by W. F. Jewell, which we found highly pros- 
perou s. 


opy-bnoks, and sell more pen aud inks 
han poor writers now engaged in that 
vork. Certainly it would be right and con- 
listeiit to employ representative penmen to 
meh those interests. 

The " Hand-book" as a Premium. 

We have decided to continue to mail, 
until further notice, the "Hand-book" (in 
paper) free to every person remitting $1 for 
a subscription or renewal to the Journal 
for one year, or, for $1.25, the book hand- 
somely bound in cloth. Price of the book, 
by mail, in cloth, $1; in paper, 7.5 cents. 
Liberal discount to teachers and agents. 

W- .'all ihe allnilio,, ..f our readers t.. 
the new a.Ivertis.-ment .d' the Now England 
Card Co., 7.i Nassau Street, N. Y. Persons 
in want of goods will do well to give them 
jin order. Their patrons commend them 
highly, and we believe justly. 

Extra Copies of the "Journal" 

nill ho seal free to teachers aud others who 

The Rev.'Juhn Jasper declines to argue 
any more on scientific grouods that the sun 
moves rouud the earth. He says that any- 
body who disbelieves a plain aud uuec(uivn- 
oal asaertiou of the iucpired Scriptures is an 
infidel, on whom he wUl not waste words. 

Remember that for $1.00 yon can cet the 
JouENAL one year, and a valuable book on 
artistio penmanahip, free. 

Specimens of penmanship worthy of mention 
have been received as follows : 

W. H. Lothrop, South Boston, a. letter. 

W. J. Winslow, Dubuque, Iowa, a letter. 

W. C. Bonbam, Sidney, Ohio, pen-drawing. 

G. W. Ware, Bonhain, Texas, a lurd and 

Wm. Robinson, Waahago, Ont.. a tetter and 
Sourisbed bird. 

J. D. Briant. Rac^land, La., a yruup of birds 
with flourishing. 

W. A. McCartney, Randolph, Pa., pen-draw- 
ing and fiourisbing. 

J. A. Willis, Tully, N. Y., a flourished bird 
and card epecimens. 

A. R. Merriam. Hiram College, Ohio, a let- 
ter aud flourished bird. 

W. S. Foringer. Kaylor Pa., a letter and 
specimena of Hourishing. 

W. P. Mackliu, St. Louis, Mo., a flourished 
bird and specimens of writing. 

A. E, Dewburst, Ulica, N. V., a flourished 
bird and fancy card specimens. 

J. H. Smith. lOaa Chestnut Street, Philadel- 
phia, an elegantly -writ ten letter. 

A. S. Dennis, a letter and two handsomely- 
executed designs tor flourishing. 

E. L. Burnett. Elmira (N. Y.) Business Col- 
lege, flouiiehed birds and lettering. 

E. F. Richardson, Horse Cave, Ky., a letter 
and card-specimen and flourished swan. 

1). W. Hoff, Des Moines, Iowa, a letter and 
photographs of well-executed pen-drawings. 

A. J. Taylor. Taylor's Business College. 
Rochester, N. Y.. an elegantly-writlen letter. 

C. L. Perry, Louisville, Ky., a letter and 
club-list of eleven euhseribers to the Journal. 

W. E. Ernst, Mendon, Micb., a letter and 
several skillfully-executed specimens of flour- 

C. W. Rice, Denver (Col.) Business College, 
an elegantly-written letter and list of names 
for the JoukNai.. 

C. N. Crandle, penman, Western Normal 
College and Commercial Institute, Busheil, III., 
a letter and cards. 

N. S. Beardsley, penman at Si. Paul (Minn ) 
Business College, a letter and list of subscribers 
numbering fift«ea. 

R. E. GaUagber, Canada Business CoUege. 

Musser, a veteran in the ranks of penmen, 
r sixty-eight years of age, and penman at Smith- 
ville (Ohio) Normal College, a handsomely-. 
1 letter. T 

J. M. Pearson, book-keeper for Spencer Sc 
Taylor, Fort Worth, Texas, a letter in a free, 
ensy, business style. The only improvement we 
would suggest would be the omission of flour- 

Mary D. Lacky, teacher in North Ave.. 2d 
Ward School. Alleghany, Pa., writes a band- 
some letter, in wuich she incloaex a very cred- 
itable specimen of ambidextrous writing, by 
Miss Emma Patton, a pupil under her tuition. 

D. H. Farley, professor of penmanship and 
book-keeping at State Normal School, Trenton, 
N, J., a beautifully-written letter and several 
elegant specimens of off-hand flourishing, some 
of which will appear in a future issue of the 

S, C, Williams, special teacher of penman- 
ship and book-keeping in the public schools, 
Lockport, N. Y., a letter and imperial photo of 
an elaborate and very skillfully- executed pea- 
drawing, embracing a portrait and memorial of 
William Shakespeaie. 

Breaking up a School. 

We see by the dispatches that two boys 
at Cumberland, Ohio, attempted to whip a 
schoolteacher, and the teacher stabbed both 
the boys, killing one instantly, and fatally 
wounding the other. There is probably qo 
position that has more annoyance than 
teaching a eountry school, where there is a 
lot of big boys who seem bent on mischief, 
and whose highest atnbition is to whip the 
teacher and turn him out doors. Occasion- 
ally there is a school that becomes so hard 
that no man will attempt to teach it, unless 
he is a prize-fighter, aud then he does not 
know anything but to fight. Sometimes the 
appointment of a beautiful and accomplished 
young lady as teacher of a hard school will 
have a good effect, as she may be able to 
win ibe big boys by kindness. We were 
won that way once, and it would have been 
all right, only another big boy who wanted 
to be won also, got jealous and hit us in the 
ear with a pair of skates. We remember of 
attending one school that was about as hard 
as could be. There were five or six boys 
that made it a point to see that no teacher 
remained in the school a full term. They 
would do something mean and get him to 
whip them, and they would all jump on him, . 
and throw him out of doors, and he would 
leave. Most people look on such boys as 
pretty hard characters, but the rest of us, 
who wanted school to be closed when skat- 
ing was good, looked upon them as heroes, j 
and we all wanted to Join the gang. One 
winter the teacher was locked out doors, 
and hit with a frozen snowball, and stood I 
on his head and had water poured down his 
trowsers. aud he resigned and went to driv- I 
ing team at a saw-mill. He said he had 
got all the teaching school he wanted, any- 
way. It was eariy in the winter term, and 
the trustees tiew around for two weeks he- 
fore they found a man to take the job. It 
was splendid skating, and all the scholars 
had a good time, and there was great regret 
expressed, as we remember it, when it was 
given out in church on Sunday that school 
would open on Monday nmruing. After the 
evening services the boys got together and 
talked it over, and decided to give the new 
teacher a week. It had been thawing a day 
or two, and the boys were tired of skating, 
so they thouyht they could afford to spend a 
week educating themselves, and so they ; 
gave him a week. On that evening we were 
duly elected a member of the class of hard I 
citize-js, aud we were to open the ball, and 
do something had, get him to lick us, and I 
then the hoys were to jump in and help. , 
M-nday rooming the school commenced, 
and the teacher proved to be a sickly look- 
ing, slim sort of a fellow, a timid nervous \ 
man, with a hand and &ce like a girL 

Every time he looked at one of the boys 
there seemed to be an expression on his face 
as though he would say, " I hope you will 
be good." When he had anything to say to 
the scholars he said "please," and gave 
other evidences of being pretty soft, we 
thought. That morning the weather all 
changed and it froze hard, and at recess t)ie 
boys got together and said we would wind 
uptbe school before noon, and go out on the 
ice. It was our turn to be bad, aud it com- 
menced right off. The big boys had to 
carry in the Wood, aod lay it down (juietly 
by the stove. We took in an armful and 
dropped it on the fioor so that it shook the 
building, aud loosened the stove-pipe. The 
pipe came out of the chimney, and filled the 
room with smoke, but it was put back, and 
the slim, sickly teacher only reprimanded us. 
and said that it must not occur again. We 
jast ached to go after some more wood, but 
there was no opportunity. Pretty soon the 
teacher said we might go and get a pail t>f 
water, and while at the well we decided to 
stumble on entering the schoolroom, and 
spill the water all over the floor, atid thus 
give the sickly looking teacher a chance to 
show what he was made of. The teacher 
was near the stove, and we stumbled, and 
the water went all over everything, wetting 
bis boots, and made him pretty mad. In 
sizing him up we had not noticed, befoie. 
that his eyes were as black aa coal, and that 
he seemed to be about eight feet high, but 
as he looked at us we could see it plainly. 
He seemed to read our thoughts, and knew 
it was done on purpose, and we have always 
thought he heard the hoys talking it over at 
recess. Anyway, he jumped clear across 
the room, grabbed us by the neck and sat us 
down in the water ; then he lifted us up aud 
shook U8S0 the teeth rattled ; then he seemed 
to grab ua all over an<l just maul us. We 
got a chance, once or twice, to look around 
to the back seats, as he was revolving us 
around on our axis, to see if the other boys 
> help us put him out doors, 
the most studious lot of big 
saw. They had their heads 
books, and their lips were 
moving in silent prayer. After the teacher 
had mopped the floor with us, be took us hy 
the slack of the pants, just as a dog would 
carry a duck, and went to his desk aud got 
a big hickory ruler, aud proceeded to dry 
our pants. Well, it was the meanest way to 
dry pants that ever was, and while it dried 
them well enough, it left great ridges Inside 
of them, that made a corrugated chair aliuost 
a necessity. The hoys did not fulfill theirpart 
of the programme, and when the teacher got 
through drying our pants, and said, "Please 
return to your seat," we felt as though his 
politeness was a perfect sham. We looked 
at the boys as we went to our seat, but they 
never looked up. We have witoeaaed con- 
tested seats in the Legislature since, hut 
never saw one that was so exciting as that 
one in the old white schooluouse at the foot 
of the hill. The teacher neverspoke during 
the proceedings, and when it was over, he 
looked even paler and more sickly than 
when he had one hand in the hair that once 
grew where we are now bald, while the 
other was at work in the vineyard. But 
none of the boys seemed to care to piUsh ou 
to a sick man, and he taught that school 
two terms, and never had to whip another 
boy. There was something so impressive 
about every movement of the delicate look- 
ing teacher that the boys got to feeling 
sorry for him, and they treated him real well. 
It they didn't, he would have everlastingly 
paralyzed the whole gang at once. The 
slim, sickly teacher is an old man now, liv- 
ing quietly in this State, with children as 
old as we are, and we occasionally see him 
and ask him if he remembers how we broke 
up the school. He is feeble now, and walks 
with a cane, but if we had to have a fight 
with him, even now, we would hire a uiau 
to do it.— P«A:'» Sun. 

Now is the time to subscribe for the 
JouHNAL, and begin with the year and new 

were coming t 
but they were 
boys you ever 
down in their 

IM .Jot HVVI, 

"Yours Truly." 
Id looking over a collection of English 
lettare, we have been struck with the variety 
of manner in wliirh men and women, more 
or lees known t.. fame, have begun and 
endea their letters. These days of hurried 
scrawU and " Complete Letter Writers " do 
not fumiiih many specimens of quaintness 
or originality in alyle, and our letters begin 
all pretty inach the same way and end with 
a " Youn truly " or a '* Yqure faitlifully " or 
something equally terse ami trite. We have 
noticed the books published as guides to 
correspondence, on the other side of the 
Atlantic, still supply some amusing speci- 
mens of salutations and endings to letters 
intended for the persual of sundry high and 
mighty personages of church or state ; but 
we are speaking of instaDties in which the 
write reveals certain interesting peculiarities 
of style and feeling. It is a pity that peo- 
ple all affect now one set style which, while 
it may he well bread and in "good form" 
or business-like, effectually conceals the in- 
tellectual or emotional ideniityof the writer. 
One of the Pafltou letter*, written in 1447, 
Rives much light on family relationships in 

I coodoling not long after with Cecil, who 
had lost his wife, sabscribes himself "Yours 
ever beyond the pour of words to utter," 
although he begins with a plain and blunt 
"Sir." The famous Dr. Donne speaks of 
himself to a lady as " Your humblest and 
affectionatest servant," but is himself the 
recipient of a letter from Ben Jonson, who 
signs as " Yonr ever true lover." Few men 
use such phrases now to each other in ordi- 
nary correspondence. 

The length of tlie introduction and the 
closing compliment in these old letters is 
very remarkable. Thus Jeremy Taylor 
winds up a letter with " Your most affec- 
tionate and obliging friend and servant." 
Jeremy would have found a postal-card 
rather cramping to his effusive politeness 
and gratitude. Mrs. Penruddock, writing a 
last letter to her imprisoned husband, who 
is about to be executed by Cromwell, closes 
plaintively and at length with, " Your sad, 
but constant wife, ever to love your ashes 
when dead, A. P." To this she adds— for 
even then no lady could abstain from post- 
scripts ■- that the children "present their 
duties" to their father, a prim remark that 

or, in another humorotis epistle signing him- 
self as, " Yours every third Wednesday.'' 
There is a greater dash of humor in the 
style adopted by the elder Charles Mathews, 
who, when acting in the city of New York 
in 1822, after a time of epidemic yellow- 
fever, was attacked by a clergyman as thcugb 
he (Mathews) were responsible for the visi- 
tation. He closed a letter of " chaff" and 
remonstranoe to this worthy by subscribing 
himself as " Most fraternally your obliged, 
angelic, yellow-fever producing friend." In 
a similiarly jocose strain, Charles Dickeas, 
representing to a friend that Maclise and 
himself bad fallen hopelessly in love with 
Queen Victoria, who liad just married, de- 
scribes himself as "Your distracted and 
blighted friend," and iu a letter to Mary 
Cowden Clarke signs himself " Y. G."— 
The (darkened) " G. L. B.," he beiug in the 
habit of calling himself in private theatri- 
cals Young Gas and the Gas- Light Boy. 

These are perhaps minor things, but they 
help us to a clearer and fuller understanding 
of the manners adopted by and in vogue 
among correspondents at different periods; 
and there is no doubt that thus iu many 

C^THlliC , 

Ames's Hand-book of Artistic 
_ I^Penmanship.Vil ]ni!Y^ 

The book, iu paper covers, is given free, 
as a prciniun, with the Journal, one year, 
for $1 ; in cloth covers, for twenty-five cents 
estra. The hook is certainly cheap at $1, 
and will be useful to all classes of persons 
--young or old — in any occupation. 


3 Pre 

i gLJ-U_MJ_M -^-#lF=i^-= 

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A pri 

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The above cut reprcimU page IS of Amen' s "Hand-hook of Artistic Penmamhip "- a SS-page book, giviny all tlu pHncipUa and many detign 
for Jhunthini,. mtk nearly thirty standard and artistic alphabeU. Mailed fi-ee until further notice, in paper i 
extra in chth). to every person remitting ^1 for a subscription i - - - 

book, by mail, in paper, 75 cents; 

•iiewal for the "Journal.' 
I cloth, fX. 

Price of the 

that remote aud dark day. Young William 
Paston at Eton College, writing to his 
elder brother about pocket-money, vaca- 
tions aud clothes, addresses him as "Ryght 
reverend and worchepful brodyr." This is 
scarcely the style in which one brother ad- 
dresses another to-day. The end of the 
letter, too, gives the date " Wretyn the Sun- 
day next after All Halowu Day with the 
hand of your brodyr, William Paston," and 
this was the practice, it is observable, for a 
long time after. 

Cardinal Wolsey, begins a letter to Dr. 
Gardiner with the endearing formula, " My 
owne goode Mastyr Secretary," and closes 
it quaintly, thus: "Written hastely at 
Ashor, with the rude and shackyng ban of 
Your daily bedysmau. And assuryd friend." 
Sir Thomas More, .m the other hand begins 
a letter to his wife simply with these words : 
" Mistress Alyce," and at the end he puts 
the word " knight nfter his name. Such 
stateliuess would scarcely be welcome to 
modem foad wives, whose ideas as to affec- 
tionate addresses are better met by Roger 
Ascliam, wlieu he writes to his wife as "My 
own good Margaret." Queen Elizabeth 
gave a fine little touch of character when, 
writing to remonstrate with Henry IV. of 
France on becoming a Koman Catholic, she 
signed her letter, "Your sister, if it he after 
the old fashion; with the new I will have 
nothing to do with. E. R." ; and Raleigh 

clashes with the sorrowfulness of the oc- 
casion and the preceding sentiment. 

It is interesting to find John Locke sign- 
ing as " The humblest of your Ladyship's 
servants " j and Nell Gwynne, who was un- 
able to wield the pen, dictating a letter to 
the Earl of Rochester as " Your most lov- 
ing obedieut, faithful! humbel sarvant." 
Poor Nell could not write and her aman- 
uensis could not spell ! Colley Cibher ad- 
dresses Mrs. Pilkington as "Thou frolic- 
some farce of fortune," and follows up this 
exhausting alliterative effort with yards of 
counsel ; « bile Dr. Johnson, enraged at the 
match his friend Mrs. Thrale was making 
with the musicmaster Piozzi, signs himself, 
"I was, I once was, madam, most truly 
yourif, Sam. Johnson." Lawrence Sterne, 
in writing to his daughter, also rings the 
changes on time, and signs. " I am what I 
ever was, and hope ever shall be. Thy af- 
fectionate father." William Blake, the 
poet- painter, characteristically writes to 
Flaxman as "Dear Sculptor of Eternity," 
and Lord Nelson, just going mto battle 
with the combined fleets of France and 
Spain off Cadiz, makes time to write to 
Lady Hamilton aa " My dear beloved Em- 
ma, the dear friend of my bosom." 

It is not surprising to find Charles Lamb 
addressitig Coleridge ironically as "Learned 
Sir, my friend," and closing bis letter with 
" Your friend and docile pupil to io^traot ": 

other old letters written in this country as 
well as in England, would be discovered 
clues to character and to the relationship in 
which distinguished persons have stood 
towards each other. A " modern instance" 
of the way in which men will lightly and 
without thought compliment each other in 
their letters, was given recently in the hot 
correspondence between U. S. Senator In- 
galls, and Dr. Patton of the Baptist Weekly. 
The Senator had expressed over the late 
Ben. Hill, of Georgia, certain agnostic views 
of death, and the Doctor took him to task 
as an "infidel," in a letter. The Senator 
replied with sarcasm, and the Doctor's 
reiteration was equally strong and pointed. 
But both men close their letters as though 
they were dear friends who had been pour- 
ing out the kindest expressions of attach- 
ment ; and one of the leading daily papers 
in commenting on the occurrence, has natur- 
ally suggested that they should change their 
styles of closing letters. " Yours very sin- 
cerely " does not sound well at the end of a 
letter that consigns you to eternal punish- 
meut.— Gcj/er's Stationer. 

The Hand - book ( in paper ) is now 
offered fi^e as a premium to every person 
remitting $1 for one year's subscription to 
the Journal. Or, handsomely bound in 
cloth, for 25 oenta additional. 

outfll or nay drauKlitatnaQ." 

Remember, you can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-cent book free, Jor $i 
or a $J book and the Journal for |il.25. 
Do your friends a favor by telKng them. 

Sample copies of the Journ, 
m receipt of price — ten oente. 


X . 

^1 ^ 

The above cuts of paper- headings i 

i photo-engraved from pen-and-ink copy executed at the office of the ^'^ Journal " and i 
practical application of pen-drawing to business pv/rposes. 

'. given as examples of the 


He who goes out oft^o to "see a mac" 
will 900D behold bo many that he'll feel 
dizzy. — N. Y. Commercial Advertiser. 

Sophronia: " What isphiloBophy f " It is 
SDiiiethiag which euables a rich man to ^ay 
there is no disgrace in being poor. — Ex- 


I Diarriuge ceremony m one of 
the Providence churches the contracting 
parties were thirty minutes behind lime, and 
the organ pealed out, " Oh, dear, what can 
the matter be I " 

The tirat young man who paid fifty cents 
for a secret that would show him how to 
double his money witlmut risk, was told to 
double up the biggest hill he could find he- 
fore putting it iu his pncket. 

A btranger in a printing-office asked the 
youngest apprentice what his rule for punc- 
tuation was. " 1 set up as long as I can 
hold my breath, then I put in a comma ; 
when I gape, I insert a semicolon ; and 
when I want a chew of tobacco, I make a 

Sui>ERFiciAL Taljjers.— Dean Swift 
says that the common tluenoy of speech, in 
most men and womec, is owing to a scarcity 
of words. Whoever is a master of lan- 
guages, and has a mind full of ideas, will be 
apt in speaking to hesitate upon the choice 
of both ; whereaa common speakers have 

only one set of words to clothe them in, and 
these are always ready at the mouth, so 
people come faster out of a church when it 
is almost empty than when a crowd is at 
the door. 

Spurgeon says be has often thought, when 
hearing certain preachers of a high order 
speaking to the young, that they must have 
understood the Lord to f>ay, " Peed my 
rameleopards," instead of" Feed my lambs"; 
for nothing but giraffes could reach any 
spiritual food from the lofty rack on which 
they place it. 

A keen student of human natnre must 
have written the following : " When you see 
a young man sailing down street shortly 
after midnight with collar mashed down his 
neck, you can make up your mind there's a 
young girl crawling up stairs not far distant, 
with her shoes under her arm and an extin- 
guished lamp in her hands." 

Small boy of eight (looking over piciure- 
hook with boy often): "What's that?" 
Smallboy oft^n: " Why, don't you knowf 
That's a donkey ; haven't you ever seen a 
donkey?" Small boy of eight (doubtfully): 
" No.'* Small boy of ten (patronizingly) : 
" Why, I have ; lota of 'em— in the Theo- 
logical Gardens, you know."— Z»/e. 

The collection of autograph letters left hy 
Mr. Weed include some from every Presi- 
dent of the United Slates— those from the 
time of Madison having been written to Mr. 
Weed himself; letters from most of the Re- 
volutionary heroes, Lafayette and Baron 
Steuben among themj two epistles from 

Benedict Arnold ; and a host of others from 
political leaders at home and abroad. — The 
Golden Rule. 

In taking up another notice, Mr. Beecher 
adverted to what he called " lukewarm iult." 
" I have spoken many times," he said, 
" about notices written in pale ink, but all I 
have heard was that I was getting too old 
to read them. Well, if any one will read 
th' m in twilight, I will own up. There are 
certain rules about notices: First, write 
right ; then write black ; and as for proper 
names, put them plain and correctly. Some 
men know their own names so well that they 
think everyone else knows theiii." 

Hahnemann, the founder of the hom- 
oeopathic school, was one day consulted hy 
a wealthy English lord. The doctor listened 
calmly to the patient. He took a small 
phial, opened it, and held it under his lord- 
ship's nose. " Smell ! Well, you are 
cured." The lord asked, in surprise, "How 
much do I owe you T " "A thousand francs," 
was the reply. The lord immediately pulled 
out a bank-note and held it under the doc- 
tor's nose, " Smell ! Well, you are paid." 

Ask any man if he would cjirry one mil- 
lion dollars in gold were he made a present 
of that amount, and be would say Yes. 
And yet what does it weigh f Let us see. 
The standard gold dollar of the United 
States contains of gold of nine-tenths fine- 
ness 25.8 grains, and the standard silver dol- 
lar contains of silver of nine-tenths fineness 
^12.5 grains. One million slandard gold 
dollars consequently weigh 25,800,0U0 
gr^ns, or 53^750 ounces troy, or 4,496i 

pounds troy, of 5,7t;fJ grains each, or 3685.- 
71 pounds a'-oirdupois, of 7, OUO grains each. 
One million standard silver dollars weigh 
412,500,000 grains, or 850,875 ounces truy, 
or 71,014.50 pounds troy, or 58,828.5/ 
pounds avoirdupois. In round number?, 
the weight of one million dollars in stand- 
ard gold coin is Ij tons; standard silver 
coin, 20i tons; subsidiary silver coin, 25 
tons; minor coin, five-cent nickel, lO'i 

One day a high official passing through a 
government office saw a man standing he- 
fore the fire reading a newspaper. Hours 
afterward, returning the same way, he wa-t 
shocked to find the same man, legs extended, 
before the same fire, still buried in the col- 
umns of a newspaper. " Hello, sir ! " cried 
the indignant head of the department, "what 
are you doing ? " " Can't you eee what I am 
doing?" was the answer. "Sir, I came 
through this ofijce four hours ago, and found 
you reading the paper; I return, and you are 
stilt wasting your time in the same manner." 
"Very true: you have stated the case to a 
nicety." Hereupon tlie head of the depart- 
ment naturally fires up. " What is your 
name, sir ? " he . ays. " Well, I don't know 
that my name is any aflair of yours — what 
is your uariief" "Sir, I would have you 
know that I am the so-and-so of the Pwst 
office!" " Indeed ! well, I am very glad u> 
hear it. I am, sir, simply one of the public 
who has been kept waiting here for hour^ 
for an answer to a simple question, and I 
shall be much obliged if yon will use your 
influence to get me attended to." — £-^ 

!"'• Am .JoiHvvi. 


"iif sdirk of AimVd C<>tii[>PO(lianis is ex- 
-fpd — uo inon- can be mailed. A revised 
(jreatly improved editioo 
-I- of jm-paratioD, and will be 
ii.i-d wlien ready. 

The Latest and Best A.mkkica>- Atlas. 

National Indexed Atlas. 

from Government & Special Surveys. 


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Prof. C. H. PEIRCE, President, 




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o,y\og that young -Stubble- 

all for -JS m 


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sent, bv expir-- '.. ,, 

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Thanking the trade for their valuable 
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Superior Writing Inks. 

FT o^rtJi/Utn ytart, i 

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VtarSir; In ^ly to your intiuiry. I lakn pleaaura in 

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9FFICK OP James Vick 

Al.LlSO, Etq. *" " "' 
r; During (he pnil «i(f/i 

. v..'5<i 




A Work of Surpa$nng Beauty, Combining Instruction in 


By a simplf, fascinating and effective system of illustrations and ejcplanations. 

a knotcUdge of the above branches may be acquired by the student, 

unth comparatively little labor on the part of the teacher. 

Better than the Best of its Predecessors. 

The work baa recpivtd the highest endorflemenl of many of the moBt emiofiit commercial 
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NEW YORK, MAY, 1883. 

Vol. VII.— No. 5. 


No, XII. — By Henry C. Spencer. 

Copi/riffltttd, May, ISSS. iy Speticer Brolherg. 

•ecurilf . I 

r boy'i patruD, and the ready x 

Copy 1. 

Carefully study this copy. Draw, with free hand, a square, and iMd a half s.|uarc 
to its right side; divide highl into two equal parts, hy a horizontal line; within tliis figure, 
strike, with wholearm-movement, the right curve and stem combined, forming the first 
part of S and S, as per copy. Practice until you can strilte the first form handsomely, 
then practice the full forms of the two capitals. 

Is the stem made the full hight of the letters, in S and K t At what hight is the 
small loop in Kt Wlien yon are able to execute these letters nicely, pass on to 

Examine the copy critically to get a distinct mental inipressii>n of tlie forms. Note 
the fullness of the compound, stem curves in S and X, ami the omission of the first curve 
of stem in forming A ; also the fullness of the initial right curve in each of these letters. 
The square-anJ-a-half may be profitably useij as an aid in securing slant and propi>rtions 
of S, L, G. At what hight is the loop crossing in 5 and Lf At what higlit in G ? 
Wlicre shade these letters • Criticise your shading. Practice, cheerfully, with whole- 
arm, also, with forearm movement. 

Copy 3. 

The hight of these capitals is eight-ninths of the ruled space on medium-ruled pa- 
per. In writing them lot the muscle of the forearm touch the edge of the desk lightly, 
nud employ the amhined-mm>nnmt, as we have directed for current writing in previous 

We omit particular descriptions of letters in this lesson; but each student of tlie 
coune is requested to try and frame proper descriptions in his own words. We think he 
ought now to be ablo to do this. It will prove good mental exercise and lead to a clear 
apprcliension of tlie forms to bo written. When prepared by the preliminary study, ex- 
ecute with a free movement, making the strokes in rapid succession, and springing the 
pcu promptly in producing the simded parts. The monograms show the relations of 
letters, and are given for study and practice. 

Copy 4. 


Wor.i-writing is now in order; it incorporates the improved capitals into your hand- 
ivritmg. Do not f,vU to preserve the relative bights of emaU letters and capitals. Hon- 
rstly and fairly criticise your own efforts, and always seek to have the Vat line the hest 

Copy 5. 


ml approved the prevftiling tendeucy, 

In preceding lessons, we have referred 
among ready writers, to simplify the seript f< 

It will be seen that in this copy we secure greater simplicity in the ff, K, S, and 
0, hy om.tuug the final oval stroke in each stem, and in the L by omitting the initial 
right curve. " 

We aim to systematize the simpler or abbreviated forms, and present them in such 
maouer that they may bo learned and adopted in current writing. 

Here wo have a small family of letters which combine the compound curve or stem 
with the reversed oval. 

Again the siiuaro may be used as an aid to practice. Observe that the stein begins 
about ouo-sixth below the full hight, outside of the squaii'. 

Practice the exercise with wholearm-movement, and dwell upon the oval until you 
can make the curves true. 

Make left curve of stem in P, B, R, quite full, but be sure to merge it into shaded 
right curve at middle hight Presevvo neat oval turns at base and top. Where does last 
cur\'e of P cross the stem f At what higlit is the narrow loop formed in B and J2f 
What direction or slant is given to the loop as it crosses the stemt What portion of 
the width of the oval, in these three capitals, is on the rigtit of the stem above middle? 
How is the B finished f How is the Ji finished! Sweep the curves without hitch or 

cut, making the 

Practice, also, with the forearm, sometimes called muscular-i 
forms onc-and-a-half ruled spaces in hight. 

Copy 7. 

Coiiibined-movoment practice, bringing the forms down to practical size. 

Study each capital and describe it in your own terms. 

Word-practice is the final application and confirmation of what has been learned. 

If the hand does not freely glide from letter to lettiT, in wcu-ds, lighten the anu-rest 
upon tlie muscle, and the hand-rest on the nails of the third and fourth fingers, and just 
hefon- beginning a word pass the pen right and left over the apace the word will occupy; 
then go ahead and write the word. 


This twelfth lesson brings us through the alphabet of capital lettiTs. 

Wnuld it not be well to write a specimen to compare with your work previous to 
entering upon these lessons. ' 

If you feel like it, write to the editr.r of the Jourkal what you and friends 
think of the iinprovempnt you have made uj) tn the end of Lesson XIL, aud he will 
recr>gnizr your communication throueh the Journal, for your benefit and the encourage- 
ment of others wlio are studying, thinking and working for progress. 

Our thirteenth lesson, to fnllow, in the June number, will present abundant material 
for prnctice. 

The Art of Book-keeping. 

Not uv THo^r,\s Houd. 

A literary friend of mine, who sets up for a wit and who is a little " touchy" at the 
idea that .any one can say a better thing than himself, though really quite a clever fellow, 
was bemoaning to me a few days ago the hiss of many of his best books, throuiih loaning 
them to friends who had never returned them. His Crabbe, he said, had crawled away, 
his Walker liad derainped, his Wavertey Novels had got off Scott free, his llousseau had 
taken French leave, Moore liad been Supift to fallow, and that Time, meaning Pollock's 
(of) Coorae, was for him no More. He had loved his Motherwell, and was particularly 
sorry to lose that. His Hogg had run away, and he had not even saved his Hacon ; and 
he wondered Wither they liad all gone, and if his friends had been mean enough to Hook 

To show him I was as Smart as he was, I replied that I knew he was a great Lover 
of books, and Howitt it must Payne him to lose so many of them ; but if he )iad insti- 
tuted a Tboreau Hunt after them, he might have Lyttou some of them. But I told him, 
although I knew he was a very p(h)uuny fellow, I had read something like this Prior to 
his telling me, and than he needn't think to Hood-wink me into beUeving that hig re- 
marks were original. If he would always Keep his hooka, I told him, under Locke and 
Key, where they would be secure as if he were to Stowe them away in Saxe, no one 
would be able to Steele any more of them. I thought it A. Marvel], I said, that he 
should appear bo Gay and be so Lamb-like, and not become Savage over his LosB-ing. 

He thereupon' told me to go to the Dickens. He was mad because I was Whittier 
than he was. — Ihe Judge. 

AIM eJ«l KN.Vi: 

Business -writing. 
Bt Paiti. Pastsor. 

The prMCDt dincgasioD cd the sobject, 
"Cad BusioeM-writiDp lie Taught f" has 
led me t« a few reflectioM in that direclion, 
which I crave indulgence of the readers of 
the JouBSAL for preBeuting in bo crude find 
baaty a dhape as my time renders necepsary. 
I hope the brevity of my remarks may at 
leat>t «d<i Bomething to their jHtb, else I 
ehould feel ill satisfied indeed in trespass- 
ing upon your patience in this number of 
our favorite penman's paper. 

And in the first place, I would like to 
give my deBnition of buHneSS-writing. I 
think there is some misundorstanding among 
p«DtneD on this very important point, and 
hence so much difference of opiniou. Buei- 
nesjt-writing, as I look at it, is fhat form of 
penmanship which is best suited to commer- 
cial purposes. I don't caro what system it 
may represent — I don't care if it doesn't 
represent any ; my idea of good businees- 
writing is simply that it shall possess the 
qualities which are desirable in bueiuess cor- 
respondence and book-keeping. And these 
qualities, it seems to me, are three: Jst. 
Legibility. 2d. Uniformity. 3d. liapidily. 
I place legibility first, 1" 
main requisite. No ban 
the least bit slovenly or inexact is fit 
to be put to any business purpose. 
It would be contrary to the whole 
system of mercantile affairs, where 
everything depends upon the scrupu- 
lous exactness and perfect order of 
every item which goes to make up 
the total result. Uniformity comes 
next. This is the principle of beauty 
of any style or system. It is the chief 
charm of every attractive handwrit- 
iug, and the only requisite necessary 
1o make a good plain penman. Take 
any handwriting you will- -the schbol- 
boy's cramped chirography, the lady's 
pointed Italian script, the student's 
llowing back-hand, the painstaking 
author's up and down stroke — and 
let it be uniform, let the slant be the 
same throughout, the words and lines 
at proper and equal distances apart, 
and especially let the letters be of the 
same bight and size, and the pro- 
duct will be, in ioto, a beautiful hand- 
writing, let accomplished critics say 
what they will. Rapidity is com- 
monly insisted upon as being the 
chief requirement of a good business- 
writer. I would not underrate it, by 
any means, but it seems to me that 
these other qualities which I have men- i 
tioucd — legibility and uniformity — sur- 
pass it in importance, and that either | 
one of them, taken alone, is of more 
value than rapidity. Of course, I presup- 
pose that every legible and attractive pen- 
man has acquired a good average rate of 
speed— not a flashing pen, by any means, 
but one which runs steadily along from line 
to line, or column to column of figures, and 
accomplishes a good deal in the lung run. I 
know that if I were eneaging a young man 
as a business* writer, I should very much 
prefer phenomenal legibility and uniformity, 
at the expense of rapidity, than phenomenal 
rapidity at the expense of these other quali- 
ties. Still.I some rare 
cases, can be perfectly combined, and suoh 
a penman, of course, would be an acquisi- 
tion to any business othce. 

Now about the question of leaching busi- 
ness-writing. Accordlne to my definition 
of it, and the analysis above, business- 
writing as business-writing is not to be 
taught so much as naturally possessed or 
acquiredthj piactice. Can you teach legi- 
bility t — no, but you can inculcate it, de- 
mand it, show its necessity to the young 
penman, and he will acquire it by bis own 
efforts. Can you teach uniformity t — no, 
but practice secures it. You can teach the 
elements, and the slant, and the art of com- 
bining and shading letters, but you cannot 
teach the mnsoles and the nerres and the 
eye to work iu suoh tine accord that every 

stroke and touch shall blend : 
of the whole, like the colors 
or the chords of a symphony 

1 the harmony . "There is no n)oin for donbt," he said, 

of a painting "that the characters formed wiih the pen 

This is the I by the hand are an index of the chBracter, 

work of the individual himself; and some 
writers are more fitted for it by nature than 
others. .Some have an accurate eye, a deli- 
rate touch, a clear perception of artisUe 
harmony, and they readiiT»ciiuire% sym- 
metrical and attractive hafltpfi'ing- Rap- 
idity, too. cannot be tau|lff; it 13 6nlirely 
the gift or the acquirement of the individual, 
and he will use it equally well, whether he 
haa studied in the best Spencerian schools 
or followed his own bent upon the rustic 
copy - sheet of the country schoolhouse. 
Some of our best business penmen are self- 
taught. The great majority of them never 
took a lesson of a writing-master in their 
lives. They have practiced and toiled, un- 
til whatever their individual style is— back- 
hand, upright, long or short elant, flour- 
ished or plain — it is fixed, harmonious, defi- 
nite, and therefore attractive and business- 
like upon the page. 

Such, hastily expressed, are my own 
views upon the subject of business-writing; 
and were we all called to settle the matter 
by vote, I should cast my ballot with 
brother Ames — that business- writing can- 
not be taught. 

peculiarities and eoeeniricities of the man. 
It is my belief that if n person accustomed 
to writing wUh the rigbt-band were to lose 
that member and to learn to write with the 
left-hand, that the writing ^frould betniy the 
same characteristics. I believe, too, that 
if man were to lose both hands, and to learn 
writing witli the toes, that all the essen- 
tial featui-es of the writing would be i)re- 

as H mental descripti( 
handwriting f " was a 

) giye a physical as well 

I- from his 

" I have known persons," he replied. 
" who professed to be able to delineate the 
entire physical and mental characteristics 
of persons Tiylosamining their handwriting, 
cve«-*« ti-Hhig jtheir stature, complexion, 
triiipemuu-iit, color of eyes and hair, 
whether spai'o or corpulent, etc., being 
ecpially discriminating regarding peculiar 
mental traits of character. This I regard 
as :iii abstird and ridiculous extreme." 

'* ^^'^itilll.^ then, is but an indication of 
iiiiiitjil (liiuacteristics?" 

"This I believe to be the correct view, 
but even this must not be regarded as liter- 

, thfy would be without 

"Catim>t a man studiously disguise his 

"With great "eare a writer may entirely 
change the geueiral appearance of his «Tit- 
iug. This may be done by a diange of slope, 
size, or by using a widely difierent pen; yet, 
in spite of all effort, his unconscious writing 
habit will remain and be penieptible in all 
the details of bis writing ; snch an effort 
to disguise one's writing could be scarcdy 
more successful than would bd-ft disguise 
of the person to avoid recoguititm." 

An eminent authority on handwriting 
makes the following observations concern- 
ing the handwriting of certain prominent 

" If ever a signature c<uild be received as 
indicative of the character of its o^vncr it is 
that of Rosooe Conkliug— grand, gloomy 
and peculiar." It stands out iu the relief of 
the blackest ink from the paper. Scarcely 
two lottera at the same angle; with intricate 
and grotes<iue flourishes everywhere it cer- 
tainly gives expression to the mental ramifi- 
cations of tlie great unknown, so far as they 
can be guessed at. It seems to sny,*My mas- 
ter writes like no one else; I stand alone 
among signatures.' 

" Secretary Robert T. Lincoln writes 

a band striUingl^ike that of ex-Prcsi- 
I dent Hayes. Secretary MacVeagh's 
signature^reseuibles some of those af- 
I lixed to the Declaration— that is, it is 
large, bold, antique and diatinguishcd- 
looking. Kirk and Wiudom are neat 
and legible penmen. Postmaster Gen- 
eral James wiites prettily, with several 
graceful little flourishes. Secretary 
Hlaine's hand is large, bold and dis- 
tinct, all letters and words being con- 
nected throughout. 

" General John A. Logan inscribes 

I pkolo-entjraved from an ortt/inal fioui-iak by />. H. Farley, (eac/iei 
and hoolc-lttping at the State Normal School, TTtnton, N. J. 

Character in Writing. 

■: Star 


, Peculiarities Betrayed 
iiv THE Pen. 


MAX, Maiione, Dana, Bkyant, Long- 


KiGiiTs Lbadkus, anj> Other Nota- 

Tliat the peculinr features of a man's 
liaudwritiug afford a true index to the 
iiharactvr and temperament of the writer, is 
!i proposition wow generally accepted as 
correct. It is claimed that the hand- 
writing of different individuals diffoi-s in^ its 
essential eharaeteristics as widely as does 
the i)hysiognomy, style of dress and gen- 
i-nil appearance and deportment of the 
^vritei-s. An autograph especially, bpiug 
writtL-n more frequently and usually with 
uuire care and deliberation than other man- 
uscript, is generally regarded as a reliable 
index to the character of the writer. It ac- 
quires a settled fonn that better portrays 
his idiosyncrasies than a rt-nm of his ordi- 
nary ^VTitiug. For the puipose of learning 
the views of an expert on this interesting 
subject, the writer visited the office of 
Dauifl T. Ames, the editor of the Pen- 
man's Art JoDBNAL, and au examiner, of 
iiatiuiiiil reputation, on questions of forged 
or .iiM.iitrd writings. The walls of the office 
wert' civi-rcd with elaborate and elegant 
spi'cimius of the caliigi-aphic art- 
Mr. Ames, who ^s an enthusiast in his 
business, entered freely into convemiliou. 

ally correct iu all cases. It will not be 
found to be true of children or persons 
whose bauds or habits are unformed. From 
the writing of such persons nothing can be 
told regarding character, as their characters 
are really undeveloped. And again, let any 
person who has been in a position requiring 
little or uo practice in writing be suddenly 
placed in one requiring ra))id and constant 
practice, there will be within a few day as 
marked change in the entire appearance 
and character of the writing. But in the 
writing of adults who have hands formeil by 
long practice there are habitual and marked 
peculiarities which undoubtedly indicate 

"What is understood by the term ' char- 
acter' as applied to handwriting?" 

" It is the peculiar eccentricities of habit 
m wTiting, as it is the figure, dress, etc., in 
persons which readily and cei-tainly deter- 
mine their identity." 

" May there not be mistakes on the ques- 
tion of identity!" 

" Persons are never so identical iu form, 
features, dress, habit, etc., as to be mistaken 
byintiinate acquaintances, and usually where 
a strong personal resemblance is apimrent 
to stranfffirs it ceases to be so upon a more 

lutiiii:iti M ;it,!iii So, two different 

hfiii'i . "ly equal size, uniform 

!*lo|M -III ly, iis a whole or in its 

piciL-ii.t! < itui, i-ic-uii to the eye of a novice 
or casual observer much the same appear- 
ance; yet, to one familiar with them, or to 


5 black, 
Sf'iiiitor Pendle- 
.vbat siiiiilar thou^li 
■l.r formed. Plain, 
ueat and angular, it resembles the bold 
English numuer of writing so much 
aftected by ladies. General Joseph R. 
Hawley's elegant and graceftil auto- 
graph is familiar from its appearance 
tm innumerable diplomas and othi-r 
documents issued by the Centennial 
1876. Alexander II, 
writes hesitatingly iu a 


sessor of wh; 
term to apply 

f liaiidwritiui; is a proper 
o a sea of broad horizontal 
dashes, extending from one side of the 
paper to the other, with here and there a 
slight ripple of short, upwanl stems Iliin- 
iiibal Hamlin iipparenlly M'astes as Utile 




iv... b..l,l II. 

give emplm 


effect. Sheridan's signature is as hold nw 
dashing as one of his own fierce cavalr, 

" ' General Hancock writes a beautifnlt 
clcoi' and regular hand, which is unfurluii 
ately disfigured by an unneoesflury profusiei 
of heavy downward dashes 

" Genera! Terry, the renowned Indim 
fighter, is puuetilious iu his penmanshi[ 
writing clearly and graeei'ully. without tli 
least attempt at ornameiilalioit. Gciieii 
Burnwde contrived to make half a do/e; 
words cover a whole page of conimevfii 
paper, and this is uot by any ■■rdiu.ii 
means, as bis huge, scrawling charai-ii r~ 
plain as those on a cireus poster, seemed t 
literally ehuse each other down the put''' 
or, rather, to be festooned over it like l)i 
clusters of a wild grape vine. 

"Among joumaliBts, generally, oik- ■ 
prepared to look for remarkably iih-t''''' 
scrawls. That this is not alwnvs the .■■''' 
numerous autographs in thii 
prove. The latt* Bayard Taylc 


I»iriiiiaD. Gonrpc William, Curtis's sigoa- 
ttire, nlthnugh slmtt-ing some sigDS of uu- 
UBuat Qire, Ib written in an CJisy, ninning 
hand, M |p^il>lo ns print. Admirers of 
Chiirloji A. Dana would hardly iinagiiic that 
his fine editorial.-* are nTJttcn in a small, 
ncal hand, and with a pen dipped in violet 
ink, instead of in gall. 

" William Cullcn Bryant wrote legibly 
in an old-fasbtoncd stylo, thungh rather 
Dcrvonnly toward the last. Eli PorkinK i» 
a better penman than anyone wonld believe 
npon his nnbaelted assertion. Bob Bur- 
dettc of the Burlington Hatcket/e could, 
with the neeessnry kno^vledgwof inathema- 
tie», obtain » position in any mercantile 
house as book keeper. 

" I>'mgfellow writes in a really beautiful 
Italian hand, and Wbittier and Holnics 
rival him in their own peculiar .styles. 
George Wa.shington Childs has a style of 
penm.-uiship Mliirh Would appi-ar as well 
at the bottom of a check as in the verses <.f 
one of his far-famed elegies. Miinit Hal- 
atead is certainly one of the wursl writei-s 
in the whole world, and the sight of what 
purports to be his signature would lead one 
t" diiii))t the truth <>f tliis whole paiagi-apb." 

It is worthy of note that nearly all the 
leaders in tho Woman's Rights movement 
write niascnline hands. This is especially 
the .M^f. wilh T-.l.-i-elia Mntl. Anifliii 

Bl , !'.:■.; ■.. \\. .1/ I.,... S, . „ li. 


Article V. 
Br D. T. Ames. 

In article No. IV. we treated of Cor- 
respondence — exclusively business in ita 
character— and presented under that head 
numerous examples for letters. 

We will now consider a class of cor- 
reepondence — both business and social in Us 
nature, and which is incident to all occupa- 
tions of life— such as Letters of Application, 
Introduction, Kecommendation, Advice, etc. 
It is often desirable or necessary, on the 
part of the person seeking employment, to 
make application by letter. Such a letter 
bec-omea, as it were, the writer's representa- 
tive and agent, and wins, or fails to win, 
place or favor, according to its merits. 

Such letters should he in the beat pos- 
sible style of strictly plain jienmanship ; 
and in language the most direct and brief, 
consistent with a dear, full statement of the 
applicant's purpose and qualifications. The 
tone of the letter should be indicative of 
dignity and self-respect, with a willingness 
to render good service for a fair equivalent, 
rather than that of a conaoiouR inferiority, 
begging for favor. 

The following advertisement is fdlowed 
by examples of letters of application. 

t agui 

P. O. Hox. l,Jo;j. 

. New Yohk. 
May lit. 16'S:i. 

Sli: :— III answer to your ad 
ilie fifrald tills day. I would any llint 1 am 
sevfTitpeii years old and in good health; am a 
graduate of the Nfw York College, and also 
..!■ Packard's Businesa College, and have had 
nenrly a year's expmence as book-keeper for 
E. S. Hood A Co., whoae leatimonial, together 
with olhei-s, I inclose. Present salary not bo 
much an object as prospects for future advance- 
meiil. I shall be pleased to call on you at your 
reipu'st. Very Respectfully, 

Jasees S. JoHN.S()X. 

Jamkstown, N. y., Ma}/ Ut, JSS3. 


Conant Acndemy, Eden, Pn. 
.Silt: — 1 am iiifuniied byoTmuIual friend. 
Prof. E. C. \Voo<I ot this place, Xi.m you desire 
lu Miipb)y a teacher of penmanebip and b....k- 
ket-piiig. I wisb (o secuM such a postlion. I 
am tweoty-iwo years old. in good health, em 

/ // / If 

a graduate of the Spencerian Business Col- 
lege, Cleveland, Ohio, and have taught writ- 
ing, book ■ keeping, and other cimmeicial 
branches, more or less, for three years past. 
With whai success you can infer from the in 
closed lestimonate. 

Soliciting an early response, I am, 
Very Respectfully, 


Box 27. Jamestown, N. Y. 

Letters of Introduction. 

The style of a letter of introduction should 

vary widely, according to its nature and 

purpose. If of a business nature, the letter 

should be brief and to the purpose, and free 

from compliments. If of a social nature, 
greater effort at grace and style of diction 
and polite compliments is permissible. In 
each case the note should be given in an 
unsealed envelope. 

A business letter of introduction may be 
properly presented in person, but that of 
social introduction, by the rules of etiquette, 
is required to he left at the door by the per- 
son introduced, and the recipient should ac- 
knowledge the same by calling, in a short 
time, upon the person introduced. When a 
card of introduction is used, the introducing 
party shonld write, distinctly, at the lower 
left-hand corner of card, the name of the 

Letters op IIecommi:mj,\tion. 

It i» very prvper thai persins whp are 
about to employ a stranger iu position, 
perhaps, of trust and responsibility — 
should demand some guarantee respecting 
his character and previous occupation. 
This may be given through letters of recom- 
mendation from previous employers or other 
persons of well - known stjfcding." Such 
favors may be properly solioitAl from em- 
ployers and persons who ate iutimalfly ac- 
quainted with the applicant's experience 
and reliability. On the other hand, to ask 
such a favor from a newly-made or uligiit 
acquaintance, who has not the means of 
knowing of the applicant's fitness, would be 
an impertinence, and a request that shouM 
not be granted. 

An employer in granting a letter to an 
employee should, in some manner, state the 
reasons for the changed relation, lest there 
bo an unfavorable inference upon the part 
of the would-be new employer. A recom- 
mendation may be general or s))ecial in its 
character. A general recommendation is 
one given to one removing to a new com- 
munity, or, who, in a general way. is to 
seek employment, while the grautiug of 
such letters does not hold the triver to any 
responsibility, in case ' the recipient may 
prove to be untrustworthy, there is r cer- 
tain moral obligation which should lead the 
giver to exercise proper care to know 
whereof he affirms, and not to make his 
testimonial stronger thanhis knowledge will 

Our next article will relate to correspond- 
ence of a friendly and social uatiiie, with 
illustrations, plate-engraved Irom pen-and- 
ink manuscript. 

A Rat Among Postage-Stamps. 
The American Bank Note C<uupany is 
preparing designs for a new iwn-cent stamp. 
In the manufacture of the staoips, for which 
the contract is held by the company, the 
greatest care is taken. The .''lieets of blank 
paper are kept in a safe and are counted out 
with all the care of greenbacks. Every 
square inch of that p5ece i-f paper has to "1 
be accounted for, either iu a perfect or im- 
perfect condition, and when so much of it aa 
equals the size of a postage-stamp is miss- 
ing there is then trouble. Some time ago a 
sheet of postage-stamps worth six doUara 
disappeared and great excitement fol- 
lowed. Every employe interested felt it to 
be a critical time. All went' to work to 
solve the mystery of the disapiiearance, aud 
the whole matter was sifted and sifted until 
it was made clear that the einployes were 
innocent. Then a rat was suspected. At 
length a rat-hole was discovered, and it was 
penetrated far enough to reveal that the 
animal was the thief, f->r part of the sheet 
was found in the hole. This was nofsuf- 
ticient. The work was continued until the 
rat was discovered, and then the employes 
were at peace. — St. Louis Republican. 

Back Numbers of the "Journal." 
Please Note. 
Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we ean-send, 
and no others: All numbers of 1878; all 
for 1879, except May and November; (or 

1880, copies for months of January, I'ch- 
ruary, April, May, June, August aid 
December only remain; all numbers (--r 

1881, and all for 1882, except June. It 
will be noted that while Spencer's writiu^ 
lessons began with May, the second IeBS"u 
was in the July number, so that the series 
of lessons is unbroken by the absence <>' 
the June number. Only a lew copies 'nT 
several of tho numbers mentioned abov.- 
remain, so that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly. All the 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be mailed 
for $4.00, or any of the numbers at 10 cents 


Educational Notes. 

for this Departme 

The average graduate of Ann Arbor 
■peods $1,750 duriog bis coane.—Ex. 

The aggregate value of the echoulhouses 
aud 8it«e of Nen- York State is $;i9,3:l2,291. 

The term at Oxford and Cambridge is 
only lix moDths, the other eiz beiug yaca< 

The gift of Paol Tulane to Louisiana for 
edacatioual purposes is expected to yield au 
annual income of about 8-10,000. 

Thp State has a right to educate its 
ebitdren in Sve K's ; (o reading, 'riting, 
and 'rithmetic it must add right and 'rong. 
— Ii€V. Lyman A bbott. 

Je«SDp, Pa., wants a high school, and 
says, by way of ioducement to " some live, 
energetic pedagogue": "We have abund- 
ant material, and the nearest saloon is forty 
miles away." 

William H. Vanderbilt has lately added 
$IOO,(K)0 to his $1,(M)0,U00 endowment of 
Vanderbilt University. The late Mrs. 
Atkinson, of Memphis, left the same insti- 
tution *50,000. 

Librarian Spofford aays the library of 
Congress now contains, as nearly as may be 
estimated or ascertained, 640,076 books aod 
pamphlets, this being an increase of about 
87,'J(H) during the year. 

Out of a population of 25,000,000 Eng- 
land seeds only 5,000 studenta to her great 
universities. Scotland, with a population 
of 4,000,000, has (:,.500 university students, 
and Germany, with a population of 43,000,- 
000, haa 22,500 studenta in her various uni- 

Harvard haa students from every State in 
the Union except Nebraska, Oregon and 
Virginia. Besides, there are students from 
the District of Columbia, Idaho, Montana, 
Utah, Armenia (in Asia), Bahama Islands, 
Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, 
Japan, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and 

Teachers in the public scbools of France 
are now paid, on an average, but a trifle 
over $150 per annum. Thirty-two thous- 
and women and fifty thousind men em- 
ployed in this way under the Republic re- 
ceive this salary. Educators were better off 
under the Empire and the old regime. — 
Notre Dame Scholastic. 

London University, University College, 
(Liverpool), the Royal University of Ire- 
land, Cambridge University, four colleges in 
Canada, Boston University, Cornell, Mich- 
igan, Oberlin, Vassar, Vermont University, 
Kansas University, Iowa University, and a 
dozen other institutions confer degrees upon 
•womeji.—Notre Dame Scholastic. 

The twenty-seventh annual catalogue of 
Hillsdale College, Mich., shows the follow- 
ing summary of attendance: Literary De- 
partment, including Graduate, Classical, 
Preparatory, Normal, and English courses, 
561; Theological, 32; Commercial and 
Telegraphic, 2U ; Music, 163; Art, 110. 
Deducting the names entered more than 
onoe, there remains a total of 751. 

Museum, London, 1.500,000 ; Imperial 
Library, St. Petersburg, l.00(MH)n: Royal 
Library, Munich, 1.0(>0,(M»0; ItuyMl Lib- 
rary, Beriio, 750,W)i\; University Library, 
Strasborg, 513.04)0; University Library, 
Leipsic, KUO.OOO; Grand Ducal Library, 
Darmsiadt, 200,000 ; Royal Library, Copen- 
hagen, 48'.;, 000; Imperial Library, Vienna, 
440,000. This shows an increase, for the 
first two named, of about 200 per cent, in 
the last quarter of a century, while the in- 
crease of the others named during the same 
time shows a gain of from twenty to one 
hundred per cent. — Anterican Bookseller. 

Educational Fancies. 

[In ever^ iuetance where the source of any 
il«m used m this department is known, the 
proper credit ia given. A like courtesy from 
others will be appreciated.] 

An old-fashioned coaching -club — the 
schoolmaster's birch. — Tke Hook- keeper. 

The Boston Public Library, the greatest 
institution of its kind in thia country, num- 
bers in the central library and its branches 
420,150 volumes, of which the former has 
302,258. The branches are at East Boston, 
South Boston, Roxbury, Charles' own, South 
End, North End, West Roxbury, Dorches- 
ter, and Jamaica Plains. The issues dur- 

1,040,553, a 
years. The 

es of books 
IB62 have 

ing the last current year were 
slight falling off from previous 
number of periodicals and ne 
file was 707. The total iasu 
since the organization in 
amounted to 14,475,485 volumes. 

According to the Encyclop<tdui Britan- 
nicfi, the following are the statistics of books 
in the ten principal Librariea of the world : 
Imperial Library, Paris, 2,290,000; British 

Very accurate language, the Chinese ! 
A sewing-circle is called in Chinese " chin- 

Latin is a "dead language" — especially 
when an inexperienced drug -clerk fools 

A young ladies' seminary blew up the 
other day down East. It is supposed that 
a spark got into the powder-room. 

We are enjoined by the good book to in- 
crease and multiply, but some over-zealous 
people go beyond this and have division in 
their families. 

" I hope you are a better boy, Willie," 
said a Sunday-school teacher to one of her 
young hopefuls. " Gosh, I hain't been sick," 
was the reply. 

A freshman hesitates on the word "con- 
noisseur." Professor: "What do you call 
a man that pretends to know everything? " 
Freshman answers: "A Professor." 

President: "What can you say of the 
second law of thought T " Student : " It 
cannot both be and not be. For example, 
the door over there must be either shat or 
open. It cannot be both shut and open." 
President: "Give another illustration." 
Student : " Well, take the case of another 
door."— JTx. 

Prof. Blackie once chalked on his notice- 
board in college : " The Professor is unable 
to meet his classes to-morrow." A waggish 
student removed the " c," leaving " lasses." 
When the "Professor returned he noticed the 
new rendering. Equal to the occasion, the 
Professor quietly rubbed out the " 1," and 
joined in tke hearty laughter of the asses. 

Ancient Writing-Masters— 

n.^T TuET Did a,vi. What Thev Didn't. 

By B. F. Kblley. 
As "the heathen Chinee is peculiar" and 
eir claims to an ante-creation origin seem 
rest on insufficient foundation, we believe 
that, as far as can be learned 
which may he accepted as 
ng- master known 
And even the 

A Sunday school teacher ashed one of the 
little girls in her class why the lions did not 
eat up Daniel. She replied, " I guess God 
told the lioua that Daniel was not good to 

Why doth the little schoolboy swear 
softly all the way home when he haa been 
kept after school? Because "too much 
learning hath made him mad." — New York 

Girl-graduates in England wear gowns 
precisely like those worn by university men 
and made by the aarae tailor. The only 
way to tell which from t'other is to wait for 

Geometry Class - room. — Professor : 
" You do not eeem to have studied this very 
carefully." Freshie (a little deaf), ex- 
citedly: " Yes, sir, that is just what I am 
trying to prove." — Ex. 

" You can stick a pin in here," exclaimed 
a Michigan country schoolteacher as he 
elucidated a mathematical principle of un- 
varying verity, and when he came to sit 
down again the pin was there. 

Mr. Andrews, translating Virgil : " 'Three 
timea I strove to cast my arms about her 
neck, and—' that's aa far as I got. Prof." 
"WeU, Mr. Andrews, I think that was 
quite far enough," was the ief\y.~Ex. 

When a country schoolteacher in Ohio 
can't agree with Webster's Dictionary as to 
the pronunciation of a word, something haa 
got to break, and it is Webster who most 
always gets hxin.—Detroit Free Press. 

Study of Greek: Mr. Froudo, in the 
course of a recent lecture, stated that Cato 
did not begin to learn the Greek language 
until he was eighty-four years of age. The 
boya of to-day tell their fathers that they are 
anxious to follow the example of Cato. 

Freshie: " What is the derivation of the 
word ovation ?" Senior : " Ovation, my 
little fellow, comes from the Latin word ' 
OTMiH, an egg. It arose from the custom of 
applying rotten eggs to distinguished politi- 
cal speakers, which was called giving them 
an. ovation." — Ex. 

from an 

reliable, the first 

in this world was Adam. 

fact that he officiated in that capacity has 

been thought questionable, notwithstanding 

the repeated affirmative asseverations of a 

people inhabiting Arabia. 

It is not claimed by this people, we be- 
lieve, that Adam organized classes in pen- 
manship, or advertised possibly he 
might have done with more propriety than 
some of the more modern writing-masters, 
as "the best penman in the world," " the 
King of Penmen," or even the " Prince," 
whose unrivalled system of penmanship 
would transform the veriest dullard into an 
accomplished penman in a course of tea 
lesaona or money refunded. No, theSabeans 
claim, only, that they have a written work 
executed entirely by the hand of Adam. 
" Adam f — long while ago," is the semi- 
interrogatory, musingly uttered by the 
reader. (We charitably trust it ie not the 

Well, be the claim of the Sabeans true 
or false, we have abundant testimony in 
tradition that Noah consulted astronomical 
works in his library during that memorable 
excursion in the Ark. (See D'Israeli's Curi- 
osities of Literature.) And as this was 
some time before the era of the art of print- 
ing, it is but natural to suppose that the 
volumes in Noah's library were written ones, 
and this presupposes that they were written 
by human beings — and writing-masters in 
the past were always considered human be- 
ings ; and thus the fact is established, beyond 
controversy, that writing-masters existed 
before the Flood. And these may have been, 
for aught we know, the lineal descendants 
of Adam, or of some of the graduates of 
that gentleman's Institution. 

Of these writing-masters, with the single 
exception of Adam, we know nothing. 
They aeem to have been extremely reticent 
concerning themselves. (The lineal descent 
hereinbefore sugge-^ted as begiuning with 
Adam, has not in this particular, it appears, 
continued unbroken to the present time.) 
Archipologists have, for centuries been en- 
gaged in researches and investigations con- 
cerning the origin, language, religion, man- 
ners, customs, sciences, arts, and everything 
pertaining to the people of the past, but 
have never discovered any evidence of the 
existence of anything like the circular of 
the modern writing-master. And they, 
with singular unanimity, agree that in 

name of the penman by whom this is said 
to have been written is Abishua, a grand- 
son of Aaron, and the work is supposed to 
have been executed three years alter the 
dea'h of Moses. This is claimed by these 
good Samaritans to be the oldest manu- 
script in the world. The statement that 
Abiahua always procured his clothing of 
Nicoll the tailor, and that the manuscript 
was executed with an "Ames's Penman's 
Favorite " pen, are entirely unworthy of 

From the date of the above manaacript 
we are compelled to pasa on to a period 
very much nearer our own before the work 
of the writing-maater again appears. Just 
what this period was cannot be definitely 
determined. Manuscripts were found in the 
long buried city of Herculaneum. But it 
was not until the third century of our era 
that the work of the writing-master began 
to boom. Origen, alone, it is said, dictated 
upward of six thousand works. Seven 
secretariea and seven copyists, aided by an 
uncertain number of ladies of uncertain age, 
were, according to Eusebius, always at 
work for him. 

In the early part of the fourth century 
Constantine commissioned Eusebiua to have 
fifty copies ot the entire Greek Scriptures 

From thi 
the best ancient 

One of the mos 
about this period- 
material used — w 
by C( 
sisted of 

bably derived 
pts of the Greek 


] author 

ancient times there 

could not have been, at 

any one moment, n 

ore than one person who 

was the best jtenm 

n or teacher of penman- 

ship in the world. 

But the world movea, 

and now, where i 

the county in all our 

broad land that ci 

iunnt boast of the best, 

or, at least, has n 

t a " best " to boast for 


The next work of a writing-master of 
which we have any reliable record ia the 
copy of the Pentateoch now preserved in a 
Samaritan Synagogue at Nablous. The 

anuscripta of 
curious on account of the 
a in the library founded 
Constantinople. It con- 
le hundred and twenty- 
five feet in length, of one piece, prepared 
from the intestines of an enormous serpent. 
Upon this were written, in letters of gold, 
the entire Iliad and Odyssey of Homer. 
Another remarkable manuscript, consisted 
of the Iliad, written in si 
be inclosed in a walnut-shell. 

The usual method pursued by t 
in producing his worke was to dictate to an 
amanuensia, called by the Latins, notaritis, 
and by the Greeks, tachugraphos, (swift 
writer). Thia was carefully copied by the 
kalligraphos, ( now universally written 
^e/fet/graphos ) meaning fine writer, and 
denominated by the Latins, Ubrarius. The 
manuscript was then submitted to the doki- 
mazon for criticism and correction. In 
those days it was nothing but fun to be an 

Of the classic historians, Herodotus is the 
most ancient, but there are no manuscript 
copies of his works now known to exist 
which can be considered of an earlier date 
than the ninth century, the oldest being in 
the library of Emmanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, England. Of his famous work 
there are in all not to exceed fifteen manu- 
script copies. 

There are about 1,000 manuscripts of the 
New Testament, or parts of the same, about 
fifty of which are thought to be upward of 
one thousand years old. We will recall the 
names of a few of the more celebrated of 
these, the latin word code:c being used to 
deaignate a manuscript book. 

The Codex Alexandrinus, supposed to 
have been written by a noble Egyptian 
lady and martyr named Thecia, about the 
year 325. This consists of the Old and 
New Testaments and the Apocrypha. 
The manuscript is on parchment, the 
writing being in straight rows of uncial 
letters without divisions. Occasionally, 
at the beginning of a line may be seen 
a large ornamental letter, not for the 
purpose of marking a new section, para- 
graph or sentence, but apparently for ar- 
tistic efl'ect. The ornamental letter may 
be in the middle of a word, but is always at 
the beginning of a line. This manuscript 
was presented to King Charies I. by 
Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople in 
lti28, and transferred to the British Museum 
upon ita formation in 1753, where it still 

The Codex Vaticanus was deposited in 
the Vatican Library upon its establishment 
about J450. ■ But little is known of its 

origin, bat greater antiquity is claimed for it 
than for tbe Alezandriao, bj, perhaps, a 
quarter of a centary. Like llie latter, it 
contained the whole of the Greek Bible, 
bot some portiooa have been lost. The let- 
ters bear a striking resemblaoce to those in 
the manuscript rolls discovered in tbe mins 
of Uerculaneum, which would seem to be 
evidence of ita great antiqaity. la 1810, 
Napoleon took it to pHris, where it was er- 
atnined by many. After the battle of Water- 
loo the librarian of tbe Hritish Mneeum be- 
sought the Duke of WelliDglon to place it 
where it might be accessible to scholars. 
His reply was: "It is sUilen property and 

The Codex Sinaiticus, thus named from 
the place where it waa discovered, is thought 
by many to be the most ancient and best, as 
it is the most complete, copy of the New 
Testament yet known. This was in part 
discovered by Dr. Tiscbeudorf iu 1844, at 
the Convent of St. Catharine on Mount 
Sinai. He observed some parchment leaves 
in a baaket of material for kindling bis fire, 
and upon investigation they proved to be a 
portion of a irianuscript of the Sepluagint 
hitherto unknown. These fragmenta he 
caused to be published soon after. In 1858 
he obtained, at the same convent, the re- 
maining portions of the Septuagint and the 
entire New Testament, with the Epistle of 
Barnabas, and portions of the Shepherd 
of Hermas. 

The three manuscripts mentioned are 
doubtless tbe most noted of sacred 
manuscripts, but the Codex Bez<c in the 
library of Cambridge University, Eng- 
land, and the Codex Ejihra^mi which 
waa brought to France by Catharine de 
Medici and which is now at the Imper- 
ial Library at Paris, should not be 
overlooked. This latter volume waa 
for a long time supposed to be simply 
the sermons of Ephraim, but waa sub- 
sequently proven to have originally 
contained portions of the Old and of 
tbe New Testaments, and these were in 
great measure restored. 

Manuscripts taking the place of other 
works previously erased, called palimp- 
eesta, are very common, although copies 
of tbe Sacred Scriptures were rarely 
used in this manner. The conquest of 
Egypt by the Saracens deprived Euro- 
peans of the use of parchment, and ibia 
will acxount for the great number of 
palimpsests now eattant, as also for the 
irretrievable loss of many ancient works 

sentences. The following, with 
close this article, will serve as an 
of the arrangement: HEIS 

"I Thought I Wouldn't." 

Two young journeymen mechanics were 
working at their benches, on opposite sides 
of a cabinet-maker's shop. They were both 
about twenty-five years of age ; both mar- 
ried; both healthy and intelligent. One of 
them stopped his work, turned round 
towards the other, and, leaning agaiost his 
bench, thus accosted him : — 

" Dick, I always thought you were quick- 
tempered ; you used to be when you were a 
boy. Now I think I am not quick-tem- 
pered, but if the boss had talked to me as 
he did to you yesterday, I believe I should 
have knocked him down, let the consequen- 
ces be what they might." 

"Well, Tom, I am quick-tempered," re- 
plied the person accosted as Dick; "and as 
to knocking old Scoldera down, I had my 
thoughts about that matter, too." 

" To he sure, I reckoned you were right 
mad enough when I saw your face as white 
as a sheet," said Tom ; " but I should like 

from you. I believe I was aa white as you, 
just at that moment, for I expected yoa 
would drop him, sure." 

" You are miataken, Tom," replied Dick; 
•'I did not take hold of the hammer from 
any impulse or design to use it, but * I 
thought I wouldn't have it where I could 
seize it and strike him without stirring out 
of my tracks ; and so I pushed it over the 
end of my bench, and it fell among the 
shavings, and it took me a long while to 
tind it when I wanted it again." 

"WeU," said Tom, "I didn't believe I 
could have stood what you did any how. 
But yon use that expression * thought I 
wouldn't, as if it waa a sort of favorite one ; 
have you adopted it as a motto for your coat 
of arms, I should like to knowt" 

" 'Sorter some, some sorter not,' aa they 
say out West," replied Dick laughing : 
but it is said that all the highest modes of 
thought have a stereotyped expression, and 
that is the reason, for instance, why those 
who speak tbe English language are always 
seeking for liberty expressed in the great 
phrases which are so commonly used in 
books, speeches and newspapers. So I 
confess that I have got one little pet phrase 
which, when I am in action, reads, ' I think 
I won't,' and when I am pondering over 
what I didn't do, signifies *I thought I 
wouldn't.' And I think this phrase over a 

Jimmy on my kuee, and oommencod telliDg 
him a story while I put on his nightgown 
and then got him into hia crib, where, aa I 
was describing to him the old man's sheep 
jumping over the wall — then another — and 
then another — and then another — he went 
over the wall with the twentieth, and wu 
fast asleep. 

" Then I cleared the table, and put awaj 
the things till morning, raked out tbe fiiB 
and got it a going, and took the baby and 
placed it in tbe cradle. I got some cold 
water and bathed Lucy's hands and face, 
and smoothed down her bair with my hands, 
{ magnetism, you think t well no matter,) 
and placed a wet cloth above her forehead. 
I asked her if she was better. ' Yes,' she 
said, with a sweet smile, and fairly went to 
sleep while she said so. So I got down a 
book of travels and fr>rgot all about myself 
for a couple of hours. Then I looked up, 
and as I saw little Jimmy sleeping go 
soundly and pleasantly in his (.rib, where he 
had kicked himself out to the top of the bed- 
clothes ; and the baby, too, dozing quietly 
with her thumb in her mouth ; and Luoy 
reposing so refreshingly, with a half smile 
on her parched lipa, the fire now burning 
brightly, and the rain beating against the 
windows, I was glad I did not speak a 
cross word to Lucy, and leave her sick and 
alone with a deranged kitchen, a dull fire, a 
fretful child, and a nursing baby. What 
a brute I should have been if I had 

"Yes, of course," said Tom rather 
slowly, for he was just then impressed 
with an idea that he, with all his good 
temper, had ''done it" at a time not 
very remote. But he regained his com- 
posure by saying: — "Well, go on 
Dick, this is as interesting aa a prize 

of vail 

what should have h 
were erased and " the 
sitions of classic Rou 
psalms of a breviary 

missal." Yet, however much we may 
mourn the loss of these works of the an- 
cient writing-master we shall ever be com- 
forted by the consciousness that the bird 
created and adorned by the modem writing- 

regret that 
immortal works 

iverted into thi 
the prayers of i 

: it photo-engraved from an original Jlourith by Mr. Vaelav Vane, a pupil of 
A. N. Palmer, at ike Cedar Itapids (Iowa) Butineaa ColUge. 

" I have but little more to 
tinned Dick. " I have com 
matter a great deal, and the i 
sider upon it, the 

'I think X 

sider tha' 

r still I 

to know what your thoughts were on this 
'solemn occasion,' as they say." 

Dick laid down his chisel, and turning 
around, folded his arms, and replied. 

" I thought I would, and then I thought 
I wouldn't. When old Scoldem tiret found 
fault with me, and began to scold me, and 
finally got angry and abused me merely be- 

} I would 1 

the I 

Although the erasure of noble works of 
ancient profane writers and the substitution 
of less important ones was said to have been 
frequently done by pious monks, yet we are 
told that these monks were not always de- 
void of interest in the works of some pro- 
fane authors, and that when they wanted a 
sacred book to read, they would in their 
silent language make a certain sign ; if they 
wanted a book of a profaue writer, like 
Virgil or Horace, they would add to the 
usual sign that of scratching under tbe ear 
like a dog, because, said they, an unbeliever 


The age of Greek manuscripts is deter- 
mined in part by the form of letters used. 
Those iu which the tmcxai letter is employed 
being considered more than one thousand 
years old, and those in which the curs-ine 
style is used being thought less than that I 
age. We .maintain that much that 


thought — no, it was not thinking, 
ras only an impulse — it occurred to 
I if I should only just smash his hat 
ver his bloated face, and then give 
I good bli .w under the left eye, which 
umble him among the shavings pro- 
isly— it would be serving him just 
about right, for I was terrible angry. But 
then I thought— and it was thinking, for it 
came after the impulse, and restrained it — 
then I thought that he was a great deal 
older man than I was, and had a wife, and 
sous and daughters grown up and married, 
who would be very much shocked and 
dog. {Vide "Curiosities of pained to hear that he had been treated iu 
this way, and I thought, too, that I was in 
bis employ, and could quit him at any mo- 
ment if his service was intolerable, and that 
it would be disgraceful to me to have it re- 
ported that I had had a fight with my boss: 
and I thought how bad Lucy would feel if 
t arrested for a breach of peace, or 
made myself liable to be, and so I 

ten to^drty belongs, emphatically, to the ; thought I wouldn't 

cursiw jtyle. 1 " Ah, Dick," said Tom, " those were not 

The old .minuscripts consist entirely of ' exacUy your feelings, when you took hold 

large capital :lflttere without separation into | of your hammer and then dashed it away 

great deal, and I confess it does me good 
I'll tell you how I got into it. 

"About a year ago, I went home one 
damp, slushy, thawing night, rather late for 
supper. Old Scoldem had been very cross 
that day, and very insolent; and that, with 
the unpleasant weather, made me feel very 
cross, too, very. Well I got home. The 
fire was almost out, the room uncomforta- 
ble ; but supper was ready, and we sat 
down at the table. Lucy did not seem in- 
clined to talk, little Jimmy was fretful ; the 
tea was weak and cold, and the toaet wasn't 
made right. I felt very much annoyed, and 
I thought I would just tell Lucy, in a confi- 
dential sort of way, that the tea was only 
slops, and that the toaet wasn't fit to throw 
to the pigs, and that I would then put on 
my hat, and go off to the Odd Fellows' 
lodge earlier than usual, and serve her right. 
But then I looked across the table at Lucy, 
who sat there holding her baby, eating 
nothing and looking pale and weary ; and 
I noticed too that little Jimmy looked 
flushed, as he sat there in his arm-chair; 
and it occurred to me that it was just possi- 
ble that my wife might be feeling ill, and 
that little Jimmy was affected by the 
weather, just like older folks, and that per- 
haps this damp air affected the draught of 
the chimney. I asked Lucy if she was ill, 
and she said that for six hours she had had 
a terrible nervous headache, so I thought I 
wouldn't say anything about the tea and 
toast, but I pursuaded Lucy to lay down on 
the settee with the baby, while I took little 

'' When old Scoldem is insolent to 
, when anyone jostles me insultingly, 
idoly, my first impulse is to 
his kind ; but when I con- 
; will do me no good to do 
it, ' I think I won't.' When I am an- 
noyed by shortcomings at home, and 
am tempted to find fault, I ask myself 
if Lucy is not a good-tempered, in- 
dustrious woman, a good motherand a 
loving wife, and if I don't really think 
she meant to do as well as she might under 
the circumstances, and the sharp expression 
never forms on my lips, because ' I think I 
won't.' So when tbe children are too noisy, 
or one of them is fretful, I think that noise 
is oft preferable to constrained silence, and 
that it is better to take the little fevered 
hand in yours, and tell him about Gulliver 
and the Lilliputians, than to cuff his ears 
and send him outraged and crying to bed. 
I am glad that I often ' think I won't.' I 
feel that I have triumphed when I can say, 
* I thought I wouldn't.' " 

" Dick," said Tom, " can you give me a 
scrap of paper 1 " 

His friend examined his wallet and pro- 
duced a piece. 

" H^re," said he, " is the back of a letter 
dropped to-day in the city post-office; it is 
addressed to me, and a post-mark on it, too, 
but as it is marked 'Paid,' I hope yoa 
won't hurt it." 

'* All the better for leaving your name 
and date on it, Dick," said Tom, who pro- 
ceeded to the desk, wrote something very 
carefully on the paper, folded it, and put it 
away in his pocketbook. 

The two friends grew old together in their 
native city. They both became prosperous 
in their calling, and were noted for their 
kindness to their workmen and servants, for 
amenity to the community at large, and for 
their domestic happiness. They were dis- 
tinguished by civil honors, and were made 
depositors of responsible trusts. They re- 
mained fast and intimate friends, and it was 

a s..orre of hsppiucM l 
chtldrea intermaTripd. ' 
Id his ]a«t-*ri)l bo made 

• lliein that Ibci 
'hrimaa died «r.t 
> ain^alar provis 

*' lUm. I dircef that a ccrlaio sealed 
paeka(;e,beariDg my nattie, shall be delivered 
to my true and lire-loDg friend Rirhard Fel- 
toTi. In enntains a gift whirh he made me 
early iu life; it has been to mo a great 
Booree of sneceM, and of domestic happi- 
ne«». I rctriro it to hijn now j he does not 
need it, but u-ill be glad to reeeivc it. 

The mysterious package was' produced 
and opened. It contained only a crumpled, 
worn and somewhat soiled scrap of paper, 
apparently a piece of a pirst-marked letter, 
which read as f<dlows : 

"July 1st, I8()(J." 

RiciiAiiD FKiyros, 

"I TiioDoiiT I VVciiu.dn't." 


rea.son that we business-nTiting-teacbers do 
not claim to write accurately — in fact, the 
iuacciirucy of our writing is what makes it 
business- like ; therefore, it is dangerous to 
explain miuutely how the letters should be 
made, for soine briebt-eyed little urchin will 
bo euro to ask, "Say, Blister! why don't 
you n)ake 'em like you tell ns to T " 

Prof. T. laid great stress on muvcment, 
and drilled the cIh»s nearly half the time on 
"exercises" and such foolishness, but I con- 
cluded not to say a word on the subject, for 
I believe "the way to learn to write is to 

A Business-writer in Trouble. 

HY a. SuRItMAN. ' 

I have the good fortune In he employed 
as teacher of writing in an excellent com- 
mercial sebo.d, I 111 I am iu trouble. Pro- 
fessor T., iiy, was what is 
tenned a "systeiiiali,: penman." Ho could 
write like steel-plate, «ii bout a waver in his 
lines, making ™pilal..,ll,,,t were really beau- 
tiful, and small IcIIits as smriotli aud even 
and perfect as could be imagined. He made 
different styles of capitals, almost without 
uumber, from the most contplex ornamental 
to tho simplest abbreviated ; and he could 
turn his pen around, raise his elbow, and 
produce an nmaxing variety of beautiful 
scrolls, birds and beasts o( every kind. 

I give this description to show you that 
he was by no means a business-writer. But 
/am a business-writer aud a business- writ- 
ing teacher, aud spend no time with " high 
art " anil " system " and " scales of propor- 
tion " BUtl all such nonsense ; but, as I said 
at tlie start, I am in trouble, f.irthe students 
here do not seem to properly appreciate 
strictly busiuess-writing. I ha 
distress from the very start, for 
been in the oHlce morn than f. 

write," aud 

cisc" " and " comhined- 

ratber lei each student use the movement 

that ho finds the most natural and " free," 

and then there will be an " individuality " 

in liie results that is certainly desirable. 

Tho " indiviiluality " in some cases may be 


■kable fact that there has been 
more interest taken in Prof. T.'s writing- 
lessons than any other exercise in the school, 
and when the writing hour came, aud I 
stood belore the class for the first time, I 
knew that every student was mentally com- 
paring Prof. T. and myself, and as I saw, 
in my imagination, the beautiful lines that 
that class bad seen upon the long, smooth 
bluckboard, I became somewhat dazed, 
and for just a moment I lost faith, even in 
my non-aystematio writing. I soon rallied, 
h(»we'er, and made my opening speech j in- 
troduced the joke; wrote the copy on the 
lioard (a whole sentence, of course, for we 
uever practice nor teach single letters or 
"pieces of letters"), and proceeded to show 
the advantages of inaccurate over accurals 

I thought that I had made out a very 
clear case, hut I soon discovered by the 
numerous c]ueBtions asked, that I had not 
converted them all. One impudent young- 
ster, who I must confess did write a remark- 
ably correct hand, earnestly asked, if he 
should write as well as ho could, or like the 
copy; and another, showing me a few mis- 
erable, scrawling lines, that were neariy as 
bad as they could be, innocently inquired, 
if that was inaccurate enough for me. One 
boy complimented me by saying that he 
liked ine for a tearher, first-rate ; for Prof 
T. was always iiuding fault with his writ- 
ing, but now the worse it was the better 
it would please me. I do not wish it under- 
stood that I made any such statement as 
the above, or claimed that very inaccurate 
writing was desirable, but I found that some 
of the more philosophical of the class rea- 
soned like this : if slightly inaccurate is bet- 
ter than accurate, then very inaccurate is 
better than slightly inaccurate. This puz- 
zles me somewhat, and I would like to know 
how far from the "systematic, high art 
style " wo inusl diverge in order to make 
our writing business-like. 

The class has been under my instruction 
two weeks, and I am sorry to say that most 
of them seem to have lost all interest in Iho 
subject, and evidently lliero is something 
wrong. I have received many suggestions 
from followers of the old school, bill they, 
of course, are all blinded by prejudice. I 
am told that a fine penman's skill alone is 
a great inspiration to the earnest student, 
for it shows him something to strive for, and, 
further, that as soon as a pupil approxi- 
mates the .-kill of his teacher, ho is very 
liable to become satisfied with himself, then 
progress stops. Another says, that as writ- 
ing is a combination of artificial characters, 
called letters, it is evident that there must 
he an ideal form for every letter, and it is 
by comparing his own work with that which 
18 nearer tho ideal that the student sees his 
faults, and is en.bled to correct them. Ha 
also says that the successful teacher of writ- 

d „. the co„«ruc,i„n ^r<,^:^:,:^ 1 2:^^::^ ^ ::rtz::t::^z 

i gr'^iZ't'"™';' """.".'•"■" '"'^ Iheyhaveat^ore perf; t ,1 p n o'f 
hiwL::,""' '" """' """""°* ' '!" '°™» "- «'-y - produce! hence 
.have learned that it is the best policy .„ '^Tr^^T^ Lt',:' " """'' " ^'"''- 

tho tlral inoruiDg, whou an elderly man 
t'Hiup in Willi two larfip, elogantly-bound 
l.ooltg, aud asked for Prof. T., llie teacher 
of nftiiiimnsliip. I oxi>Iaincd to liim that I 
Imd tlie honor Iu be the toacher of bnsiness- 
M-ritiug iu that .school, and asliod what I 
cuiild do fur him. He wauted a long in- 
scription written in each of those boobs, 
lusription books aud autufiraph books 
causo nip a deal of uuhapi)ini's9; for, being 
only a tPHoher of busiuess-writing and not 
a real peutnan, too much is cKpeoted of me ; 
bat, as I consider it a duty to educate the 
doludc<l public up to a proper appreciation 
ol the uon- systematic, nioetoeuth century, 
busiuew style of writing, I uever refuse to 
write anything. \ wroti' the inscription in 
one of the hooks. The uihu looked at it 
and then nt me, and, thiulciug T had mis- 
umh'fstood him, repealed, very loudly, "I 
«Hid I was luokiue for the penman of the 
echord." I assured him thai I was the pen- 
man, at which he looked at iho writing 
again, shut tho book, said ho would write 
in tlie other hiuiaelf, and walked out with- 
*iut even thanking rue. 

netore I bad eomph-toly recovered my- 
Sflf I found that the writing hour was nearly 
at hand, and I hastily reviewed my pro- 
gramme for the initial lejson. I decided to 
begin with a neat little speech, applying, 
in a general way, to tho subject that would 
luimediately rivet the attention of the elass. 
and then I would show them tho folly of 
trying to learu to write by rule; throw in a 
little, at the expense of tho '* so-wide," 
" so high," eiaudard system; give them a 
copy, with a very brief explanation in r*.. 

of " business peomen, "' and- that everyone 
of them had a different " theoyr " which 
was just right, ahd all other "theories" 
were nonseose, utter and absolute. 

But this is enough to show you that I 
need sympathy and counsel, and I anxiously 

AH May Write a Good Hand. 

Bv Madiik Mailk. 
While the sense of form may be more or 
less a special gift, it is not to be supposed 
that any persou is so totally deficient iu this 
sense as to be devoid of the ability for cul- 
ture. The senses— each and all— are sup- 
posed to he possessed by most human beings; 
hut in some they lie dormant for the want of 
certain awakening influences, for a long 
period, and at last spring suddenly to light as 
ifnewlybornor miraculously created; while 
in some it is possible for the latent power to 
never find awakening; and yet, neverthe- 
less, it has existence, deep down in the 
depths of being, somewhere. The sense ol 
form is one of these faculties; and though 
it may he possessed in sufficient degree to 
enable the one supposed to he deficient in it 
to recognize the forms of both animate and 
mate nature, to discern expression 
igh its varying shades, trace effect back 
use, or judge of the probable efl'ect of 
)r that circumstance, nevertheless they 
are supposed deficient in the sense of pro- 
portion. Why they are supposed to he de- 
ficient seems difficult to understand. They 
do not preceive some things as readily as 
other people. Very probably not. The 
sense of seeing may be naturally less acute, 
or it may not have fully learned to feel the 
confidence that is found alone through tested 

Xo one knows his strength in any direc- 
tion until he has tried it. He may have 
some comprehension of it, but not always a 
just one. 

The individual of largo self-esteem over- 
estimates his ability to do. Nothing is be- 
yond his power to achieve, until he has 
failed repeatedly, aud has learned to know 
his proper level. After that, there is abund- 
ant hope for him, if he will plod his way 
upward with persevering effort. 

In direct contrast to this person, is the in- 
dividual of small self-esteem. The uoble 
powers may be all within him, but he un- 
derrates himself. The fine appreciation, and 
tho lofty hunger for progress may he keen 
'en to ravenousness, but he does 
not know his power to achieve. He thinks 
if he only could, but ho halts between the 
nobility of ambition and a timorousuess 

born of doubt i 
still. He needs 
orajogof som 

elf, aud he stands stock 
inspiration, a stimulation 
jrt to stir him up. Mod- 
ch adds to merit, but lack 
stumbling-block lo the 

make the explau^tjuus very brief, fur the Another tells , 

proper ilevelopment of what 
merit an intellect may possess. 

We need to learn our ability to do; and 
wo can never learn this except by an effort 
in the right direction. Tliis is why so many 
people think they can never acquire the 
ability to write a g.tod baud. The work of a 
fine penman seems so much beyond them. 
They forget that the fine penman toiled iu 
the direction uf perfeetiou, and was not 
created as an off-hand eflWt of his Maker. 

Of course the gifts were about him— no 
one doubts that. But suppose he had left 
them to rust in idleness, or never studied 
himself, or tested bis strength to learn of 
their possession, would every trtuch of bis 
pen or expression of his thought be an of- 
fering of graco at the shrine of beauty f 
Wo need not answer. Any one knows that 
such a circumstance could never be brought 
to pass. Perfection in any sphere or any 
field of achievement is only gained by un- 
ceasing effort. Likewise tbe effort must be 
ilightened aud critical of self. 
Neither faint -hearlcdness at failure or 
rogance at seemiug success, will win for 
ly the best 
We should be 

aid courage for a basis, together with the 
searcbful, studious, reflective temperament 
in striving, it would seem an impossibility 
that any one save the maimed, or blind 
could fail in acrjuiriug a good, plain, credit- 
able style of penmanship. The art-sense 
may not bo sufficiently powerful to make 
elegant penmen of all. but writing iu its 
simplicity should not he beyond tbe reach of 
the middle-class ability supposed to belong 

Incomprehensible conglomerationa are not 
a necessity in a page of English composi- 
tions. Unreadable autographs are unpardon- 
able offences, and should be so considered. 

If we are not all geniuses, surely we are 
not all dullards. Wo have, at least, an 
average ability in uiost directions. Nouo of 
us would like to confess that we have not. 
Some gifts of nature may be stronger than 
others, and the special talents of each may 
be altogether different from tbe special 
talents of another, but no needed quality of 
mind is supposed to be wholly deficient. If 
there is not a total vacuum of any souse, 
there exists the possibility for culture. The 
one talent may be strengthened and in- 
creased by the effort for its develipment. 
The five talents left to rust and idleness 
will do far less than the oue bravolv and 
courageously strengthened by use. A good 
style of writing may be nutural, but no one 
overtook his pen in hand for the first time 
who proceeded to write handsomely at the 
first efi'urf. Study the lives of the most 
celebrated penmen and learn if their status 
of perfectness was won at a single ju'jip. 
Observe, if, with all their artistic instincts, 
they did not bungle at their specimens, over 
and over, and fail of achieving their aspir- 
ations repeatedly, until by their failure they 
had learned their weakness, and learned, at 
the same time, to guard against it by virtue 
of the strength they also learned to be a 
part of their possessions. Perfection of at- 
tainment islo be struggled after, notgraspcd. 
Understandingly, soandifully. critically, 
must we struggle for the attainment of any 
lofty purpose. 

Over and over must we expect to fail, and 
yet to win at last if wo nobly try. In the 
art of writing, the principles of success are 
synonymous with the principles of siicoess 
iu any other direction. A creditable degree 
of success may be reasonably expected by 
deserving effort under each and every cir- 

The measurements of merit may not lie 
in tbe energy of effort alone, but energetic 
eflort should iu every instance accomplish 

In this fact should ho found an inspira- 
tion alike to tho amjIuliocS and faintliearted. 
No one nejMt-Tail utteriy. Some success is 
for evcry'one. Believiug thip, we may all 
climb upward to something higher than we 
have yet known. Supine inaneness is not 
the properornecessary condition of anything 
human. We must act. That all may write 
H good hand, and alt sJwtdd write a good 
hand, stands fur a clearly dcmr.ustratcd and 
established fac 

The Writiug-Kuler has become a s 
ard arli<-le with those who profess to h 
suitable outfit for practical writing, 
to the writer what the chart and co 
to the mariner. The Writing-Rule. _ 
liable penmanship chart and compass 
hy tho JotJHNAL OQ receipt of ao ceutJ 


8 he has known a number | be brave. With the p 

8 iu any field of labor, 
jdest, but likewise shoi 

iciples of modesty 

Send $1 Bills. 

We wish our patrons to bear iu mind that 
payment for subscriptions we do not de- 
-e postage -stamps, and that they should bi- 
nt only for fractional parts of a d-dlar. A 
dollar bill is much more convenient and safe 
imit than the same amount in 1, 2 or a 
stamps. The actual risk of remitting 
money is slight — if properly directed, not 
uiiscarriago will occur in one thousand. 
Inclose the bills, and where letters contain- 
ing money are sealed in presenc* of the 
postmaster we will aunme all the risk. 


n flight. 

Incorrect Penholding. 

Ry CiLA^n>r,BR H. Peirck, of K^-okuli. Iowa. 


(■(I to II 

tin- 1 


lii.Miiig," but sliall cluhii it Ity riglit of pos 
session. Doulitless, when pen iind holder 
wfie oonibintd in tlie goctgc-qiiiU. penhold- 
ing WII8 literally true; but in thcao days, 
when pen and holder aro not only separate, 
hTif ftnitcd to every one's fancy ( and in each 
eiisc the' liiil(l<T is liold instead of the pen ), 
it is |tnti"r lo conclude that penholding is 
anmiiy tlie Inst arts. 

Directly iuid indirectly we find no less 
than sixteen descrihahle diffcrcDues in in- 
correct ponliolding, any ono of which may 
and does exist in the beginning with all 
cliis8o«, undpr all circu in stances, regardless 




and oftbcts aro so iutorwoven 
I will mako no attempt in this article 
tho finer sliades of meaning, 
whirli will follow in their time. The points 

Isl. Natural tendencies. ~~h\ attempting 
t<. do anything, wo usually find the right 
way hy doing the wrong way first. The 
nattiral tendeney or inclination is to begin 
hy liohling tlio pen in nnmy, many diflerent 
ways, wliich «ro the results of awkwardness 
or inability. This wmse is to bo applied to 
children eif tarly growth, because, beyond 
the earlier years, these tendencies are conn- 
tenicted, and other things of etiual weight 
take their pi. ice. 

.Snd. Work prescribed too difficult will 
invariably cause the ehibl to hold the pen 
incon-i'ctly. The anxiety produced in at 
tempting to jx'iform the vccpiired work, 
leads the pupil to forget all else, and, in 
conseijuenee, bus but the ono object in 
view, viz., the rqiroduetiem «f the beauti- 
ful engraved copy. The pujiils being of 
different calibre, each having the same 
copy, with 80UU' tlu* work will he too easy, 
while witli others, too difficult. 

The bust efl'-iits cannot ho secured iu 
either case through any analogous reason- 
ing, and,, individual -instruction 
should lake the place of class- instrnetion, 
RO that criticisms could he .rendered of 
value, and each impil placed at work 
suited to his ability. Class-instruction is 
far superior to none, but I do not deem it 
at ali companibh' with a plan that renders 
co.ent entirely dependent 


reached is. that, as long as the work is too 
difficult, the ehild's mind is nbsorbed in tho 
subject-matter, and hence uo attention ean 
bo given to improvement in any other 

3d. Weakness of the Jingera. 

(a) Fle.\lhility of fii-st tinger. 

{h) Stmightening of tlie upper joint of 
the tlmmb. 

This U a ualnral condition with young 
children, and must he accepted and dealt 
with as becoming eacli individual case. 

The first finger usually bends inward, 
and is drawn upward above the end of the 
thumb, pushing tlio holder downward too 
low, causing the pen to produce very heavy 
lines. TIiu bone is not sufficiently devel- 
oped, and tho slightest pressure causes the 
efloct described. 

Iu almost every ease the weakness is ag- 
gravated by using short slaU- ami lead 
pencils in the general work of the school. 

I herewith present three remedies : 1st. 
Use long jwncils, or else the short ones in 
holder. Slid. Fa-^ten the holder or pencil 
with a small cord or nibber-hand, by pass- 
ing it around the first finger, near the third 
joint. 3d. Hold the holder between fint 
and second finger; this, however, is simply 
choosing the 6m/ horn of the dilemma. 

Straightening of the second joint in 
thumb may he termed malformation. A 
very small per cent, of pupils are thu.'» 

I am not prepared to say that it is cur- 
able, or that it materially affects the results. 
I would counsel, however, that but little 
attention be given the matter, and let the 
results he what they may. I do not deem 
it a serious impediment, but am not willing 
to say that it is no impediment. 

4th. Tfte weakness of the hand. — It con- 
sists of drawing ll iu the smallest amount 
of space possible, throwing the third and 
fourth fingere out toward the left, and the 
hand on its side. This, of course, will 
spoil the slant of the writing, or, in other 
words, produce vertical work. It is cur- 
able, and is treated pro]ierlv iiud<'r Nos. 11 
and 14. 

5th. Curved Wi-ists, 

(a) To the left— the rule. 

(6) To the right— the exception. 

An inward curve of the M'riat is a very 
ccnninon afflicti.m with chihlreu. A little 
proper training will generally overeonio it ; 
but whatever the cltoif. tlic result must be 

gained, •'. e., the wji-t mu-t sti-:ii!_''ii>ii, •■\u(] 
the hand turn ii litilr in tlir il^hi ni' i^'utfi-. 

In isolated cases wirt. aiiullv. wo tin.l tlir 
hand turned too far to the riglit- The ob- 
ject should he to overcome it by practicing 
*No. a of Programmes " V " and " C" 

Gth. Gripping holder too tightly. — This 
produces, if continued long enough, para- 
lysis or penman's enuiii). The pressure 
causes the fingers to curve and draw the 
liolder to an almost vertical position. Only 
those who lack in skill are affl'cted in this 

Anxiety and earnestness assert them- 
selves, Hud you have one enuso. Thoughts 
flow freely and tho hand hastens to keep 
pace. Houra of coustant strain work 

Stiffness of the band, fingers, and mus- 
cles, caused by manual labor, is another 
reason for gripping the holder; and still 
another cause, a general weakness of the 

7th. Holding holder with thumb and first 
finger.— This occurs usually with cliUdren, 
though not strictly confined to tliem. 

Sth. Holding first finger straight mth 
holder is indulged in by tho few. The cure 
is easily effected, and needs no special treat- 

!nh. Holding the holder loith thujnb di- 
rectly opposite first and second fingers.— 
This, like many otiior effects, is caused hy 
a general weakness of tlio baud and iingere, 
the direct cause of premature infancy. 
Cases can be cited that i)rove positively 
that error in youth will show in old age. 

10th. Holding the second and third fing- 
er straight, and joined their entire length. — 
Tliis is a little vestige of the old, old story 
as it use<I to be sung. It does but little 
damage in these days. 

nth. Separating the second and third or 
third and fourth fingers their entire length. 
—The cause may be given but it is imma- 
terial. Holding a cork or other substance 
in the shape of an egg in the hollow of the 
hand will effectually work a cure, or if the 
band spreads too nmch, fasten the fingers 
together with a baud or string. 

lath. Supporting the hand on end of little 
finger.— This is no sin, and where the habit 
has become fixed, make no change, because 
good results can be gained, and but little 
disadvantage experienced. 

1.3th. Holding holder icith bail ofiJiumb, 
i.e., extending the thumb beyond first finger. 
—This is wrong, and no skill worthy of 
notice can be attained without the end of 
thumb touching bolder. The joint must be 
outward, not inward. 

14th. Fingers grasping holder too far 
from point o//)ffn.— This is a common error 
and generally leads to throwing the hand 
on its side. By lessening the distance from 
end of finders to point of pen, the hand 
will aysume the proper position. 

loth. Holding the holder between the first 
and second, second and third, third and 
fourth fingers. — This is no penitentiary of- 
fense, and will, perhaps, some day, bo con- 
sidered as one of the ]»ropcr ways. It usually 
breeds carelessness, and for this reason 
alone I do not advocate its use. 

16th. Clo.ting the hand entirely, and 
grasping holder by letting it as.«w»i« an 
almost horisontal position, touching thumb 
its entire length, and extending beyond and 
across first finger between first nnd second 
joiuts. — The case in point is a 'Substitute for 
the condition caused hy i>On- paralysis, 

In conclusion, I would say, that the gen- 
oral unsatisfactory results from all classes 
of pupils is, in part, duo to the imperfect 
holding of tho pen, 

1. Natural inability — prevents. 

2. Wrong impressions — prevents. 

3. Ignorance-riM-e vents. 

4. Carelessness — prevents. 

All combined, form a bulwark almost im- 
passable, and, if not dealt with properly, 
the proportional results cannot be percept- 
ibly better than when all was darkness. 

Penmanship in Public Schools. 

The question, "Howflhall I teach penman- 
ship t" is no doubt asked by every teacher. 
It is certainly one of great importance. 
Teachers are like the remainder of human- 
ity, either radical or indifferent in reference 
to certain duties they have to perform. W© 
tind one making a hobby of his penmanship 
to the exclusion of other important sub- 
jects; another, totally indifferent, thinks if he 
can write so that it can be read he is doing 
all that is required no matter how slow and 
labored, or, if rapid, how devoid of form and 
symmetrical combination. The latter has 
obtained and holds the idea that penmen, 
like poets, are " born, not made." No idea 
could be more erroneous. We bear people 
speak of "natural penman." How con- 
soling to him who has devoted years to the 
careful study and practice of the art. That 
all are endowed with the same genius for 
acquiring penmanship we would not claim 
for a moment, any m 
claim that all had the B: 
iiuiring the other arts. 

Wo look upon it, bo' 
imbecility for a person to assert that he can- 
not learn to write the twenty-six script cap- 
itals and the twenty-six small letters, with 
their proper arrangement in word and page, 
in a good business-like style, neatly and 
rapidly. Henry A. Spencer, one of the au- 
thors of the justly famous Spencerian Sys- 
tem of Penmanship, said, recently, in one 
of a series of practical lessons in the Pen- 
man's Art Journal, " Any person who 

own.'" This, in our opinion, is a confession 
of the too inefficient work of the teacher. 
The young man finds that he must increase 
his speed if he would meet the demands of 
tho business world. To a great extent bus- 
iness writers put themselves into their writ- 
ing, or, in other words, exhibit their indi- 
viduality. It is not he who undertakes to 
put himself or bis style into the work of his 
pupils, who does the best work, but he 
who, full of enthusiasm and love for the 
work, developes form and rapidity of execu- 
tion, allowing tlie pupils to express their 
individuality in their work, is the success- 
ful teacher. It is difficult for teachers who 
are poor penmen to inspire their pupils with 
much love for the work, and I may say that 
a large number of our public school teach- 
ers are (piite indifferent writers. 

It is not to he expected that all can he- 
come adepts, but certainly, most of tnem 
can, with little trouble, improve so as to do 
efficient work in teaching. In most schools 
we find the writing-book with printed or 
engraved copies; this is objected to by 
many, hut we believe it is almost a neces- 
sity at the present time. No teacher should 
use it exclusively, but should supplement 
the blackboard and foolscap with move- 
ment and dictation exercises. Every teacher 
should be able to write well on the black- 
boaril, for this is one of the essentials of 
good teaching. Tho most successful teach- 
ers of penmanship are those who use the 
board most freely. It would surprise some 
of our teachers to know what improvement 
they could make by writing one line a day 
on tho blackboard, as a copy, for one term, 
trying to follow what is suggested by the 
six S's— size, slant, space, shade and speed. 
Copies of one word at a time are not enough. 
Many persons can write words as they stand 
alone very well, but fail in tlie arrangement 
of the words in the page. Whole lines, 
stanzas of poetry, business forms and let- 
tors should be given frequently with definite 
instructions, as to spacing and arrangement. 
No careless practice should be allowed, for 


rill 1 

Careful study, combined with practi( 
produce the desired effect. Labor 

, will 

than we would 
I aptitude for ao- 

9 a mark of 

and five fingers on either hand can, under 
proper instruction, learn to write well." 
Much has been done by business colleges 
and special teachers to improve tlie penman- 
ship of the people, and their efforts have 
been, in some degree, successful ; yet a large 
per cent, of our population are not reached, 
and as they never got higher than the com- 
mon school, their business qualifications are 
therefore very meagre. They are taught to 
write, or rather draw, a slow and cramped 
hand, sacrificing movement to form. It 
seems that we should aim to teach writing 
as business men are expected to use it. 
Form .ind movement should be taught at 
the same time. Our long experience has 
convinced us that this can be done, and 
there is no reason why the young man at 
school should not write just as rapidly and 
bubinees-like as the one in business. We 
have heard teachers say, "When our young 
men go into business or hold positions in 
business houses they break up the hand we 
taught them and acquire a stylo of their 

Just as he Wrote it.— The following 
communicatitm, received hy us several days 
ago, explains itself: "mr, EDITOR: en- 
closed please find ms wlii(di I HOPE may 
be accepted by yon for publication. In 
tho event of yonr maldng USE ..f same, 
please have PUINTEHS put iu type in 
EX.'VC'T accordance with undersckrino, 
punctuation, ETC , as per COPY. Print- 
ers 1-requently take (JHEAT liberties 
the AUTHOirS meaning aliiiM.t uevoni. 
recognition. The PIHCE of rhe article is 
Five DOhLAUS." We our com- 
p..sitors to jirint the above in exa.-t accord- 
ance M-ilh our fastidious C(nT*-spondent\s 
lavishly underscored copy, and, after seeing 
the proof, we are free to confess that we 
would hesitate to print bis tubee-column 
article as he desires it tsbonld appear for 
LARS— CtHctnna(( Saturday Night. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send postage-stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for email sums, 
nor Canadian postage-stamps. 

Our Premiums. 

Inasmuch as tho Journal will, this 
month, be mailed to many thousand persons 
who have no knowledge of the character or 
style of the premiums, one of which is 
given fi-eo to every subscriber, we have 
added four extra pages for the i)urpoBe of 
inserting outs — reduced size — of a portion of 



Piibliahed Monthly at 91 p«r Ye 


SIdcU ln»ertloo. 30 omU pM lin* nonpareil. 

"■""■ 50c. par line. 


mallod vlth 1 

uy inbMrit 
rulloprlog naj 

It Stag.. 

i1 Picture of ProgreM 22i3S. 




■riplUin. at25ee 

Wllhonl e 
DUU the JOU 
pienlumi, U 

claim. What it d<>ee claim is, that alJ the 
element* of gnod, practical writing can be 
taugbt, and ehouM be acquired, in a school- 
room, yiz., simple and correct forms, com* 
hined with ease and ^race <>f movemeot ; 
and that all this can be done more rapidly 
aod certainly by placing before the pupil 
some fixed aod unvarying form for stady, 
and methods for practice, such as are found 
in engraved or systematically written copies 
thaD would be possible otherwise. With 
an eye and judgment thus educated re- 
specting form, taste cultivated and refined, 
aod a free, rapid and graceful movement, 
the pupil will then possess all the elements 
of good " business- writing," except that 
peculiar and inevitably necessary practice, 
wherein the hand acquires the power lo do, 
as it were, automatically, through the sheer 
force of habit, that which as a learner has 
required a constant exercise of thought, study 
and care — in other words, mental supervi- 
sion; and thus the formal and thoughtful 
writing of the learner will gradually pass, 
we might say How, into the thoughtless 
ease and elegance of whiit we, and all the 
world, except brother Brown, are wont to 
recognize and denominate ' as "business- 
writing." Such writing is formed in the 



State and professional offices, but i 
never yet encoimlnred it amoi 


SabtoripUoDj to the Pekhan'b Abt Jouhna 
prompUy attended to by the 


New York, May, 1883. 

Teaching Business-writing. 

Id the Bi/si««s Cnilege Record for May 
we are delighted to find, from the nimble pen 
of our up-and-ready friend Brown, another 
article iu which our position, respecting the 
teaching of a business -baud writing la school 
is re-assailed in a style that is vigorous, if not 

He says : " We were startled by (he 
statement," (that business- writing could not 
be taught) "because we believe if any 
thing could be taught or imparted to one 
persou by auother, business- writing could 
be. W© think so stUl. We were starUed, 
also, that snch a statemeut should come 
from .Mir friend Ames— a man who has had 
extended expi-rieuce in business college 
work, a teacher of penmanship, and pub 
Usher of one of the greatest penmen's papers 
in the worid. The conclusion was iue\-ita- 
able, that if this statement be true, then all 
teachers of penmanship, all systems of writ- 
ing, and all penmanship publicationa (in- 
cluding the Art Jourxal), are the most 
complete and combined humbugs on earth, 
because they aU cjaim to teac^ business- 

Please except the Journal, brother 
Brown, for it haa never inado irny such 

schoolroom ; nor do we expect 
to, until we perchance visit brother Brown's 
college. We believe be is honest when he 
says that he teaches "business-writing," 
and a style that will not require to undergo 
a change as soon as his pujiil leaves school ; 
but we still believe be is mistaken. He pre- 
sents no arguments, and, since "opinions 
are opinions still," and prove nothing except 
that, in this case, he is ready andapparently 
determined to " fight it out on that line, if 
it lakes all summer," we see nothing to 
answer; but let us suppose that, through 
his skillful instruction, and that of the very 
excellent instructors associated with him, be 

among his numerou 
who are writing hands very 
and with an approximate degr 
They graduate : one enters an 

IS a policy-clerk, where the criterion of 

uccess is the excellence of his writing ; 

becomes an entry-clerk in an active 
mercantile house, where rush of business 
from him the utmost effort, and speed 
becomes his criterion ; the third becomes a 

clerk, where "illegible writine " is a 

aearly alike, 
e of facility. 

the pride, of hi 

ters upon a professional 
brother Brown's 
falls from grace, and 

a fourth 
life, possibly 
moral training 

slowly upon wide-ruled paper, in a large, 
strong hand ; another, a gentleman of means 
and leisure, retires to his home, where, be- 
yond a limited correspondencr, he writes 
little or none. Suppose that, at the expira- 
tion of one year, brother Brown should re- 
ceive a letter from eachof hisfivegrafluates, 
does be suppose tliat the letters would be so 
alike that they would appear to be the same, 
or that the writing of each would closely 
resemble the graduating stylet 

This is a fair hypothesis. The band of 
each will have undergone a transformation 
and a modificaiiou, according to the circum- 
stances, character and purpose of the sev- 
eral writers. It would he safe to predict 
that the writing of (be policy-clerk will 
have improved in \\» symmetry and real ex- 
cellence ; and possibly of the entry- 
clerk, if he has not be*>n overtaxed in the 
amount of work required, will have assumed 
the ease and grace of a symmetrical busi- 
ness-hand; that of the clergyman will have 
become more stifl", formal and prominent, 
adapted fo bis purpose ; that of the drone— 
miscaUed gentleman— will be less changed 
in its style, from lack of purpose and the 
discipline uf habit ; while that of the lawyer 
— weU, we will not describe that— perhaps 
brother Brown can imagine it to still pie- 
sent the same flowing grace of the "per- 
fected and unchangeable bufliness- baud " 
with which be equips all his graduates. 

The New Era of Civil Service 
Demands Good Penmanship. 

Political favor and nepotism, almost since 
the foundation of our Government, has con- 
trolled the appointments to office under our 
National and State regimes. Through con- 
gressional legislation we now have the Civil 
Service laws, which, if honestly admin- 
istered, will redeem our country from the 
curse of rewarding political henchmen and 
parasites with office in preference to those 
who are morally and intellectually better 
t|ualified. If ours is indeed a republican 
government, to be administered in ihe in- 
terest of the masses of the people, the cus- 
tom, derived from monarchical abuses, of 
allowing place and power to follow favorit 
ism and caste, must bo eliminated from ou; 

The U. S. Civil Service C 
have prepared rules which have been sanc- 
tioned by President Arthur. On the recom- 
mendation of postmasters, collectors, and 
other officers, examiners in different parts 
of the country are to be appointed to act 
under the direction of the Comaiissioners. 
Young and middle-aged men, under the pro- 
visions of the law, can enter upon a com- 
petitive examination for appointment to the 
classified department service at the Nati<»nal 
Capital, or the classified Customs and Post- 
office services. The open competitive ex- 
aminations are, in penmanship, elements of 
book-keeping, fractions, per centage, in- 
terest, discount, elements of the English 
language, geography, history and govern- 
ment of the United Stales. The examina- 
tions are to be held at places conveniont for 
applicants from the different States and 

OurGovernmentnow consistently demands 
good writing at the hands of those receiving 
appointment to office, and, in addition to 
other qualifications, some knowledge of 
bofik- keeping is made a requisite. 

The Journal says Amen ! to Civil Ser- 
vice Reform. 

eighty nine, ant 

Principal of th 
..f the Northerr 

is tiu' largest, a 

The King Club 

mtb one hundred and 
and comes from E. K. Tsaa(;s, 

inship Depiirlinent 
Normal au<l Busi- 

^o, lud. This club 

,-itli on 

Penmen and the Convention. 

Brothers pennien: —The time for holding 
the Fifth Annual Cmiventiun of the Busi- 
ness Educators' and Penmen's Association 
is near at hand. But one more issue of the 
Journal will go out before that which 
will contain a report of the proceedings of 
that body. What shall be the work and 
ncorri of tliL- penmen at that meeting? Wo 
trust such as to do honor to themselves and 
th-ir calling. 

At the Cincinnati Convention there was 
a large and enthusiastic representation of 
pi'nmenj who contributed a liberal share to 
the interest and value of its proceedings. 
We trust that they will do no less at Wash- 

As Chairman of the Penmen's Coniniittee 
we hereby extend an earnest invitation to 
all penmen of the United States and Can- 
iuIh, who intend to be prrsriit, to at onoe 

Journal, an<I makes »n 
aggregate of over tico thousand subscribers 
that have been sent from that Institution 
within a period of about three years, which 
is unparalleled by any other school, and 
certainly indicates that the instruction in 
writing is in the bauds of teachers euffi- 
cicutly alive and skilled to awaken and 
maintain a high degree of enthusiasm in 
that department of the institution. The 
Queen Club numbers thu-ty, and comes 
from the Lawrence (Kas.) Business College, 
and is sent by E. L. Mcllrav.-y, one of the 
proprietoi's of the Institution. J. W. 
crvelt, teacher of penmanship at Wood- 
stock (Ontario) College, and D. H. Farley, 
teacher of book-keeping and penmanship, 
at the State Normal School, Trenton, N. J., 
each send clubs numbering twenty- fire 

Successful Instruction in Writing. 

We lately received from D. H. Fariey, 
teacher of penmanship and book-keeping 
at the State Normal School at Trenton, 
N. J., specimens of ^vriting by 175 pupils, 
mostly young ladies now under his tuition, 
which represent an unusually high degree 
of excellonco; and a noteworthy feature of 
these specimens was, that witli very few 
exceptions, they were all written with a 
free forearm- movement. We have never 
before examined so many specimens from 
one school in which thert; was so uniform 
and high degree of excelli-ncc in writing. 
Mr. Farley is evidently the right man in 
the right place, for if there is anywhere 
demanded good instruction and correct 
models for teaching writing, it is in our 
uon.ial schools. 

Prof. H. (■ 

W , 

also, t.. 
. D C. 

theAssoL-utu-:., ^;au;.^ ,a...l part, if any, 
they will bo prepared to take in the ()ro- 

Let there bea grand rally of the Knights- 
o'- the -Quill, with armor gleaming and 
bright from the constant mareholing and 
drilling of the advancing ho.its of nspi- 

The Common-sense Binder. 

This cunwuieut recpta.-lc U- h.dding 
and preserving the JOURNAL .-ihouhl be in 
posses-sioii of every subscriber. It is to all 
intents and purposes « complete binder, and 
will contain all the numbers for four years. 
Mailed for $1.5(>. 

Remember, that if you renew, or send io 
your subscription to the Journal, you 
will get a 75 c^nt book free, or a $1 book 
for 35 cents extra. 

Responsibility for Merchandise, 
etc.. Sent by Mail. 

It occasionally happens that merchandise 
and other things sent by mail are lost or 
injured, and then the question arises as to 
which is the loser, the seller or purchaser. 
It is a well-established rule, in the absence 
of any express understanding, that when 
articles are properly put up and deposited 
in the Post-office, the seller's responsibility 
ceases and the risk of the purchaser begins. 
It is the purchaser who chooses the mode of 
transmission, and if he desires to lessen the 
risk he imiy do so by requesting, and pay- 
ing ten cents for, the registry of tlic jiack- 
age, or having it sent by express. 

In ail instances where parties are unwill- 
ing to assume the ordinary risk of packages 
by mail, they should remit ten cents for 

Superintendent of the Schools of 

Men of mark and genius are sought out 
and called to fill high positions in educa- 
tional work everywhere. The City of Broth- 
eriy Love has recently oxempbfied this truth 
by calling James MacAlister to the Super- 
intendency of her great system of public 
schools. Mr. MacAlister has, for some 
years, had charge of tho public schools of 
Milwaukee. Under Tiis administration the 
schools of that city have become widely 
kiioipvn for tlieir excellent discipline, and 
thorough standard of scholarship in all 
branches embraced in their curriculum of 
studies, including a practical educational 
standard in penmanship. 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Hand- 
book of Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers; 25 cents extra in cloth). Price 
each, separate, $1. 

Condole with Him. 

A Worthy objeiM for the coadoleoce and 
Bympalhy of our special tbampioDB for 




ears in another oulurno of tliii< 
M-rtainly nceiis comforting. Will 
■oirn look to hia case, and be 
I oumforterf 

I Penmanship.— In May 9th, 
H7;t, Mr. M. B. Castle, of Sandwich, III., 
rivilod Mr. Gret-lcy to lecture there. The 
nliowing reply was sent : 
Dear Sir : — I am overworked and growing 
1<1. I shall hu 60 next Feb. 3. On the whole, 
' "feoia [hat I muat decline to lecture heace- 
irth. except in this immediate vicinity, if I do 

dJfEouIties that may not be readily over- 
come by practice. 

L. A. K., Stony Fork, Pa.— Will there 
be any reduction of rates of fare to persons 
Koing to the Convention at Washington I 
Atu.—Il is not probable that there will be, 
aM thfre are not a sufficient number of at- 
tendants to pass over any one route to in- 
fluence a reduction of fare. 

H. S 

Bloomfield, Iowa. — 1st. 

! not have the Art Journal 

the month as other popular 

s meant by 

M. B. Castle, Sandwich, HI. 

Tlie next epistle — being the rejoinder — 
shows how admirably Mr. Castle succeeded 
ill deciphering Horace's pothooks: 

Sandwich, May itth. 

New York Tribtme. 
Dear Sir : — You acceptance t 


orning. Your penmanship 
iceeded, and would aay, your lii 

me to hand 
t being the 
'lat« it 


difficult to 

of Feb.," and terme— "|(>0," 
factory. Ab you nuggest, 
get you other eugagementi 
vicinity ; if bo, we will advise you. 

Yours Respectfully, 

M. B. Castle. 
Note.— The above autngrai.h 
fect/nc-.-iimt^e, and may be taken 
specimen of the writing as it appeared 
the body of Mr. Greeley's letter. 

■e entirely Batic- 
may be able to 
thia immediate 

AccORATE Book- KBEPiNO.— A count 
lately made of tlie money and bonds in the 
United States Treasury, amounting to 
m';(rly half a billion dollars, shows an ex- 
I'ss of three cents in favor of the Ti 


On Wednesday evening. April 25th, Fielding 
Bfhofield, tbe well-known Knighl of the Quill, 
passed from the state of singje to that of double 
blesBednesB. His fair partner in the new state 
was Misa Sara Smith.of West Chatham, Mass., 
at which place the ceremony was performed. 
The Chatham { Masa.) Monitor saya: 
'■ Prof and Mrs. Schofield left town for thfiir 
new home on Friday, anticipating a cordial re- 
ception. The tour includes New York. Balti- 
more and Washington, i^ Pennsylvania Cen- 
tral, ^ From Washington they proceed to 
Cincinnati, via B. &. O., stopping a few days 
at each city, thence to St. Louis, and up the 
Mississippi to the Gem City (Quincy, 111.) of 
the West. That their future lives may be 
bright and fair is the wish ot many friends." 

On I 

■ 3d i 


, at Norwich, Conn 

Pearl Preston, ag 
the only daughter of I. S. Pres 
sadty bereav.>d parents we desire 
moBl profound sympathy. 

c months, 
To the 

W. A. P., Loominister, Mass. — I wish 
you would inform me respeeUng the correct 
position and style of writing for a peraon 
wriUng with the left-hand? .4tw.— The 
best position will be with the left-side to 
the desk, and the wTiting may have either 
a fonvanl or back slope, as you find to be 
most convenienu We should, however, 
advise the forward slope, and it presents no 

Why cat 
as early 

monthlies ? 2d. What 
" engrossing," as used in 
3d. What kind of pens i 
used in engrossing t 4th. 
with a slow, medium or rapid 
hand, and with what movement? Ana. 
Ist. The publication of popular monthlies 
is the primary business of their pub- 
lishers, whose entire energy and resources 
are concentrated for that purpose, and the 
work of publication becomes a mere routine. 
We have published the Journal incidental 
to an extensive and laborious professional 
business, of a nature often to interfere with 
anything like routi 
The plates used for 
tions are of a character 
prepare, and we have often been subjected 
to the most harraasing delays for their en- 
graving. It has been our endeavor to mail 
the Journal not later than the middle of 
each mouth, though occasionally it has been 
later, but our reailers cau rely upon its 
coming each month, and, we trust, with 
greater regularity in the future than iu the 
past. 2d and ,'Jd. The term " engrossing, 
ordinarily signifies copying or recording 
matter in a plain, bold, shaded hand, either 
in script or text lettering, or one or both 
styles combined. But in large cities 
it has become quite common to present 
elaborate and artistic memorials to the 
families of deceased officers and members 
of public bodies and associations; also, 
complimentary resolutions and testimonials 
to retiring officers and others for valuable 
services. Such works are denominated as 
" ornamental engrossing." In this work a 
large variety of pens are used, ranging fi-om 
the fine crow-quill to those one-eighth of an 
inch broad. 4th. All such work is executed 
on a slow, deliberate movement, except 
ornamental flourishing, which should be 

0.0.0.,Kirksvillc, Mo— Is it necessary 
to be a good, plain writer before attempting 
to learn oruamental penmanship? 2d. Are 
all the exercises for flourishing, iu Plate 1 
nf your Hand-book, to he made with the 
paper in one position, and in the same 
direction as they are iu the Hand-book, or 
may any flourish be made in the easiest 
ilirectionT 3d. Is it prudent to study from 
more than one system at a timet 4th. 
What advantage is counting in penmau- 
t*hipt flth. Can it be practiced in rapid 
writing! 6th. Can a person learn pen- 
manship successfully without it? 7tb. Is 
all flourishing executed with the wholearm- 
movement, and peuliolder reversed ? Ana. 
Ist. No ; skill, in both plain and ornamental, 
may bo acquired at the same time. The 
study and practice of the one will be an aid 
to the ..ther. 2d. Yes. :id. It U advisa- 
ble to select the best system, and adhere to 
it in all your practice. "A jack of all 
trades is good at none " ; so a writer practic- 
ing too great a variety will fail to attain a 
Iiigh degree of excellence. 4th. In large 
chi.'ises it aids to secure uniform work by 
reguhitiug speed, and is often employed 
to great advantage iuelementary practice 
and movement exercises. We deem 
counting of little value for advanced pupils 
and for rapid writing ; yet much depends 
upon the teacher who is to employ it. Good 
writing maybe ac<iuired, and good teaching 
unting. 5th. All flourishing 
\vith the wliolearm-move- 
ment, but not necessarily with tlie pen 
reversed. JIany skilled penmen flourish 
with the pen in both positions. 
A. L., Baltimore, Md.— Ist. Should not 

an educational standard be n'cognized in 
penmanship, as well a.s iu arithmetic, gram- 
mar, science of accounts and other branches 
of tecbnicallearuing ? 2d. Do those learn- 
iog to ^vrite from the same sfandanl write 
alike? ^n».— 1st. We believe that there 
should be a recognized standard for writing, 
but there seem to be a few cranks still living 
who inveigh against having any published 
standard of writing, arithmetic or language. 
They are opposed to text-books ; but the 
masses of American educators, we believe, 
favor, and, no doubt, wisely adviicite, an 
educational st;iudard for penmanship. 2d. 
We answer; The natural difference of tem- 
perament, mental and physical, and circum- 
stances of people causes them inevitably to 
write differently from the .same standard ; 
to vowilize or play the same notes differ- 
ently in music; render the same pieces iu 
reading, oratory and acting, diff"erently. 
Even eiiiincut artists, sketching from the 
same objects and landscjipes, while present- 
ing views relatively correct, make the pic- 
tures widely different in handiwork. Mod- 
ulation, acceut and articulation arc plainly 
different with all in -speaking the sanu- 
language. The articulation of letters and 
words with the hand and pen, from the 
recognized standard of American writing, 
shows natural differences, even in the 
schoolroom and in mature years, become 
intensified, more marked and prominent, 
and constitute what is known as character- 
istics or individuality in writing. 

(i. W. Michaels, who ia conducting a pen- 
t school at Oberlin, O., reports that he has 
irolled 308 pupilc during four months past. 

C. H, Havens, the skilled engraver of script 
upon copper and eteel, ie now located at Har^ 
ford. Conn. Attention is invited to his card 
in another column, 

D. P. Lindaley, author of Takigraphy and 
editor of the Shorthand -fVriteT, has removed 
his office from 252 Broadway, New York, to 
Plaiufield, N. J., where ho has aleo established 
a School ot Takigraphy. 

In our March iseue we noted the destruction 
of E. K. Bryan's Busineaa College, with library 
and valuables, at Canton, O. This, it Beems, 
was incorreot, as it was his private reaide:ice, 
and not his college, that was burned. 

The Seventeenth Annual Graduating Exer- 
cises of the Spencerian Business College, 
Washington, D. C. were held in Lincoln 
Hall, on May 15lh. The graduates numbered 
fifly-five, of whom seventeen were ladies. We 
are glad to note large clasaea of young ladies 
as a growing feature of our business colleges. 

Cleveland ( O.) public schools, an elegantly- 
wrilt«n letter. J. H. Smith, penman, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., a letter and cards. S. C. Wil- 
liams, special teacher of penmanship and hook- 
keeping in public schools of Lockport, N. Y., 
a letter written in an elegant style of practical 
writing. F. W. H. Wieflehahn. arliat-penman, 
St. Louis, Mo., a letter and cards written in a 
masterly style. W. H. Lothrop, of South 
Boston, a letter written in excellent business 
style; he also has our thanks lor favor in- 
closed. E. D. Weslbrook, Mansfield (Pa.) 
BuBinesB College, a letter. E. L. Bunieit, 
Elmira, N. Y.. a letter. H. E. Dickinson, 
teacher of writing, Morrill, Kan., a letter and 
a set of oft-hand capitals. CJ. B. Jonea, Ber- 
gen, N Y., a letter. C. A. Bush. Philadel- 
phia, a letter. J. E. Soule, of B. &. S. Phila- 
delphia BusiueBs College, an elegantly-written 
letter. Wm. P. Macklin, St. Louis, Mo., a 
letter. J. D. Briaut, Raceland, La,, specimen 
of practical writing. H. M. Glunl, Union 
City, lud., a flourished swan. Uriah McKee, 
penman at Obetlin (O.) College, cards. C. A. 
Tolland, Walnut, Iowa, a tlouriehed bird and 
specimens of practical writing. E. L. Mc- 
Ilravy, penman at the Lawrence (Kas.) Busi- 
ness College, an elegantly- written letter, and 
skillful ly-Hourished bird-in-the-c 
L. ABire, Minneapolis, Minn., a 
club-list of fifteen subscrihei-s to the JOURNAL. 

: specimen. 

When to Subscribe. 

For several reasons it is desirable, that, 
BO far as is practicjible, subscriptions should 
begin with the year, yet it is entirely op- 
tional with the subscriber as to when hia 
subscription shall commence. Those who 
may be specially interested in the very prac- 
tical and valuable course of lessons com- 
menced by Prof. H. C. Spencer may have 
their subscriptions begin with the May 
number, in which is the first lesson of the 

should be 

New Book. 

E. L. Kellogg & Co., of New York City, 
have issued "Talks on Teaching," by Francis 
W.Parker (Quincy). Probably no volume 
will attract the attention of American teach- 
ers so much as this. The interest created by 
Col. Parker in the Quincy Bchools has been 
unparalleled. All through the country teachers 
are asking the (juestion, " What are these New 
Ideas*" This volume answers the question. 

s dollai 


Our stock of the Centennial Picture ol 
Progress, 22 x 28, being exhausted, and the 
t lates, from which it was printed, destroyed, 
it can no longer be sent free as a premium. 
We, however, have a stock of size 28 x40; 
finely printed on heavy plate-paper, which 
will be mailed with a key as a premium, 
for 25 cents extra. Many thousands of thia 
picture have been sold by agents at $2 per 
copy. There ia no more interesting and 
valuable picture for schoolroom or oflBce 
than this. 

' penmanship have 

J. C. Miller, Icksbnry, Pa., a letter. C. H. 
Peirce, of Peirce's Busineas College, Keokuk, 
Iowa, a letter. M. J. Goldsmith, penman at 
Moore's Business University, Atalanta, Ga., a 
letter. Wm. Pettis, Chicago, Dl., a letter and 
flourished birds. L. M. Kelchner, Light Street, 
Pa., cards. - D. H. Farley, teacher of penman- 
ship and book-keeping at the State Normal 
School, Trenton, N. J., an elegantly-written 
letter, and several original designs of Hourished 
birdB— two of which appear elsewhere in this 
iesue. D. A. GritHtlB, principal of the com- 
mercial department of Arrin College, Waxa- 
hachie, Texas, a flourished quiti and copy- 
slips. C. C. Maring, Painsville, O., a fioely- 
execuied bird - specimen. W. H. Patrick, 
Sadler's Baltimore (Md.) Busineaa College, 
a splendidly-written letter. G. B. Laweon, 
Gilroy, Col., a handsomely-written letter, and 
several fine card-apecimeus. C. N. Crandle, 
teacher of penmanship at BuBhnell College, 
BuBhuell, 111., a handsomely-written letter. 
A. A. Clark, auperiu ten dent of writing in 

l^*To those subscribing at club rates, 
the book will be sent (in paper) for 25 
cents; ( in cloth ), 50 cents extra. Price of 
book, by mail ( in paper covers ), 75 cents ; 
cloth, $1. Liberal discount to tp^chers and 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
objectionable in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the columns 
are equally open to him to Bay so and t«li 

" A thing of beauty is a joy forever " — a 
maxim that may be justly applied to D. T. 
Ames's recently published " Hand-Book of 
Artistic Penmanship," price seventy -five 
cents, in paper; in cloth, one dollar. We 
will fill all orders for the same on receipt of 
price. — Student's Jourtial. 


Oh. gnaattt* no is b»r .mkM» chtit. 
And In iliM BeMi« with lulled ba(r ; 

Oh. "mndin* ■'«'(« 


1 b«r apnra ■Irioff 

Do yon koow. my 

iImt. ' 


'Til •nUmner nol 

o. ffr»o 

nnilp* belplMi s 

f |iatUi1ogr««t, 

ond and iirwl. 
Urelong; dnj', 

Ob. irraodina smoothM oi 
And gMXM down at bar i 
And It III alto I mile* lu ■ 

Civil Service Candidates. 

Kleewbcrc, id the Jouknal, it n*iil be 
8Ci-[i tli»t tlio (loveramcut makes good pen- 
iiianBhip and au eletiifiiiary knowledge of 
luink-kecpiDg rcquiaito among the (juali- 
ticHtidus tif caodidHtcH for appoiotnieot to 
iitlice. The Jouknal's complete edition of 
Standard Practical Penmanship, in portfolio 
cH&e, is a Belf-instructor which will enable 
Icarncra to conform to the Governuicut 
nlHudard for good wriliug. The work em- 
branfs, not ouly elemoiitary and cninplt'te 
writing, but gives twenty-tive pages vffac- 
siiiiilc-wi\lii.'n business and book-keeping 
r»ru]8. The " Standard " is sent complete 
by mail, for $i. 


By W. p. Cooper. 

At first gold pons had a great run, and 
were pxcGC'diugly popular with the ecribcs. 
As minjh by fault of dealers and manufac- 
turers, lis through abuse and misapprehcn- 
^iiin of writers, they lost caste — steel pens 
taking their place. But for buslucss pur- 
poses especially, e%'ideully good gold ones 
are the pens ; and for professioual scribe's 
work, when of the best, they are not sur- 
passed. One idea aloue we mean : this pen's 
durability (other things being etjual) gives 
them preference over all others. Of course, 
we find many reasons for commending a 
g.ii.d gold pen. 

A good gold pen of this sort writes 

paper easier; shades more nniformly, and 
seldom catches in the paper. It forces more 
curve in writing, and hence gives greater 
ease and legibility; and when once accus- 
tomed tu tliese — fairly broke in — we write 
far more rapidly than with any other pen. 

With the above enumeration of good 
points, why went these out of the market? 
l'(4,iil(' bougiitthesepeus, not kuowing bnw 
to use thrm ; they expected of the pen that 
it would bear any amount of abuse— as deli- 
cate a tool as it was. Tliey loaned and tossed 
it about. All injuries from faults in hold- 
ing, iu iuk, and in paper, were accredited to 
tliift pen. We say, novices are, and have 
been, careless. We may very likely say the 
same of the scribes. 

Wi- thought that the stefl stub, and the 
little jdaliiia point, would bear l!ie same 
boxing about and abuse of other pens. All 
a mistnke. 

Heoalling what we have seen through 
forty years, we say, this pen has been 
almost universally abused. Nineteen 
writers in twenty would rap the jdatina 
point on the inkstand; boats of people 
would use the peu for years — treating it 
exactly as ihey treat steel pens: never ex- 
auniiing the delicate structure of the pens 
Ht all. The p.duts were sure to be dis- 
placed. Then the pens— of coiirne, worth- 
less—would be thrown away. Perhaps 
these pens suffer more from borrowing than 
anything else. We could see no good rea- 
son why the pen should not be loaned as 
well as other things. Lend your razor, your 

knife, your watch, your pencil — but never 
lend a first-rate gold pen. You are ac- 
castomed to this pen— your friend is not ; 
I you paid for it, and may be careful of it — he 
looses nothing by breaking it, and is care- 
less. He very likely writes under pressure, 
and, having no habitual care of your pen, 
abuses it. You, very likely, may have 
learned how to use and care for it — not so 
with him. Suppose you venture to lend 
your pen to experts and the careful, at tirst; 
next, you will lend it to any one. 

The very nmarkable feature of this pen 
is its point, or the two points imbedded in a 
a soft metal. At its extreme tiny end you 
find a particle, as, we may say, of platina. 
These delicate drops, or particles, are easily 
enough displaced. Of course, you must 
always carry these points clear of any sub- 
stance. If you will look after these awhile 
you will theu care for them from habit. 
Many keep these pens unguarded by a case 
— a thing not to be thought of; when not 
in use, the pen may as well be protected by 
the case-cap as exposed to injury. Yoii 
nejt need a pocket in which the case will 
Dot be jammed, and in this pocket, carefully 
pocketed and guarded, is the ouly proper 
place for your pen when not using it your- 

What About Buying! 

You are a scribe, or, perhaps a student; 
you want a first-rate gold pen ; you step 
into the jeweler's to buy one : a good one 
would be wortJi to you ten dollars. The 
jeweler bands you h card with a dozen 
splendidly put up. He gives you leave to 
try them. (This, remember, is a courtesy.) 

enough, and the platina points are skillfuUy 
set in, the pens will bear proper grinding 
to give the right finish and point. The ex- 
treme points are generally cut with, not a 
square, but an under bevel, and they are 
cut oil' too much. The points of the two 
nibs together make the real pen-point. 
These, unless finished and polished with 
great care (all of the edges being slightly 
rounded), will rope and scratch. 

Hold your pen up— the point being in a 
line vertical to the eye ; look carefully and 
directly at the end of the point ; if it is in 
every way a superior pen, the double point 
will be round, instead of square, and 
very smooth, and together form almost 
a complete point. The points or nibs, of 
course, should, in size and thickness, be ex- 
actly alike. If a pea write easy, fine and 
clear, and produce and shade the stem 
easily, {having a lively and strong spring), 
it has good points to commend it. Now, it 
may happen that the very first pen you try 
is a good one. If so, put ui> the card, take 
the pen — you can do no better. I say this, 
because there can be no use of your soiling 
pens, more or less by trial, that you don't 
mean to purchase. 

The quantity of gold in a pen baa very 
little to do with its value to you. Let me 
say to you again, you ought not to try 
pens at all unless you hold them nearly in a 
correct and square position. If you can't 
do this, let another, who holds the peu 
properly, try them for you, under your eye, 
and you select or eh ose your pen. Once 
in possession of a first-rate gold pen, as I 
said, never part with it, but learn how to 

steadily on, aimed to perfect the pen — study- 
ing to develop and complete its writing 
qualities — rather than to force sales of stock 
on the attraction of polish, finish and put- 
up ; and had purchasers aimed not only to 
get the use of these pens, but to care and 
preserve their gooil qualities, the pons to- 
day would, no doubt, have been the univer- 
sal favorite, standard, practical pens —every- 
where satisfactory, and everywhere in use. 
Thus everywhere avoiding the necessity 
of not only breaking-iu a new pen every 
day, but every day, or week, replenishing 
our stock, and being steadily discommoded 
by the untoward stiflness and unnaturalness 
of steel pens. We venture this assertion in 
conclusion : Pi-rfect these pens ; let the 
public use them, and American chirography 
will go up twenty per cent, in quality in a 
very short time. 

An Autograph of Lincoln. 

An interesting incident, developing further 
the peculiar characteristics of the late Presi- 
dent, Abraham Linooln, was brought to 
light at the Adjutint-General's office, War 
Department, several days ago. It appears 
that during the late war a drummer-boy, 
who had enlisted iu an Illinois regiment, 
was taken ill during aeivice and had to be 
sent home. Owing to various complications 
he could not receive a surgeon's discharge 
for disability. His case being serious and 
his discharge necessary, his mother applied 
by letter to President Lincoln for the de- 
sired relief. Mr. Lincoln at once indorsed 
the letter, "Discharge this boy ; A. Lincoln" 
— and returned it to the mother, and her 

represents one-half of page S4 of Aki-s's " Sand-book of Artistic I'ennianslUp '' — a 32-page book, ghing all the principles 
many designs for flourisking. w'UK ni3,rli/ thirtg ataidard and artistic alpk-ihets. Mailed free until farther notir.e, in paper 
covers {S5 cents extra in cloth), to evert/ person remitting ^1 for a subscription or renewal for the "Journal." 
Price of tlie book, by mail, in paper, 75 cents; in cloth, ^1. 

You handle them awkwardly, or carelessly ; 
ot course, the merchant is uneasy. He may 
manifest impatience. Well, don't get of- 
fended, my friend ! Yourself dips them, one 
after another, carefully in ink ; having tested 
a pen, carefully remove the ink, and re- 
place it on the card. Many a dealer has 
got sick of the business because pens were 
injured and cards soiled. 

The largest pens are not likely to be the 
best. Medium size, and dollar or dollar 
and a half pen is, for many reasons, likely 
to be the best pen for your use. Carefully 
try the inked points, one after another, upon 
paper. If the hair-lines, the shades, and 
the spring please you, why try another pent 
If you are a record-writer or accountant, 
you waut a hair-line not very fine, but 
smooth and clear; above all, the pen should 
make a clear, smooth line, side-ways, to 
right or left. If you are a student or pen- 
man, you may desire a fine-line pen. You 
must not expect good hair-lines unless you 
hold the pen so as to press both points 

If the pen gives a very fine line, it may 
fail in free, smooth shading. Try small t 
and d, and the sem. A ropey hair-line is a 
serious objection. You want a pen Umber 
enough to freely shade, and stifl' enough for 
power and strength. The spring should 
not be slow, lazy and heavy, but quick and 
firm, nimble and lively. To get such a spring, 
look for a thin barrel, and rather firm, hard, 
plate. .Merchants purchase difi'erent brands. 
Ditffrent makers have ditferent styles. 
Some prefer thick plates or barrels, made 
abruptly thinner at, or near, the point. But 
thin bowls, barrels or plates, are the best. 
If the composition of the pen is jost hard 

take care of it, and never lend it. The 
majority of persons write under excite- 
ment, and under this excitement always 
grow careless. I never hunted with more 
than one man who would not, as soon as 
game was started, get excited and care- 
less. Many are, then, more likely to reck- 
lessly kill you than any game af<iot ; so 
with pen-borrowers. The slightest blow 
of either platiual point on any hard sub- 
stance is likely to ruin the pen. The bor- 
rower forgets this, raps the inkstand, and 
your pen is gone. Dip the pen yourself in 
the ink carefully. Never forget this : form 
a habit of handling the pen in one way. 
Alwayskeep a good Kidd ink-remover; put 
the pen up clean, and never undertake with 
this pen a shade beyond its ability. Again, 
never think of grinding, filing, or sharpen- 
I ing your pen. If you should bend a point, 
very carefully replace it, and s'op. 

If it is your luck to get one of these pens 
whereof we have said so much (providing 
you are a passable scribe) your work will 
henceforth prove rather a pleasure than a 
task. You will write faster and easier, and 
far more legibly, than with any steel pen. 
It will give to your sentences a peculiar 
grace; and page after page will pass from 
your point with the legibility and uniformity 

In au article hereafter about other pens 
we may add some few things further about 
the gold pen. I have said so much because, 
as I said at -first, I think these the best 
business or practical pens iu the world, and 
for many ornamental purposes not inferior 
to any other. 


Had manufacturers, in the first place, and 

son was shortly afterward discharged. Since 
the war the drummer has died, and lately 
his mother applied for a pension. The pa- 
pers were forwarded to the Adjutant-Gcu- 
eral's otlice, and there was a mighty efl'.jrl 
among clerks aud officials to secure the in- 
dorsement iu Mr. Lincoln's own handwrit- 
ing as a souvenir, the idea being to substi- 
tute it with a " true copy." The relic- 
hunters were brtfHed, however, and the pa- 
pers, according to law, will be prcierved 
iutact. — Washington Post. 

Some weeks ago we made from the Neiie 
Freie Presse a translation of a letter ad- 
dressed by Mr. Darwin in 1873 to Mr. N. 
D. Doedea, of Leeuwardeu, Holland. 
Through the spontaneous courtesy of this 
gentleman we are now enabled to present 
the great naturalist's ipsissima verba. They 
are as follows : 

"It is impossible to answer your question 
briefly ; and I am not sure that I could do 
so even If I wrote at some length. But I 
may say that the impossibility of conceiv- 
ing that this grand and wondrous universe, 
with our conscious selves, arose through 
chance, seems to me the chief argument fijr 
the existence t.f God; but whether this i? 
an argument of real value, I have nevi r 
been able to decide. I am aware that if u*- 
admit a first cause, the mind still craves i" 
know whence it came and how it aro.-c 
Nor can I overlook the diUlculty from tiic 
immense amount of sutl'eriug through the 
world. I am, uho, induced' to defer to a 
certain extent to the judgment of the many 
able men who have fully believed iu G"d; 
but here again I see how poor an argument 
this is. The safest conclusion seems to be 
that the whole suhjeut iJs beyond the ecopo 
of man's intellect; but man can do hm 

Distinctions in Handwriting, 
Axi> Value op Exi'Eiit E\ii>kxck in 
Mattbra of Forgery. 
The rjm'f<iioD of the vulw of expert en- 
<ifna; iu nuiltirre of forgerj- is daily becom- 
ing of more interpst. It is not an iinconi- 
inon occurrence to hoar tin- export qm-s- 
tiouod as to Ins niethoil of detecting a 
forgery. There Iinit bei-n un attempt to re- 
doco tlio testing of houdwriting to simple 
matlicriiatifai calculations. The idea i-n- 
deavorcd to be evideneed rests on tlic basis 
of proportion of tlie li-ngth and bnndili ..f 
lotteiv. Tliiswill not detect a " tnu-ing." 
The expert in matters <if handwriting is 
bom. Hr cannot !»■ ciliieatcd to the proper 
stanrlard. Every man's liaTidwriting hiis an 
expression of its own. It has, if the word 
will be iiermittod, i;<ititilennnoe. This ex- 
pression, ooiniteiiinK-c or charnctor, is pecul- 
iai to eve lyiiandu riling, being unlike that of 
any jiml nil others. As in all nature so in 
iKitidwrUing. The cnnirnon and tr ithl'ul 
remark that there are no two leaves of the 
forewt exactly alike^ pan, with equal verity, 
be said of handwritings. ' 

Jwt as the characters of men differ—just 
as they differ in feature, face and fi.rin do 
tlieir signatures differ. That yon m;iy find 
two men (or two mamworipts by different 
hands) strongly resembling each other is 
within the esperionee of every one A fail- 
ure to detect the difference is the result of a 
wiuit of familiarity with the mam.scripts 
!iud short aeqimintanco with the men. 
Recognition of the diffonnice between them 
readily follows intiinaey. The writing 
academy will furnish examples of the 
nearest approach to the great snnilnrify in 
handwritings. This is due to an iutificial 
state of circuinstanees. Generally the mas- 
ter M-rites for or furnishes a printed r-opy to 
the pupil. These "models" are for tlio 
wliole class. Each one sfrivr.« n. |„..i I„- 
raii to hnitate the ro|.\ ,. ■ |,, ,, i :,,, 

Consequently when the im i i . ,^ , I 

there is 'a pronounced n^ inLim, , lMH\r,h 
the writings. Leaving the acadruiy, na- 
ture's power being unfettered, their luind- 
t ehiirjieter (u- countennuco 
li I I' i'i|iir;imeutiuulpliysi- 



iudiviilimlily, 18 uoi atlected by the materials 
employed. It remains, though gold, steel 
or quill pen be used on smooth or rough 
surface ; though chalk or charcoal be used 
on board or wall ; uo matter what the 
writer's materials may be, the character of 
the penmanship will be always apparent, 
and can be recognized with a facility 
as great as the writer himself would be 
whether in health or in sickness, drunk or 
sober. There is a iliffereuce, but the indi- 
viduality remains the same. Strange as it 
may appear, if the doubting will experi- 
ment they will Bnd that do man can cover 
a sheet of pajier with his signatures aud 
make them all exactly alike ; that is to say, 
no two of them can be placed one on the 
other so that the corresponding lines and 
points would coincide, precisely cover each 

An expert could copy any oue of them, 
which would coincide better with the one 
imitated than any two of the original 
writer's. The reason for ibis is, the expert 
makes a/ac simile, measuring and drawing 
it accurately. If there be a failure of exact 
coincidence, it is due to the want of skill in 
the expert ; his work is badly done. The 
inference may be made from this that an 
able expert may so perfectly imitate a signa- 
ture as to preclude the possibility of detec- 
tion. This by no means follows, for the 
very fact of the exa-t coincidence would bo 
the best evidence of its forgery, since no 
man cau write his signature so as to make 
it exactly coincide. The signatures wliich 
are forged with most success, aud with least 
chauf-e of detection, are those which it is 
cnmm©nly supposed are the most dilficult of 

iarities in all i 


IS and singular pecul- 
easily imitated. The 

The peculiarity I'f walk, look, 
bearing, etc., wheu ioiilated often recalls to 
mind the person p'-sses'iue it, without even 
the mentiou of hi<« name. Men who have 
peouliarities of physiognomy are the best 
subjects for portraiture. The caricaturist 
simply exaggerates peculiarities, aud this is 
his art. This rule applies to signatures 
with equal force. The writer who signs 
with absurd scribblings around about bis 
Dame, or gives a peculiar shade or shape to 
certain letters, instead of, as he thinks, pro- 
tecting himself against forgery, is but lend- 
ing his best aid toward its successful accom- 
plishment. He who writes a simple, bold, 
free hand will shame the forger, because, 
however correctly it may be measured and 
drawn— the process is slow and the copy 
will lack the freedom of the original. That 
signature is beat protected against forgery 
which is most simple, most regular, moat 
free from all absurd singularities. Its sim- 
plicity is its protection. And now, as to 
experts. Il does not follow that becaus^e a 
man's occupation brings him in constant 
relation with different handwritings that he 
is necessarily an expert in detecting forgeries. 
Because a man is a M'riling- roaster, an 
artist, an engraver or a bank-teller, does not 
by any means make him an adept in dis- 
covering imitations. Such pursuits may 
educate a natural aptitude or faculty — they 
cannot create it. Constant exercise will 
improve this as it will any talent, and it is 
true in this as in other faculties— that great 
natural capability without, may not equal 
mediocrity with, exercise. There are few 
men who can recognize one bay mule from 
another iu a drove without some distinguish- 
ing mark. Yet a trader cau, and that by 
the head alone. His eye is educated. 

It would be wonderful if all men were 
experiB in handwriting. It requires some 
study, some practice and much natural 
power to excel in this respect with any ap- 
proach to superiority. Even in oil paint- 
ings an expert readily recognizes a forgery. 
Every anist, like every penman, has his 
own stylo "f painting. An expert, familiar 
with the ehm-acter or style of painting of 
different artists, could if all of them were 
set to co)>y a single picture, tell the copy of 
each. Aud it can be said with equal truth, 
that if a doKcu forgers were each to forge a 
single siguature, an expert familiar with 
them all could rrjtdily tell the different 
forgeries from each other aud from the 
original. The char,irter and expression of 
each in)itation has an individuality. So far 
the reference has been to signatures; how 
is it when a whole docuuient is forged, a 
will, etc. In this case there is no original 
from which to draw and for.ii each word aud 
letter. Other <Iocuments written by the 
hand you are imitating must be studied. 

It is almost impossible to accomplish this 
so as to deceive an able expert. Success 
in such a forgery will not be attained by 
accuracy in imitating the peculiarity of' 
crossing t's or the curve to the tails of the 
y's and g's. This is easily done. It might 
deceive the inexperienced. It is in these 
instances, forgeries of entire manuscripts 
that the expression, countenance or char- 
acter of the penmanship must be the only 
criterion of the forgery. On experts in gen- 
eral but little reliance can be jilaced, na 
matters of this kind are now conducted. 
The Court appoints the experts named by 
counsel. Counsel (or the client) has already 
seen the expert and knows his opinion. He 
will not suggest his name if that opinion 
has been a<ivers6 to him. If the expert's 
opinion is favorable to him he will summon 
him whether the Court has appointed him 
or not. It is pretty sure that no expert will 
be put on the witness stand by the side 
agaiust whose claims he will testify. It is 
to he hoped that ihe day is not far distant 
when this evil will be remedied —iVert- Or- 
leans 7imes and Democrat 

By E. L. 

As I wriie the heading of this article the 
door of our office is opened, and, with a 
'"Morning, Borney ! " in rushes my <dd- 
time friend S. R. Hubbell, Jr. 

"What are yoo driving at? Drop that 
confounded quill, and take a ride with me ! 
and — and " — a smile bieaks over his moon- 
like countenance, " What ! at your old 
tricks again f writing for the papers ! How 
many hours have you wasted writing worth- 
less articles, paying postage and having 
them returned rejected T " 

I confessed to the act several times; but 
point, with some pride, to the one or two 
that have been accepted, and, as the babit 
is formed, I still persist. But I shall not be 
disappointed to hear ol the consignment of 
this to the waste-basket. 

the title, Burney I The boys will 
are au old man! What are you 

counienance will ever 

Of John D. Williar 
bat very little. He can 
twice while I was then 
a short time. Gene 

main fresh and 

I can remember 
.0 the house but 
nd remained but 
eigled him into 

I and penmen I 

They got 
poetry on 

r to stick t 

marked peculiarity of his subject as it does | *' prickly pair." 

Mr. Nettle was recently married to Mii 
That'p what you might call 

think you 

going to write about f " 

"Penmanship, of coun 
have met." 

" Burney; don't you 
enough of it. Write 
Spring; they will apprec; 

I see he is laughing , 
determined nmre than e' 
and article. 

" But, Burney, how far back can you gof 
I doubt if you can bring forward anything 
new for the boys." 

"How far hackt Let me think. Three 
— six — nine — twelve — fifteen — yes, G fleen 
years since I first became interested in pen- 
manship. More than half my life. Yes, I 
think I can write something new, knowing 
that I have met a great many penman. 
Having traveled all overthe country — visit- 
ing Business Colleges, teaching, writing 
cards and doing pen-work iu general — hav- 
ing met a great many of the * old-time,' 

and a great many that we seldom hear of 

yes, Sam, old hoy, I think there is subject 
enough for an article; don't youf " 

"Yes, I think there is, Burney. So I 
will leave you. Good-bye." 

With H rush he Is gone, and I am left 
alone with my subject. 

Fifteen years ! I look back over that period 
of time, and it bnngs to my memory many 
a curious adventure— many of them laugh- 
able; many, serious. I think of the places 
I havo seen, the time passed in each ; and 
I begin to thing I am growing old. Fifteen 
years ! Not that I have been in the ranks 
that length of time ! Oh, no ! It is not quite 
seven years since I taught my first writing- 

My mother having died while I was quite 
young, I was consigned to the care of an 
aunt, who resided in the village of Lyons, 
in the northern part of York Slate. My 
cousin Gene, ( or A. E. Burnett, as ho is 
known by the fraternity), was leaching pen- 
manship, if I remember right, iu the East- 
man Business College, ia Rochester, at that 
time, and has been, for tho past twelve 
years, Superintendent of Penmanship in the 
Public Schools of Cincinnati. During the 
summer months, Gene would be home, and 
one or more penmen from some part of the 
country would be there also. In fact, it 
was a general resting-place for the hoys. I 
can remember seeing there the great John 
D. Williams, J. ^. R. Chapman, Victor M. 
Rice, J. W. Lisk, A. R. Duuton, and 
others, whose names are familiar. Many an 
evening I have looked on while wonderful 
birds were being flourished. A. R. Duu- 
ton was my favorite in those days. Perhaps 
he remembers it not; but his slight-of-hand 
tricks interested me at thai lime far more 
than the penmanship. He gave me, one 
day, a small iron hatchet (which he had 
picked up on the >treet), with the remark, 
that it was the same one Ute George 
Washington cut the tree with ; I laid it by 
with reverence; but in a short time the 
romance wore off, and with the tame old 
story I traded it for a jack -knife. 

seldom I hear of old Mr. Dt , 

and it is many years since I have seen him ; 
but the memory of his tricks and his genial 

. dressed in 
u liis hand. I 
I over the fence 
ny way, he got 
1 proved 

L that 

flourishit'g birds, one evening, and he flcmr- 
i^hed them by the dozen. I have one of 
them now, and, also, tho penholder he usiti 
in making it. I cherish it very highly, and 
have put it away with other relics. For one 
thing I am indebted to John D., and that 
is, the name of Burney. It bus stuck to 
me like a brother from that time till the 

Another character who u^od to interest 
me a preat deal was the late Henry D. 
Stratton. On the morning of his first ar- 
rival some one had been tellint; me a tale of 
a doctor in the West who ha<i in his oflice 
two students who were bent on practical 
sport. The doctor had a movable skeleton. 
The students were in the habit of beguiling 
the youth of the town in for an interview. 
They would then spring the skeletou. and, 
of ccmree, there would be an empty sjiace in 
the air where the boy had been. One day, 
while they were at this businew, the doctor 
came in, saw the proceedings, and thought 
ho would make it all right with the boy hy 
calling him back and explaining matters. 
The doctor (being a long, lean, lank speci- 
men of humanity) went to the dor.r, and, 
with the remark, "Come here, my hoy!'' 
was somewhat surprised to hear, in return, 
"Oh, no, you don't! You old duff! CanH 
fool me if you have f/ot your clothes on .' I 
know you. I was in the front yard, when, 
looking down the street, I saw the skelcKm 
coming: long, lean, and la 
black, with a small valise k 
forget now whether he came 
or through the gate, but, i 
there in a very short time, n 
himself to be Heury D. Straltoi 
this late date I never hear hi 
that old story and his ap|)oarai 
day flash before my mind, h 
quick, and always ]o<iked to i 
was loaded down Hith business. He was, 
also, very restless. One minute he would 
pat me on the head, wliile asking a ques- 
tion ; but before I could ge{ ready to answer 
he would be off. Consequently, we never 
had any couversation with each other. 

I am taking considerable space, without 
writing much seuse ; but as there is an old 
saying that " a little nonsense now and then 
is relished by the best of men," I will con- 
clude by writing of one who is yet living, 
but has wielded the pen longer than any of 
us, and who can yet put the boys in the 
shade with his Spencerian Copy. I refer to 
that veteran, A. S. Pratt, or " Uncle Sid," 
as he is known in the place where heresides. 
I shall alwaja remember my first visit to 
" Uncle Sid '' with pleasure. He is over 
eighty years of age, but yet has tho same 
love for the beautiful in pen-art. Last win 
ter he taught a class in the same school 
house where he first taught, fifty years ago. 
I was sorry when the time came for mo to 
leave. The old gentleman tried hard to 
have me remain over night, but circum- 
stances would not pertnit of my doing so. 
As an inducement he took me in his front 
room, and, with a Spencerian flourish of his 
hand, said; "Within this room Father 
Spencer has slept, aud, also, most of the 
boys -Willirtms, Dunton, Bates, McCray, 
and all the old-timers: stay with me this 
night, and you can sleep here. When you 
wake in tlie morning you will be the finest 
penman in the country." I could not stay. 
Therefore, I supjiose I throw away the only 
chance I ever had of becoming the beat pen- 
man in the country. 

Extra Copies ol the "Journal" 

will be sent free to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to ttecure a club of 

Sample copies of the Jour 
>D receipt of price — ten oanu 


Questions for the Readers of the 

By CiiANDi.Kii H. Pi'-UtCE, of Keoknk, Iowa. 

1. What determines thr form of a letter 
in buBineBa-writing t 

2. Whai determines the form of a letter 
in professional-writing T 

.'J. What determines the form of a letter 
for amateurs and beginners t 

4. What determines good taste f 

5. Do the fingers assist in shading f 

6. Is the weight of the hand the same in 
all the movemenlat 

7. What determines the slant of the Qrst 
part of a, d, y, q, and one style of c ?" 

8. How is shade produced directly t 

9. What is the best method of develop- 

10. What is the plan of developmentf 

11. Is penmanship as susceptible of sub- 
divisions of topics SA that of any other sub- 

12. Can Htnall writing be produced with 
any degree of skill, without the ability to 
excoute other classes of work f 

13. Is small writing a high or low order 
of development T 

M. Is one department of work dependent 
on another f 

15. Should penmanship he considered 
pIiiloeo])hii'ally as well as mathematically T 

It). What is mathematical criticism? 

17. What is phUosophical criticism! 

18. Should the designs for tracing be ex- 
ecuted by pupil or teacher f 

i;>. What is the slant of the last part of 
the standard capital K f 
2U. Of R r 

21. How is a turn formed? 

22. How U an angle formed t 

2;i. Why is it easier to obtain the slant of 
figures than letters! 
21. Does the holder change direction in 



25. Does the holder u 
of itself i 

a the direction 

2fi. What is the beat method of securing 
the proper slant of a, d, g, and q f 

27. Whatdeterniinea the spacing of third 
part of small k > 

28. Is all of the second part of small k 
above one space in highlt 

2y. Is the (urn of the last part of stand- 
ard K and B. the same as those of the small 
letters ? 

SO. Why is the second part of standard 
A, ilf, and iV, so difficuil to form? 

:Ji. Why is small writing so difficult to 
execute t 

32. Can capital be produced in the 
highest order of skill by making first part 
higher than second t 

33. What about second part of T, [', Y, 
X, W, U, K, r, F, P, B, li, v^ 

Remember, yon can get the Journal 
one year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; 
or a $1 book and the Journal for $1.25. 
Do your friends a favor by telling them. 

Persona desiring a single copy of the 
Journal must remit ten cent*. No attes 
tion will be given to poslal-mrd request* 

GcorfiR yV. Leu-is. ^residEnf, 
/.(Mimcl 11. Wilson. Treasurer. 


Xems A.Osloni. McEpresfXGeil Haiil: 
C.T. Poller, Secnelary. 

§ itj'ii Aco; jiaxLtasiiTir ^ 


rr (TtJl{tf^ ^t;§|?" fJ°2BB,a, 



Ia-wis A-Osboni ViceftESllGEril Min'n 
O.T. Toller. SecfBtary, 



t» of paper and Utter htadinys arc plMto-eiujmved from pen-and-ink copy fxecuted at ike o^e of the " Journal," and are given t 
of the practical application of pen-drawing to bustnria purparts. The letter-heading « engraved two sizes from the tame copy. 

Is It a Lost Art? 

Penmanship seems to be an accomplish- 
ment that is rather going out of fashion, 
and even in advertisements the clause that 
used to be ao common when a boy was 
wanted that he *' must write a good hand, " 
rarer than ever. In many of our schools 
and colleges penmanship seems to have 
comparatively no attention bestowed upon 
it after the writer has become able to write 
characters fairly legible. Boys are left to 
drift into a handwriting of their own, and 
a terrible possession some of them obtain, as 
any editor or merchant who has a large cor- 
respondence will bear witness. 

Perhaps telegraphic and telephonic cor- 
respondence and type-writers may have 
sometliing to do with this ; the stylographic 
pen certainly has much to do with render- 
ing even the writing of a fair penman less 
legible than that written with a gold or steel 
pen. Then again there are those who af- 
fect a strange, scratchy or scrawly hand- 
writing, and indeed an illegible one as a 
mark of character, pointing to that of 
Choate or Carlyle or some other distin- 
guished person as an evidence that noted 
personages were bad chirographers. 

A piece of illegible and badly written 
manuscript is as much a slovenly piece of 
work as a half-washed face, tumbled hair 
or a dirty tablecloth, and no one of the 
"three R's" is of more importance than that 
which enables the possessor to save his cor- 
respondents, friends, and all with whom he 
communicates by writing, the labor and 
trouble of doing half the work that should 
have been done by him, if he inflicts a 
clumsily written and illegible scrawl upon 

The long, spi.ier-Uke handwriUng of 
young ladies of the present period is one of 
those affectations which is doubtlees thought 

by most who practice it to distinguish them 
as belonging to good society, but which 
only answers the purpose of an iniTcased 
consumption of stationery and the calling 
f'Tth of expressions anything hut compli- 
mentary to the writer. 

A good, fair, round and legible hand, de- 
void of ornamental flourish, may be easily 
acquired by youth of ordinary capacity from 
proper instruction ; it is more than an ac- 
complishment, it is a necessity— but as an 
accomplishment it is a good merchantable 
article in the employment market and prom- 
ises so to continue. 

Let parents and guardians look to it that 
the children under their charge are taught 
the pen skillfully and easily.— jBosfon 
il BuUHin. 


nk fr.>m whit 

A manufacturing company, using a type- 
writer, received from a Western agent an 
indignant letter, which said : " You needn't 
print any more letters you send me, for I 
want you to underetaiid that I ca 

A compositor who was puzzling oi 
of Horace Greeley's manuscripts, e 
aud savagely observed ; " If Helshazi 
seen this handwriting on the wall he 
have been more terrified than he w 
Unidentified Exchange. 

P. M. G. Key is about to issue a 
prohibiting the placing of stamps upside 
down on letters. Several postmasters have 
recently beem seriously injured while trying 
to stand on their heads to cancel stamps 
placed in this m&noer.—Middkiomi Tran- 




" Pa, I wish you would buy me a little 
pony," said Johnny. "I haven't got any 
money to buy you a pony, my son. Yoo 
should go to school regularly, my son, study 
hard, and become a smart man, and some 
of these days, when you grow up, you will 
have money of your own to buy ponies 
with." "Then I suppose, Pa, you didn't 
study much when you were a little hoy like 
me, or else you would have money now to 
buy ponies with, wouldn't you, Pat" — 
Texas Siftings. 

A Lost Love-letter.— Five years ago 
a maiden fair, whose home was at a little 
town ne:ir Macon, Ga., anxiously awaited 
an important letter from her absent lover. 
Days passed wearily. The sighing lass 
haunted the Post Oftice, but the Postmas- 
ter's face always wore that look of exasper- 
ating quietude common to those from whom 
expected things never come. The maiden 
thought that her heart would break, for she 
realized at last that her lover was faithless. 
The scene shifts. It is September, 1881. 
In Macon dwells the same lady, but she is 
now a happy wife with two children. She, 
therefore, is surprised when from the town 
of her youth comes a letter bearing as a 
superscription to her maiden name that de 
rived from her husband. An accompany 
ing note from the postmaster explains tha 
in tearing away some of the boards of a let 
ter-case the missive was found. The envel 
ope is postmarked " 187G." The lad' 
spanks the baby to keep it quiet while she 
eagerly devours the contents. Heavens! 
It is trora John, who proposes in glowing 
words and begs for a kind reply. The 
lady's husband also enjoys the letter, and, 
out of curiosity, communicates with relatives 
of the former lover. It ia learned that he 
is a happy Chicago pork -packer, with a 
wife and three sons. 

An Amusing Court Scene. 

A young Austin lawyer was appointed 
to defend a negro who was too poor to liire 
cooDBel of his own. After the jury were in 
the box the yoang lawyer challenged sev- 
eral jorymen whom his client said had a 
prejudice against him. 

B jurymen who have 
a prejudice against yoa?" whispered the 
young lawyer. 

" No, bi)88, de jory am all right; but 
6 de jedge. 
nvioted under hiui seberal 
already, and maybe he is beginin* to hab 
prejudice agio me." 

The young lawyer, this being bis first 
le, took the advice of his client, and, ad- 
dresaing the Court, told the judge he could 
step aaide. — Texas StfUnga. 

The Superintendent of the PublioSchools 
of Richmond meetiog Colonel Kuffin, with 
whom he is quite intimate, said : " I see the 
Whig Bays that when you get to heaven 
you will amend the ten commandi 
and that's too much your way, any way, and 
you know it." Colonel Kuffin replied : 
"You ought to be thankful for it, for if I 
don't die before you and go to heaven and 
have the comn 
not get in."— Hichmond Whig. 

If you want the best guide ever published 
for home instruction in practical writing 
send $1 for the "Standard Practical Pen- 
manship Package," prepared by the Spen- 
irian Authors for the Pbnuan's Aht 


One of the most popular conductors that 
ever ran a train out of Boston has the credit 
of the following bon mot: Not long 
special minister's ticket was banded to him, 
to which be gave careful inspection, aS his 
duty required. The passenger quite tartly 
remarked that it was unnecessary to be bo 
very particular about his ticket. The con- 
ductor q'uickly replied, iu^is quiet andever- 
I am only looking to 
see where you are going, sir. 1 don't 
to see in the morning papers, 'Another 
ister gone wrong ! '"—Traveler. 


TIio stock of Ames's Coi 
hdusted — uo more can be mailed. A revised 
and greatly improved edition is 
of preparation, and will 
Dccd when ready. 


Penman and Book-keeper. 


rcial ColleKe.__ 

with some one ol abUity and 


ag aimplified. 

i. Bok aoa 8m!l(Ji°N Y. 





^■WehaAe trefttly ncrejuel our facilities 
for manufact iring C rd C 
Q my fatyles 


75-77 Uaisau Street, Hew York. 

No. ai tarn, while or crsam, 60 Cfnla per thou- 

eand: extia sleek. 75 eeiile. 
Our No. 2G size, white 

heavj, $1. 
No. 26, superfine, white or cream, %\'£, per 

thousand, net. 
8.ply, plain, Jl.50; bevel, $2.75; gold bevel, 

14 per thousand, net. 
Biacli Bribtol cards, $1.50 per thousand. 
300 gilt cards, iu oue.dozen cases, only tl.25; 

12 dozen for $12, net. 

Sent at once for our Skeleton 
Folder, showing al] g-rades, for 
40 cents, by mail, which may be 
deducted from a $10 order. 

oitr own slack, ami. atto. any fancy 

or odd sizts to order, at tht very 

lowest prices. 



N. E. Card Co., 




- LAPILINUM iSlone-Cloth). 

ird for E^ecturerfl, 
r», Sunday Soliools, etc 

Rollf IlKlillir, like a mnp, trithont Mmy. Unntnaled 

mtirkfnff tarbu-n r^up^rior enulble quAtilic* 


3C inrtiM wtdv, 1 mitrkEng wuta/at, p«r UoMr >'ard, $1 50 

Black Diamond Slating 

Tkt /lest JAfjiiul Slating {wlfhout exception) for 

WalU and Wooden Blackhoarda. 

Mnkf» llie llneit Bod moil dorable intftoe. Eiuily 

krpllod nlth a commOD bnuli (o iitiy •nrface. Put up id 


Pint, 11.25; Quart. tS; llairOallon. 1.1.50; GaUoD,|a.SO 

Flat Bruib (4 iDObea). 50 oeota. 
Ona quart eniity miTera 50 aquare feel nitli three oosta. 

{.'»rd and gives Perfect Salit/action in 
Colnmbln College (Srhnol of Miae<) • New Tort City. 

Unlveraily ^^^ Ibe City oJ New Yort ■ '] |' |; 

c"lteKe.''t I'lmrmacy 

(:<.IIrftP..t SI Franci«X*vlw. . - . ' 

St."john> Co^cge^ Fordliam,' N. y! 

St.-vpnii IiiMflute oT Technology - - - Hoboken, N. J. 

SiHtfewi HiRli S(*hool 

Unlveralty ft KiuiulppI Oxford, Mlu. 

Sirite NormRl Scbool Oabkoib.Wis. 

I.rf)iig IiiliiiKt lloipilal Medical College - Brooklyu.'N. v\ 
Nt'iv Yiirk Slock EJxolmnge; New York Collon Bx- 
clinnKPi Nvw York Produce Exobunffe, New York 
0"(ri'<. IJxohunee: New York Iron and Sletal Exchange; 
Hqullable Omlo and Produce Exobange, 
In Iht Public ScliooU of 
Wu«hington,D.C.,(exoliukely). Piilerson. N, J. 

San PmncUco^Cftl, Mrvlafon.'N.'Y. 

Newark, N. J. PoughkeepBle. N. Y. 

Mootclair, N. J. Waverly, N, Y. 

UloODiflnId, N.J. liiulford, Ct. 

Jenwy City, N. J. Naugaimk. Ct. 

Bergen PoloV N. J. E.u.thampton, Mau. 

South Or&nge, N. J. Knox^'ille. Tenn. 

Uoboken, N. J. lialelgb, N. G. 



N... I - . - . Size. 2x:i fei-l - ■ - ■ |1,25 

"3 " 2*»3i ■' . . . 1,75 

■' 3 ■ ■ - ■ ■' 3x4 " .... fl,25 


Plain. Without Sbelf, 

No. I 18x24 inches ■ - ■ ■ tl.2A 

"a 84x36 '' 2.25 

" SRuIedformualo ■' " 2.75 

This is unirn-salli/ admitted to be the best 
mata'ial for blackboard in use. 



1S-1( 205 Broadway, New York. 

Tub Latest and Amkrican Atlas. 

National Indexed Atlas. 

From Government & Special Surveys. 

th« exaol luoatloa of coaullei. tuwna, oitiw, viUa^ea, yusl- 
United StHlea, together vfiih mapi of Ibe world. 

Invaluable for the library, the oouDtingroom. school- 
POOm. or family. 


TheOfognipliipal ami Stutlsllcal infomiation pomblned 

of iLo United Slutes Uoasi Survey.the Chief of Engineers 
United Stales War Uepartuiont. tbe Inleiiur and Census 

Slates Suvid" ObsMvatury, the tSeaatal Lood Oflloe, the 
OOlnM of Iha Goremroenl Territorial 8nr\eyi ond Ex- 

Somlioat under Iho dirvcibD of Vr. i\ V. Haj ilea. Lieut, 
eorg« H. Wheeler. Clorvnoe Xlug, ein oic. fium the 
Oovemon or Seoretanes of must of ibe Stales and Ter- 
ntoTlesi tram the Civil Engiueera ol the principal RaU- 
ways ; from County Surveyore, Clerks and CumniLwionere. 
In miiiiy tboosaod insiaaees, poalH>llJce$ have been 
iMwtH by ihe postmasters thei«af on manuschpl maps 
furnished bv us for tbe purpose, and to perfect details in 
some locniltlea Spteiat Surrtyi have been made. 

labor on the part of numerous corps of Compilen, Sur- 
Teyor», DraiUmcn and Engraven. 

PRICE, $18. 
Sent froQi Ihe office of the JomtSAi. on receipt of price. 

205 Broadwray, New York. 

ICST OUT. One doaea plain or irill-edjro cards, artist- 
J loall)- wriltvo, sent to any address fur SO cents irill 

I. P. O. Btiv 4411. Phillipeburg, N, J. 


A Work of Surpassing Beauty, Combining Instruction in 


By a simph, fa-scinaiing and effective system of illustrations and ejcplanation^s, 

a hnowUdge of the above branches may be acqmred by the student, 

with comparatively little labor on the part of the teacher. 

Better than the Best of its Predecessors. 

The work bs« received the liighest endorsement of manj of the inoBt eminent commercial 
leachera, who have pronounced it "better than the best of its prfideoeBaora," 
The completed book appeared September 10th. 1882, and has been already 

Adopted by Leading Business Colleges a.ui Commercial Schools 

Throughout tlie country. Circulai 
giving a deocnption of Ibe book, 

containing a large number of ringing teettmoiiia' 
metliods, contents, price, etc., will be mailed 

Who is one of Ibe finest oard-writer* in (he United States 

Two sets of mntoular ospitals (dilTerent ilylM), thirty. 

executed (siie. 18x241, sent, fresh &i^m the pen. for ta. 

A fidl set of most elegantly -written oopies~}ust what 



American Popular Dictionary 

Reference-Book and Key Free of Charge 

Will be funnHhed t 


Rochester Business University, 





sale, wilh the publishers' prices : 

Ames's Compendium of Practical and Ornamental 

Penmanship $4 50 

New Speucerian CompeDdium in parts (6 iiarts 

Standard Pmctlcol Penmanship, by the Si>encer 

Marriage Certificate, 18x22 1 00 

Lords Prayer " 50 

Bouuding Slag, 24x02 50 

Fl.mriBlied Euglc. 24x32 50 

Omamenlul and Flourished Cards, 12 designs, new, 

original aad artistic per pack of 50 30 

"00. hyniaU ^ 50 

1000 " $4" 50 ;" by V:^reM" ".'.'.; ;!'."'.'. "".''."/. 4 00 
Live agents can, and do. make money, by taking sub- 

scriben lor the JOUaXAL, and selling tbe above works. 
Send for our Special Rates to Agents. 

D. T. AMES. 
T-t-f- 205 Broadwuy, New York 


New Series Book-keeping. 

New Comiuoii School ]look-kef>]ilni?, TS ct*. 
N*'w Kloiuentary Itook-keeptntr, Tli «•»■ 
Now Commerrlnl llook-kecpini,', »1.60. 
New Countins-Uouse Bouk-keepiug, S3.S0. 

Blank-lHjoks armnged lor each Edition. AUo, 

Commercial Law and BnsSn*-f.H Form« Coin- 

bined. E-JiU.ll.ylU I/.,,, t.V„r„^ ir CI„.I.^, lale 

CbiefJudgP-iij. > 1 \ 1 

by J.C. Bn^. ■ <• -,,.n 

tiool work lu: 

Learn to Write. 

d styles of CAPITAIA I- 

and if rightly 
case. Sample 



The Champion Fire-Record. 

Spnioe Street, New York. 



BAgoini opportuDity for sdvu' 

position us toacbcr of bonk keepinj 

Sa'ary not so mucli an obj«c 
Ivanoemeot. Address. 
C. J. KRErBB. Mt. Holly, N. J. 





By IliA Mavtiew, LL D., 

Former SaptHnten-Unt »S I'uUic Irutrvclion ofHuhi 





Wyckoff, Seamans £ BemdicI, 

Id claUi, .1. Addrew. S>. T. AHS.. '20S BroadWi ^'-^' 

^^^S^rs --isff^^v- 


5/?K/4^r d STRATTON 

Adapted for use wilb or wiihout Text-Book, 

and the 0DI7 e«t recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 


, poRMS. 
: BOOK. 



IktIj' ftdaplwl fur I'ulilio nnd Privnie Schools and Bd><)> 
Snit Foil-paiil od reoeipl of 25 c«nu. 


119 AND 121 WlIXlAM STRni^NKW, YO#k 

The Packard Commercial Arithmetic, 

By S. S. PACKARD, of Packard's Business College. 



1. Complete, 320 pp.. lar^e octavo. 2. School, a7u pp., duodecimo. 

Complete «dltioD. fint iuaed In June, baa pu«ed to Its fifth thousand, and the School Mlition. flrat tune 

■ t Mie. These books have marked choraclerisiioa which hftn 

. ^ . 'tical teacher*. 1st. Tbey ar« specimens ol fine modem bool 

-in typojiaphy, paper and binding. Sd. They are. eaeb in its sphere, complete expositor* of practici 

teat^hen of practical aiilhmetio in this ooantry. 3d. They are eminentli/ adapted to aelf-inttmoiion, 4U 

book cove™, in the most satisfaotorj- way. the enHre range of oommeroial sublects, and L 
as wf II a» Ottmott retiabU^ business ariihmetic before the public. 

of the larger work, omitting only the more difficult and obslriu 

D^typ _ 

Shading T Square. 

rithciul>loiibt, ihemottOuymugh. 1 
Xfunplea, aod certiun subjects not appUn 

^ ' JietaiT Pnc«.- CompletdtEdition, $1.50; School Edition, $1. 

Tricea to Schools: Complete Edition, $1 ; School Edition, 75 cents. 

' '■ I'liiladelphift, Pa.; Heahl ,1 . . , . ,,iii,.^ 

Sr"S. PACKARD, Publisher, 805 Bro.^dway, New York. 



ni Series oif 

bcMeniL FEME 

Wliai kiio«le<ige is of most worth T See C^" 

\\ lial every boy and girl ebould elud^. t^i§^ 

W'lial every teacher should study. ]J^~ 

What will save thousands of doltars. |^** On, 

What will prepare every boy for businesB. |^" -r-* t ■,. ^ .,, 

Wliat will avoid troublesome litigation. Jf^" IhIi-?T^V T A A AT 

What is more important than "ologiea." l^- V \y \ \ J_/i\ V'V 

..What will make this study teachable. C^" 
What branch has been loo much neglected. IE^" 

What sliould be used in every school. |^ 

What every teacher should adopt at ouce. E^ 

*» """""""■ "o,!;;," 



(.ALU, TO 


The acj^mpBDyiiifir em 


. bniJ wit 






Seut securely packed b 
Dnited Sintea or Canada, 
price* and deaoriptlon, 


0^ any par 
way. New 


We glTB herewith Specime 
engraved directly ftum niling 
aquare. with the rapidity of h»e b 


f Tinting, 
ay the aid 


D. T. AMKB-jMr Sir 




feotion ol our deaigns I b 
patent rallng and tinting T 




signed. ReaperllSilly, 
Designer and Diaftar 





New Yohk, Sept. 9. 18S0. 
D. T. AMK8, Eey.— J>«ar 5ir.- One of your patent T 
•quarea btu been In mnslaQl me by me for some tiine 
past, and I have found It extremely oaeftil tn the vnriou* 
branches of drawing to which I have applied it. Very 
truly youra. Bdwaiid E. Jonks. 

Designer and DraftMuan, with D. Appleton U. Co 

D. T. A«ES, Ee*J— Dm 
hand safely; imd, alttr pun 

and the facility with which 

man. Yean very truly, 



. 8epL 14, 
<i by .Tei> 





English and Text Leiiei^x 


e iVii 


I», on. 

L. L. L. 



> teachers, 

Liberal reducti 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers. 

New York, Boston, Chicago. San Franc 

\ BroAdwar. New York 



) are seekmg to Improvs 
6 Bmdwar, New York 

Fiflh Annual Meeting 
Business Educators' Assoc'tion 


Will he held in the Cilij of Washington,D. C. , 

Beginning Tuesday, July 10th, 

AnangmeoU hnve been compl.tol wbicL wiU tour, 
a ConreDliOQ wortby of the place and tbe proreuion. 


.g°°e"xu' I 


on a. ptBCticable. 



irted expressly for the use of Penmen and Card- 
writers.— Brilliant and Durable, 

It up in l^>t. Hint glau bottles (except gold, J-oz.) ; 
doiea Id a box. Sent on receipt of ,1. Circular. 

ityles of 

One beautiful set of oir-hund Capltiiia'.'.'."."-'.'!.'.".",',' 1( 


No. l.-Plaln wUlo Brietol.. 55 o 45 

No. 2 — GU^edge. round or equare cornere . . . .30 •'. . 55 

No. 3 — Gilt Bevel, lunied.oomer 35 "..CS 

No, 4,-Gllt Bevel, extra beavy (beet in tbe 

world) .... ,5" 80 

No. 3 — Plain HeavyBevel(2ax4i.very8tyiiaii,45 ",.80 


Penmanship and Art Department 

BualineU. 111. 


On receipt of tbe prices annexed, we will for- 

wanUi) t,tui-in.t riuiil. Ol- I'y t;.tiircss aa statod, 

I- ■ -.!■■' • I'-in rely not only 

'M . I ;, I, . Ljui upon doing 

■'-' _ '1'. niiiansliip, $4 M 


22x23, pei-aliuul, by uxprew.. 

26x40 * 

turd. 22; 

Black Curds per 100, . 

Bristol Boui-d, 

French B. B., 

Card Board. 22x23, for white 

Curds per 100 < 

Black Curds per tliouBuud, t>y oxpreiSS S ( 

Wbat's dr'tng-paper, hot-prera, 1Ax2(i.$ i5 i\ i 

17x22, 80 i 1 

" 1»X24. 20 2 i 

II ■' " 21X30, 25 S ' 

_ " " " 8ix52i 1 74 W t 
Blank Bristol Board Cards, per 100 j 

Four packs, 100 cards 

Ames's Penmen'* Favorite No. 1 per groM . . 

jione Cloth, one yard wide, any length per yard, 

Jquid Slating, llie b 
r gallon 

HILL 3TANDABD BOOK CO.,103''st3ta'siroorChl5igo! ffi! 

Qiptes. fi^rures, alpha! 


..7..n plain while Brl-tol, wrillen with n 

wn plain cards, with name wnlten. 
irctilxmi'ooappUcation.° " '"*™ ' 
a. W. PATTEN. CUnlonTiUe, Cow 

oil paintuig, landscape, mariDe. portrait, 

I will be thoroughly quaUiled to take ehri 
i^upnuahlp, drawing or painting lu IbebetlofscI 

^rtraits 1o order, 

C. N. CRANDLE, Manager, 
*-12 BusHNELL, III, 

liped and engraved especially tor displaying Uandbilts 

Duplicatttin Blf^trrttypt .BlaUt will tiesent by mall li 

UKEQUALKK. Those wi 
ire. College Currency. Tesllmoula: 
Addreia, D. T. AltKt), 


MarlonvUle, Ononrlaga County, New Yorl 

Publisher of Swift's Ha-sd-hooka of tsK, JtEcii'B 

linds; S>'mpatUetic, 8 li 

111 Practical Qoestians. with Aosweta, pertaining U> 
l3-(rt Address /■e»rM'»B«a»ii«»a CWfa^e.Kegkok, Iowa. ' 

BatereoM, D. T.Amw 

' kadiiifi ptriodUaL V. 8. 

.VK 1 J<)1 HV VI. 

The Book-keeper 


Published Fortnightly. 

Selden R. Hopkins, 
Charles E. Sprague, 

The Leading Accountants of America 

Devoted to all matters of special interest 
to Accoununts. Bankers. Merchants. 
Manufacturers. Counting-room 
Atuchcs. Instructors of Ac- 
counts, and all persons 
having to do with 
the Keeping of 

of account. 
Ancient and modern systems of Book- 
keeping reviewed and exemplified. 
Practical problems and questions discus- 
sed and elucidated. 
Subscription, $2.00 per annum. Single 

copies. 8 cents. 
Specimen copies sent free to prospective 
An Agent wanted in every city in the 
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pensation guarantred. 

Thk Book-keeper, 
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Po8t-Office Address. P. O. Box 2126. 

New York Book-purchasing Agency. 





Bdiipli'(l"io tiidlvlduul and i 

II. n. iiKYAHT. Prica by mail," $1.00. Liberal 

ti'inis fill- lli-st Introduction. 

ThtBpoi)ultir work, which for tho laat flftoi-n 
yvai* hiiB ciijoyed a greater measure of the favor 
of pmcUuil t^dncators than any other of similar 
ehonLoWr, now iippcara tn u new and attractive 
.phtcal dress and greatly improved la 




tobraclng (ho Theory and Prautlcoof Aocountfl J 
and tidiipttjd to the uses ot business colleger, 
tho higher jmides ot public imd jtrlviite schools, 
and lo ecirinstructlou. UyS. S. Packahu of 
New Yoi'k, and H. B. DuvA»T of Clilcugo. 
Prtoo by mall. S3.60. 

ThiB nuv work Is now ready for nee, and will 
be found lobe tho most cxteuBlve and thorough 
IreaiJDo upon Uiesoleaco ot accounts yet piiu- 
Thu book Is a great Improvement upon the 

found to do the required wo.k In 
leg«t and high echoolt* bci" - "' 
work now butoi« the pubUu. 



.hau any other 


1 p*ck or 2S <mt4* loii poat-p«id, .... SO ot*. 
500 pwtpaid, 19 so 

10 00, by ExpTMi 4S0 

atmi lot CUmilu. SuoplM SENT FREE. 

D. T. AMB0, m BmUwu. Hm Tork. 


Complaints are conetantly made of the difficulty of getting good Ink ; and as noTeUiea 
continually being brought out, they are tried in the hope that they may prove free from the 
lal defects. Few of these succeed in permanently securing any share of public support. In 
established reputation, and manufactured with all the improvements that 
uggest, are iiaeily to be obtained. 

hat many of the fancy inks at present i -- -i- 

dyes, which t 

frm no chemical coi 

it necessary. 

be simply washed 

thicken, of so 

tne of these inks, ar 

for writings 

f any imnortance is 

to their being 
B dangerous. 
nli should form a chemical combination 
air. This deposit is absolutely insoluble in ws 
I properly proportioned, the black so formed : 




soluble in water, and 
flow from the pen, and non-liabilit; 
inly solutions of color, but thi 

I the fibre of the paper, due to the action 
r, and when the ingredients in the fluid 
mains unimpaired for a great Dumber of 



I beautiful blue color, from the action of the air on the 
intense as can be desired. 
It combines three important qualities — FLUIDITY, COLOR, and DtJRAlIILITY — and is 
absolutely reliable for all business papers. 

The easy How from the pen, beauty of initial color, and perfect freedom from tendency 
to get thick, render it superior to any similar preparation, and it is particularly well adapted 

BlUTlsii Japan Ink. — Flows from the pen an intense black. It is specially adapted for 
use by persons of weak sight and for card-writers. If by long exposure in the inkstand it 
should thicken, add our Blue-Black Fluid. 

If these inks cnmot he obtained from your stationer, toe vnll quote prices at which Quart 
and Pint bottles mil be delivered. Express Paio. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. 

Dopy for ulujittle. 6p«uliJieiis of BourUhiiig o 

H. ^V. KIBBE, Utica. N. Y. 

The Leading Wd r on Commercial Law. 


Class-Book of Commercial Law 


oomrlote elplaimliun o 


»°^WB.writJpn aprtuti/ for *(ud<n*» and (.imne.* m<n. /( hat Uen tzaniifwd t/wrouglily by tht Utt Ugal taUnt. 

6lDgl« oopJM MDt ptMt-pald to Buy addr«H on raoeipt of On. DoLIat. AddrM.. 


PTlnal|)«l of tlie Alttuy BnolneH CoUega, 
^'*-'- ' ALBANY, N. V. 


Holcomb Publlabloe I 


- BOLDER for OnutmeD 

OoLLWia, K«ok>k. l«wft. 

Addreu, Pkibck'sBubuih 

"Mr. Madarasz does a very extensive card 
businees. He is an excellent writer and should 
receive a liberal patronage. His canl-work is 
nnexoelled. D. T. Amr». 

whose fine penmanship goea to all parts of the 
country, will write your name, in the style 
which has made Madarasz famous, on thirty- 
six cards, and inclose same in a handsome 
Rdssia-Leathbr Card-Case, on receipt of 


sent by express for (1.30 per cjuart. Receipt 
for its manufacture, 30 cents. 

On receipt of §1 and ten l-cent 
send you the followiug, prepaid, 
2 Sets of Capitals, different. . 

1 Brilliant Black Ink Recipe . 

2 Specimens of Flourishing 
Box Steel Pens 

Total worth . . . $1.80 
; you my very best work. 


no two alike, only 54 cents. Single eetH, 25 
cents. To students and others desiring a 
variety of the latest styles of Capitals, these 
will be found to be the finest pen-and-ink work 
executed by any penman in the world. 

C^On receipt of twelve l-cent stamps sam- 
ples of cards will be sent, sbowiAg the most 
wonderful command of the pen. 

Professional penmen often inquire what pen 
is used by Madarasz that he cao make such 
fine hair-liaes and bold shades. The identical 
pens will be sent to any address for 50 cents 
per box, and for the very finest quality, liO 
cents per box. After five years' constant use 
these pens cannot be too highly recommendeil. 

Poor writing made GOOD, and good writing 
made UETTER. by using the improved 

Patent Oblique Penholder. 

Mailed to your address for twenty ( 

■cent stamps 

SUPERB Specimen of Letter-wriU'ng, 

and am confident that I will please you. 
U. S. postage-stamps taken for any amouni >> 

L. MADARASZ. Penman. 

p. 0. Box 2105, New York City. 




LESS." ^"■ 

Please me&tioa the JoVRSSL, 

AT 'iO.l BitOADfl 

™rr™v..K/^^^ TEACHERS' GUIDE. 

Entered at the Post-Office ok 
New York, N. Y,, as Second-Class Matter. 

0. T. AMES, Editor sn 
e. F. KELLEV, A((oci 

'SeZIT new YORK, JUNE, 1883. 

Vol. VII.— No. 6. 

No. XIH.— By Henbv C. Spencer. 

CopyrighUd, June. 188S, hy Spencer Brothers. 

Petiraanship, by 


TIlis subject is preseuted ia the old Compendium of Spi 
P. K. Spencer, in his own words, as follows: 

" In writing, four movements should be employed in training all the muscles, whose 
ready nnd disciplined use constitutes good work." 

"let. Muscular-movement, which is the action of the forearm from the elbow forward, 
in all directions. Tlie wrist an inch above the paper, and the forearm playing freely on 
the movable rest," (nails of third and fourth fingers). 

'•2d. Fivger movement, which means an extension and contraction of the first and 
aud second fingers and the thumb. Such a movement, purely as such, scarcely exists 
in the specimens of the correct and ready writer. Those marks which como nearest re- 
quiring this movement purely are the descending or central marks of the ' short letters ' ; 
and oven in these, the muscular-movement preceding on their hair Hues, carries its steady, 
firm synipatliy into the downward marks." 

"3d. Mixed or Compound-movement, which is a simultaneous action of the forearm, 
tbumli, and fingers; or, protrnding and receding movement of the arm, attended by 
thumb and finger extension and contraction." 

"4th. Whokarm-movemfent This is the largest, boldest movement employed — 
trainiug all the muscles into obedience, from the shoulder forward. To produce this 
movement, raise the forearm some two inches and a half, and slide un the movable rest," 
(the nails of the third and fourth fingers). 

" In writin((, ' exercise ' is the most rapid and efficient training, intended to secure 
greater ability to execute, in form and combination." 

The practice of every writing- lesson should be commenced with movement- drill. 

No movement-copy is given with this lesson ; but pupils are requested at this stage 
of their course to call to mind, and practice, movement- exercises previously learned and 
found to be beneficial ; or to investigate for themselves and look up other exercises. 

The first three plates of Part IV., New Spencerian Compendium, contain many 
valuabh? exercises relating to the capital letters. 

Slijidcs are not a necessity 
light or shaded, and when a very stiff pen, 
shades cannot be formed— the strokes ar 
perhaps, a trifle heavier than the upward, 
is not attractive. 

Shade is a matter of taste. If we we 


■iting. The forms of letters 

same whether 
it what is called a stylographic pen, is u^eA, 
all uearly of one width — the down strokes, 
Such writing may be neat and legible, but it 

i to limit ourselv 

he puts I 

J field-clothes, shade 

; strictly to utilitarian idea, 
vould be omitted from our 

as the farmer d 

The love of beauty which leads to the study of form and color in the garments whicli 
we prefer to wear, also chooses and approves of light and shade and symmetry of furin 
ill writing — the garb of thought. 

The employment of shadt*, when once acquired, does not add to the labor of writing, 
I'lit by giving variety to the action of arm and hand, renders them less Uable to fatigue. 

lie who pan shade properly may, at will, omit shade from bis writing, should eir- 

forms of Shadfl atrolces 

> shade well theneba 

s ihs paper evciiiy. 

Copt 1. 

Take the dry pen and with compound' mwement make a stroke on paper as you 
would to produce the first form of shaded line in copy. Observe that by pressure, the 
teeth of the pen separate at beginning of stroke, and then gradually come together as the 
pressure is diminished in descending to base. 

This shade inverted gives the second form. 

The third is on a straight line, having a turn at base. This shade gradually iu- 
i-reases, and tlien tapers upon the turn. 

The fourth is the third inverted. 

The fifth combines the thurd and fourth. This shade is heaviest at middle of the 
down stroke, and tapers upon the turns. 

The sixth and seventh forms show how shades should increase aud diminish, 
gradually, on curves. 

After the dry pen practice, produce this stroke with ink. 

Do not hesitate while making a shade. If the teeth of the pen are not brought 
evenly to the paper, the edges of the shades will be ragged. 

:^»?-C. Tlie shade strokes apphed '.n letier^ . 

Copy 2. 

Tlie ( and d show application of shade 1 ; the p shows shade 2 ; the I and / contain 
shade li ; the z exhibits shade 4 ; the h and y presents shade 5 ; the a and q show shade 
6, on a small scale. 

The width of shade in (, d, jj, /is equal to the width three light lines drawn so that 
their sides will touch. -In the Z, z, h, y, a, q, the width of shade is a trifle less, because 
the shaded strokes are shorter. Practice ! 

25f G. R-^aclic© 

Copy 3. 

Iir capitjil F, shade 3 is used ; in 0, shade 6 is used ; in Q, shade 7 is shown ; in A 
! have shade 7 mure nearly in a horizontal position j the same form of shade applic 
stem of G. Practice these letters until you can shade in proper form, and smoothly. 

Copy 4. 





z/ / 

'// ^ / 

This littk chart (Cnpy 4) gives a review *>f thr small letters, ra|)itJtif-, an.I f\<:ur.-. 

It in tli^signed for study and praeticc. The highl« and widths of all the script foniis 
an- nhnvm by ihe linen and spai-es. 

Qo throngh with thr letters from the be^Doing; note the hight and width of each 
IcttiT, and the duiiiIkt and character of strokes composing it; also the patition and form 
of (thade. 

Id short, nuuitcr the alphabets and figures, mentally and niechantrnlJy. 

A few montha ago, appe^ired in the JouBNAL an article from the pen of Professor 
Wni. P. Cooper, of Kingsvillc, Atthtahiitii County, Ohio, n'hich contained valuable sug- 
gectioDs for drill on capital letters. Our pupils would derive great advantage from a re- 
view of that article. An acquainlanwj M-ith Professor Cooper, extending from my boy- 
hood, over a period of more than a tjuarter of a century, enables me to appreciate the 
man, his ideas and skill. Hi» mature (tuggestions through the Journal are worthy to 
be treasured by our rising generation of writers throughout the country. 

Copt 5. 

Wo have hero an alphabet of capital letters modified, and io many respects simplified. 
The abbreviated forme have appeared in group.s in previous lessons. Their presentation 
in alphabetic order will help to give a clearer idea of them to our pupils. The set is for 
free practice. It would be well to write it through, making each letter begin a word or 

Copy G. 

B he spoke, the largest 
stay and help us eat 

cook fish 

: ^^-2:'7^z^, ^^e^a^^''Pl-^. .^a!^£^J. 

^ ^i^-ny/-. ^^u^ uJ. ..^u^ U'^^ ^-^y^-z^Y' -^ ^ • /.^S^jTS/if^^ ) 

Our last copy for this lesson appeared first iu Lesson VIII., as you may remember. |> i,p„„,j,g 
It reviews most of the small lelters, and shows what forms may be modified or abbre- j^ • i 
viatcd, to advantjige, in business. 

These economies in writing may be made your own by practice, and be the 
ving much vnluwblo time and oxhatistive labor during the years of a busy life. 

tliought it nothing but right to bring you toll." H-:- handed. 
half of what he had caught, to Aunt Rebecca. 

"Well, Mr. Powers," said Aunt Rebecca, "now you mui 

" You tempt me, Miss Weaver, for I know that no one in 1 
eqaal to you, so I will stay." 

In a few minutes Moses Powers bad thrown off his coat, had dressed the fish, and 
was helping Aunt Rebecca to cook them. With many a flattering word he brought the 
smiles to the old lady's usual grim countenance. 

It had been this way for some time back ; that finest of game, and the rarest of fruits, 
he bad left at Aunt Rebecca's kitcheu-door, and was always prevailed upon to stay to tea. 
After chatting awhile longer, Ibis evening, with Aunt Rebecca, he said: "I think. Miss 
Weaver, while you are putting supper on the table I will go and look for Miss Jennie." 

He found her bringing in the milk — two pails, full to running over. *' Let me help 
you, Miss Jennie," he said; and before she knew it he had taken the pails from her hands 
and was walking by her side. 

" Just the man," said Aunt Rebecca to herself, as she 

passed from the pantry to the table with a pitcher of rich 

and saw them walking together toward the house. 

Just the place I intend to have," said Moses Powers 

self, as be deposited the pails of foaming milk at the 

dairy, and then went in with Jennie to supper. 

One morning not long after Moses Powers called, and 
asked to see Jennie alone. Aunt Rebecca, with many mys- 
terious signs and nods, bade Jennie to go into the parlor 
where he was wailing. Jennie lingered long at the side 
hall-door before she went in. She had seen this moment coming for some time. She 
had a struggle now with herself before she gave up her freedom, and hesitated as she 
stood at the side-door, looking out. Tom, a hoy hired at the farm, passed the door, and, 
looking up, said : " Your Aunt Rebecca's getting ready to go into the parlor." Jennie 
hesitated no longer, but went iu ; it could be only a choice in tyrants. So it ended, at 

last, that between two strong 
wills a weaker yielded, and in- 
y't^^ ^^^PyZ^f^, .^'''^iy' /Z-iC^", experienced, unworidly Jennie 
Weaver became Moses Powers's 

They only remained a year 
on the farm ; then Moses Pow- 
ers took his wife and moved 
into the adjoining town. His 
far-seeing eye knew that he 
could grow up with this town, 
and, by using Jennie's money, 
which thay lived for many years 
opportunity to i 

y^p^iS^^t^y'^^^. ^yA^^, ,.,<d^^ . 

In the 1 

lely rich n 

Jennie became a household drudge, with neither 

thing. Moses Powers had very cleverly gotten rid of Aunt Rebecca in the first 

of his marriage, so the heaviest work in the house fell to Jennie's lot now. Three beau- 

. -,..,..., , , ., . , . , ; ti'ul children were born to Jennie, and if in all her life she had lacked something to 

A special mvitation is here extended to our pupils in penmanship who followed the i „ , „, , . „ .- c i n u j . ■ i n l . 

.-..%... i,. .... I ^ove, her whole nature was now satisfied. One boy and two girls were all her own, and 

1 the Journal, to come to the Convention of the Business Educators' Asso 
Hon of America, to be hold iu Washington, D. C, beginning July lOth, and continuing 
four days. We know, if you como, you will be delighted with the Convention, and with 
your country's capital. 

would burst into tl: 
flying whenever she 
even waiting to kno' 
Jennie did not dare : 

Ashamed of Mother. 

By Mary E. Mahtin. 

Old farmer Weaver left this world without disposing of the many broad acres be 
called his own ; and his pretty daughter Jennie came into possession of his wealth. Not 
a friend had Jennie but her old maiden Auut Rebecca, and soon would it all have slipped 
through Jennie's unworldly fingers but for the generalship the old lady kept over her. 
■ you dare to do it, Jennie Weaver I" was llie usual exclamation Aunt Rebecca 
room with — her spectacles set up on her nose, and her cap-strings 
iw a tenant, or an applicant of any kind, enter the house. Without 
what his business was, the discomfited individual had to retire, for 
sist Aunt Rebecca's will. 

" I tell you. Aunt Rebecca," said Jennie, after one of these interviews, " I must have 
an agent to attend to my atfaire." 

"Have an agent, Jennie Weaver !" screamed the old lady; "what for? To cheat 
you out of everything you've got? You will end your days in the poor-h-'use yet! Only 
yesterday you lowered the rent for that lazy Bill Mitchell. I don't know what you 
wouldn't do if I didn't look after you. Give nie them keys; you ain't going to touch 
them papers in that secretary unless I am present." 

Jennie, from force of habit, handed the keys she held in her hands to the old lady. 
The next moment a soft flush stole over her face, and she was angry with herself for 
yielding. But what was she to do ? Since her motber'a death Aunt Rebecca had ruled 
V she was not strong enough to throw off the yoke. Although farmer 
I rich uian, Jennie had only the education lliat could be gotten at the dis- 
trict school. Her attendance even there had been so irregular that she could learn hut 
little. When asked by her teacher why she was absent, her answer would often be: "I 
had to stay to hand tile; they were laying a draiu, and were short of hands." It was not 
strange, then, that, although now quite a grown young lady, she was as obedient as a 
child, and was so ignorant that she could smrcfXy write her own name. 

T<» do Aunt Rebecca justice, in all her meddling with Jennie's afi^airs she only had 
her interest at heart. She would have been glad at any time to have seen her married 
to some good man who would have taken the whole business from her hands. Even 
here she had her anxieties: a husband could spend Jennie's money; and Aunt Rebeoca 
bogau to look about her for the right kind of a man. It was with a smile of satisfaction, 
then, that Aunt Rebecca, one evening, opened the kitchen-door at a sound of a low tap. 
There, standing before her, was Moses Powers, who had taught the district school for 
several years. He had worked his way into the goodwill of the simple country people by 
transacting many a little affair of business for them. It seemed intricate enough until his 
quick brain made it clear to them. 

The sinking sun sent its rays 
saw Mo8c« standing on the steps. 

" Good evening, Miss Weaver," he said ; " I have brought you up some fine-flavored 
^rout for supper. I have been fishing in the stream that runs through the farm, and 

Weaver \ 

B the kitchen-door as Annt Rebecca opened it, a 

she made herself a slave that they might have some of the things that had not come 
into her own life. Just as little money did Moses Powers let them have as their absolute 
wants demanded. "Not yet," he would always say ; " every cent must be kept in my 
business; hut the day will come when I sliall be able to spend what I like." 

As her daughters grew older, Jennie became more and more conscious how she 
lacked iu education. More and more she felt it, and her heart ached almost to breaking 
one day as she overheard her two daughters eay : " I tell you, I don't believe mother can 
even write." This was from her oldest daughter, Ophelia. 

" What makes you think so ? " the young<;r answered. 

" Well, may be she can," Ophelia said ; but I never saw her with a pen iu her hand, 
and if there is any writing to do she always makes rne do it. I tell you, I should be 
ashamed to let anybody know that my own mother did not know how to write — I should 
be ashamed of her." 

" Hush 1 " the younger answered ; " she might hear you." 

Hear them she did, and cried over it until she was sick. What a coward she felt her- 
self, she wouldn't dare own to those two children. Above everyone living she would 
rather anyone should know than Iier two daughters, as bitteriy as she lamented it. The 
fact was before her — she could not write. She might sign her name, but what else she 
had known about writing had long been forgotten in the hard, drudging life that liad 
come to her. Now it was too late — she could not go to school again. 

When the two girls were twelve and fcmrteen, and the son sent away to school, 
Moses Powers concluded that he could now take money from his business to build him 
a home, and Uve difl"erently. He built a substantial mansion, with beautiful sloping lawn, 
filled with trees and shrubs. It was long before Jennie felt at home in it, and every 
attempt to entertain the new and elegant friends that now began to come into Moses 
Powers's life was what he thought siich a failure that he dropped into the habit of 
entertaining them at the hotel — Jennie little dreaming that it was because he «as 
ashamed of her. 

It was one day after dinner, a few years after they had moved into their new home, 
that Moses Powers lingered in the sitting-room — something quite unusual. "I have 
something I would like to talk over with you," he said, as he settled down into a chair. 

Jennie looked her surprise ; it was rarely that he had ever consulted her on any 

" I was just going to say," Moses Powers continued, " that I have made arrange- 
ments for our two daughters to go away to school. As they need many things that you 
cannot procure for them, 1 shall take them with me and spend the Summer with some 
of my friends. They will see something of refined life before entering school." 

Moses Powers dreaded his task, but he was not prepared for the look that swept 

r the \ 

" What 1 " she exclaimed 
He did not tell her that it 

did he understand why she so 

her that whispered 

yet, thoso words of Opheli 

That decided hei 

could give them. 

They c 

" Give up my children for a year ? " 

7&a for several that she would ha^e to give them up, nor 

iddenly agreed to let them go; but there came up before 

between the two girls. It seemed to ring in her ears 

I do believe our mother does not know how to write." 

they should go — they should never do without an advantage that shi^ 

Each year now was bringing her to know of all she liad lost. 


me back, after a few years, the Misses Powers, daughti 
" Elegant and accomplished youLg ladies," so the morning papers 

D»atic«d. They were so elegant 
that their mother felt that they 
were strangers; so stylish that 
flhe felt poorly dad beside them. 
Mo«es Powers teemed very proad 
of his daoghtere, and now speot 
more time at home. For a year 
or two he bad, with the tilightetit 
cause, and often 
flowD into such gusts of » 
and passioD that his pour 
had been glad to have him away. Now 
she hoped it would be different. It mys- 
tified her what these gusts of passion 
conld mean. They went as quickly as 
they came, and did not leave a trace of 
anger. Poor woman ! she little k 
that it was to wear out her patience, and 
force her to live separately. Moses Powers 
bad grown ashamed to present her as his 
wife. He would not have owned that his 
wife did not kno 

Moses Powers and his daughters went 
mach into society. It was understood, in 
their fashionable world, that his wife was 

a little queer—" In fact, just a little " 

said one of his friends to anotlier, tapping 
his forehead with his finger significantly. 
So people soon ceaeed to ask fur her. 

Misses Ophelia and Grace 1 
huldiug a deep and secret consultation 
their own rooms. At last, 
Miss Ophelia said: "I 
think that it is our best 
plan. I have talked the 
matter over with father, 
and he approves. In fact, 
thinks it the only 
for us to pursue. Father 
id we have ac- 
uany invitations 
ust entertain in 
" That 
a ladies' lunch. 
'You know, "added Ophe- 
lia, " that at luQch none of 
the older members of the 
family should appear, and 
that meets our case. I 
should just die of mortificat 
should fiud out that our mi 
even know how to write. I have found out 
that — I asked father one day." 

"Well," said Grace, "you will have to 
explain to mother that she must not appear 
at lunch; for I would not burl her." 

Ophelia did explain, but failed to make 
her mother understauil. " I never heard of 
such a thing, Ophelia— a mother can't he in 
the room when the daughters have a party." 
"I wonder," said Mrs. Powers to herself, 
as she went up the stairs to her own room, 
" what Aunt Itebecca would have said if I 
had ordered her not to come iuto the room 
when I bad a party." She laughed a low 
laugh as she called up the old lady's figure, 
with her Hying cap-utrings. 

is rich, 
cepted St 
that we 


laughed a low 
Cards wen 
Misses Powei 
of a well-kn 
no suoli thint 

id then sighed, 
sent for the lunch, and the 
put everything iuto the hands 
ivn caterer, w here there was 
At the very last, 

Ophelia gave the injunction to her mother 
to he certain not to make her ajipearance. 
As she was silent, Ophelia thought she had 
overcome her with the grandeur of the 

Mrs. Powers stood .at an upper window 
as' the carriages deposited their graceful oc- 
cupants, one hy one, at the door. She 
watched loug after, till the murmur of 
voices from the parlors told her how pleas- 
ant it was for them. A*, last her house- 
wifely love overcame every other feeling, 
and she thought she would at least see if 
everything was in order in the dioing-room. 
She opened one of the side-doors at the 
inopportune moment when the company 
were coming in two and two, with Miss 
Ophelia at the head leading the way with 
the most approved fashioiiable walk. 

" How-dy-do, ladies t" said Mrs. Powers 
from the door-way, in her most cordial and 
warm-hearted tones. "I hope you will 
eal good time. Bnt, Ophelia, don't 
that way, or you might topple 

In an aside she added : " I tl: 
she had broke herself of the habit of 
ing on her heels; she used to do it when 
she was a child." 

Miss Ophelia and her guests passed on — 
Ophelia as rigid as a statue ; not a sign did 
she show that she was nearly overcome 
with mortification. 

Mrs. Powers made her appearance again 
in the parlor, just as the guests were leav- 
ing. The two sisters stood just inside the 
parlor-door, and to several uf their guests 
they ended their remarks in quite a high 
key that seemed to give Mrs. Powers much 
concern. She lingered after the last guest 
had left, and said : " Your party must have 
Hurried you ; you talked mighty llighty just 
before they left." Before she had finished 
speaking, her daughters had passed her, 
coldly and silently, on their M-ay to their 

It sooo leaked out how Mrs. Powers had 
made her appearance at the lunch. Prom 
that tjme Moses Powers's gusts of passion 
became more frequent. At last there was 
no effort made to hide them, and Mrs. Powers 
appealed to her son to know what they 
meant. " Father intends to wear you out, 
and force you to live separately. Ho wUl 
have a fashionable wife, or none." 

The time came sooner than even her son 
thought. Not three squares away a palatial 
residence had been in progress for some 
time. Now it was completed in every way. 
In the Pall, when Moses Powers and his 
daughters returned from their Summer trip, 
they took up their abode there ; were well 
domiciled when Mrs. Powers knew not even 
oC their return. Inside and out of Moses 
Powers's new residence showed where the 
hand of art had been at work. There was 
nothing like it in the city. His friends ad- 
mh-ed the quiet, gentlemanly way that he 
had disposed of a partially insane wife, and 
the fashionable Ufe went on as gay as ever 
for Moses Powers and his daughters. 

Mrs. Powers lived on alone in the home, 

'No," she said. 

while music and .d; 

below her. In 

me and live with him and his wife, 
one should be again 
She did not let her 
trouble overcome her. She aroused herself, 
and determined to impntve. Her son found 
her sitting, looking sad enough, though, 
when he went in one afternoon. " Oh, my 
son," f-he said, " if only I could write ! " 
Then she told him of the conversation she 
had heard of her two daughters when they 
were children. " I know that was the be- 
ginning of their being ashamed of me. Oh, 
my son, if only I could write \ " 

"Did you never know how to write?" 
cautiously asked the son ; for he was very 
careful of wounding her. 

"Yea," she answered, "a little; hut I 
never knew much, and hard work made me 
dislike to improve, and now I cannot go to 

" You can learn without going to school, 
mother; " and her son then told her how, 
every day of tlie year, hundreds of people 
were constantly improving their handwrit- 

" But not people of my agef " 

" Yes," he answered; "people quite as 
old aa you. But you are not old— just a 
little over forty ; and you are very beautiful, 
still, mother." He then brought her speci- 
mens of beautiful handwriting, and showed 
her the old hand, and contrasted it with the 

" Do you think I could ever improve like 
that?" she asked. ' 

" Yes," he answered ; and she did. She 
practiced for many a day, until she did write, 
and that most beautifully ; and she did not 
cease her improvement with writing alone ; 
she improved in every way. But she con- 
fided to her son one day: "It was such a 
comfort that 1 could improve in writing, 
without asking a teacher to show mo— such 
a comfort that I could learn to write in my 

Mrs. Powers was not, and 
bad never been, a weak wo- 
man ; but her nature was so 
kiudly that it could not rid*^- its 
will over the heart-aches and 
pains of others. Now she wh» 
aroused to the fact that she 
owed herself a duty. There 
was a classmiite of her sou's 
going to spiud 
abroad, and through her son's 
persuasion she joined this family in a 
tour of Eurojte — determined to improve 
hy travel just as she had improved so 
successfully in writing. 

A ypar had passed since Moses Powers 
had taken possession of his palatial resi- 
dence, and he determined to give an 
ent to far surpass anything his 
friends had given. A long list of i 

sent out, including the best 
of the 
On the evening of the entertainment a 
long canvas awning exleudeil from the 
door to the carriage, protecting the 
guests from any inclemency of the 
weather. Long strips of handsome car- 
pet kept their feet from any dampness 
on the pavement. 

ment the lights gleamed out into the 
darkness, and betokened the festivity 
within. Orchestra played ; 
Howers, in grand profii- 
placod every- 
where about the house, 
making the air heavy with 
their perfume. The Misses 
ed with great 


guest. She was 

ccntly dressed, and, aa she 

walked, her diamonds 

gleamed and Hashed; her 

father, watching her from 

felt content. She was his ideal of a 

iled here 

honored guest in passing. 

a distam 
and there o 
he felt that he had reached that high point 
in fashionable life to which he had so long 
aimed. The guests danced or wandered at 
will through the handsome rooms. At a 
late hour they left. The house was closed. 
A sleepy servant or two lingered to put 
away some forgotten things. Moses Powers 
sought his couch, satisfied with himself and 
all the world. The house was still- all 
were locked in sleep. But one guest 
unbidden and unseen, stayine 



morning Moses Powers found himself alone 
with death. He struggled, tried to call, 
but died — died as unattended as the poorest. 
What was the consternation of all when 
search was made for his will that all of his 
vast wealth was left to his wife alone t 
Written, no doubt, in his earlier married 
life, when aotre spark of gratitude was felt 
toward the woman whose money he had 
freely used. No later wHl was found, and 
Mrs. Powers's sou wrote to her, telling her 
how his sisters were left. Back she came 
from over the sea. What for ! To remind 
them how they had been ashamed of her, 
but were now dependent upon horf No; 
to forgive them before they asked as only 
a mother would. But Miss Ophelia, 
through all the mortification she felt at be- 
ing compelled to take half from her mother, 
found time to hold up the ext|ui8itely-writ- 
ten letter aad said : "Grace, this is about the 
hardest thing to get over yet ! I have 
always said mother could not write, but she 
writes the most beautiful baud I ever saw." 
There, in full view, was the I eautiful letter 
their mother had written them before she 
should see them. But only One knew the 
weary days it had taken the hand stiffened 
by years of hard work to learn to write so 

Sample copies of the Joorkal, JO cents. 

^J: z w M 

""-^'^T^:. -%5><^ 

Letter- Writing. 

Articlk VI. 

Br D. T. Amf.8. 

The very low ratee of postage, together 
with the safe and quick transmissiou 
cif matter by mail in inodeni times, has 
made the poet a wooderfol agency for social, 
aa well aa commercial and diplomatic, inter- 
course, and in these days of universal edu- 
raliou when the person who cannot read 
and write iB a disgraced etceptioD, a know- 
ledge of the various requisites for letter- 
writing is iDdispensahle to any aspirant to a 
fair standing id the business or.^social 

lu our former articles we have considered, 
and presented examples of, business and 
miscellaoeons correspondence. We will 
now consider what may be styled social 
correspondence, under this head may be 
classed all those written communications 
iuci<Ieal to a lady or gentleman, as active 
members of society, such as notes of invita- 
tion, acceptance, apology, advice, coDgratu- 
Istion, etc., etc. While many of these are 
usually more or less formal in their con- 
struction, there is still ample opportunity 
for a display of the real genius of letter- 
writing. This will be best done in a free, 
easy and natural style, as we would speak 
to, or converse with, a friend face to face. 
Formality in social correspondence should 
he avoided as far as possihte. There is 
little satisfaction in recoguizing in the 
phraseology of a letter the standard forms 
of a text-book, nor is our conception of the 
genius and attainments of its author 
liightened thereby; the vpriter's self should 
appear in his correspondence. 

A note of introduction and reply i 
erly more brief and formal than a: 
other written communications ; the 
panying forms will serve as esampU 

* prop- 



Mr. &. Mrs. A. J. Goodfkllow 

Rpfpiest lh« pleaaiire of the Company of 

Mr. &. Mils. Hamilton W. Wklcome, 


On Tuesday, June 1st. 

At Seven o'clock. 

R. S. V. P. Lincoln Ave. 


Mil. & Mius. Hamilton W. Welcomk 

Accept, with pleasure, 

Mn. &. Mus. A. J. GOODPELLOW'S 

Invitation to dinner, at Seven o'clock, 

Tuesday evening, June Itt. 


Mit.,& Mus, Hamilton W. Whlcumf. 

Regret that a previous engugemeut prevenle 

l.the nt^peplnnee of 

Mr. & Mrs. A. J. (iooDj-KLLoWs 

luvitatiou to Dinner, 

Tuesday evening, June 1st. 

Wedddjg Ini 

Mk. & Mrs. Charles B. HorEtDL 

Reiiueat your presence at the marriage of iheir 


Miss ConNEHA, 

Mr. Charlks Loxtrkwell, 

pu Munday, May 30th, 168:t, 

Al 4 o'clock p. M., 

St. James's Church, 

Washington Avenae, Boston. 

We scarcely need say that forms for ioTi- 
tations must vary to suit a great variety of 
purposes and occasions, and that we cannot 
Htford the spnce to hero present all these 
varied forms. Tliey may bo found, with 
detailed iiifonn.ition, in "Hill's Manual," 

which is a work we commend to every 
reader of the Journal. As a household 
or office book of reference it is most valua- 
ble. Several French words and phrases are 
of such common use in notes and cards that 
we deem it proper to present them with their — maa 
definitions, viz.: E. S. V. P., Bepondez, s'il , rural t 

ro((5/)/at(— answer, if yoQ please. E. V., en Letters of Apologv. 

I vilU— in the town or city. P. P. C, Pour Whenever occasion calls for a letter of 
prendre conge— to take leave. Costume dt ■ apology, it should be promptly and court- 
rigucur — full dress, in character. Soiree eouely written. The sincerity of an apology 

dansanet—a. dancing party. Bail masque ' is very likely to be judged by its prompt- 
iile ball. Fete champctre — a I ness; a late apology needs for itself an 
door party. I apology. 



t^ (^u-iu^.2<3, /fdc 

,^^i<!^!U^ itM-eA^r— 














Iht iibuiie cult are lihah engraccd from mpij c u:\ikd al the o£i:e of the ■'Journal." 


214 Ai>A3is Street. 

June 111, 188S. 
My Dkar Jehnie. 

1 iruet you will acct^pt my apologj for doI 
being prvseDt at your birthday part/, last ereti- 
ing. Unexpected circumBtancM prevented me 
frum enjoying tbe pleasure. I hope to eee you 
very t)uou, wlieu I will explain. 

WtHhiiig you the many joys yoii bo well 

Affeolionately yuui-s, 

Emma Alwakd. 
Miss Jkxnie Wood. 

Letters of Congratulation. 
Whenever a laudable undertaking is 
crowned with succesa, or good fortune over- 
takes us, or a miflfortuue has been averted, 
the pleasure is largely increased by a know- 
ledge that friends share with us ourhappi- 
□eSB, and suph are occasions for congratu- 
latory messujKea. They should bo brief, but 
cordial and hearty in their expressions. 

May S4th, 28SS. 
PIvANe uccept my moBt hearty congratula- 
lious upon the oucceesful completion of the 
crowning work of human engineering ekill — 
rhe New York and Brooklyn Bridge. 
Yours very truly, 

Cviius W. Field. 
Col. Washington A, Roebling, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

In our next article we shall treat of let 
ters of friendship 

The University of Vienna i§ said to have 
more than 200 professors ; the University 
of Berlin, about 180; Leipsic, J50; Jena, 
75.— Notre Dame Scholastic. 

The new compulsory education law of 
Rhode Island requires that every child be- 
tween the ages of seven and fifteeo years 
shall have sixteen weeks of school each 

Everett graduated at seventeen years; 
Webster at fifteen ; Story at twenty ; Chan- 
nisg at eighteen ; Longfellow at eighteen ; 
Euiersou at eighteen. — Notre Dame Schol- 

Ainherst College Library has 43,705 
bound volumes; Cornell University, 46,500 
bound volunoee and 14,000 pamphlets ; 
Brown University, 5:1,000 bound volumes 
and 17,000 pamphlets; Columbia College 
about 55,000 bound volumes ; Harvard 
University, 2fi9,0G() bound volumes and 
222,427 pamphlets. 


Educational Fancies. 

every instance where the t 

Educational Notes. 


L^ .^..^.^..v.ous for this Department may 

be addresaed to B. F. Kellky, 20u Broadway, 
New York. Brief educational items aolicited.] 

School population of Kansas, ^57,920. 
Alaska is begging that schooUeac.ers 
be sent there. 

There are in Illinois eight female county 
superintendents of schools. 

The new President of Trinity is to re- 
ceive $10,000 salary a year. 

The new observatory of Columbia Col- 
lege is to have a paper dome. 

The Governor of the Province of Shan- 
ghai, China, is a graduate of Yale. 

Nathaniel Hayes, of Boston, who died 
recently, left Harvard University more than 

Amherst will soon have a new library 
building suitable for 230,000 volumes.— 

Rev. Joseph King, of Allegheny City, 
Pa., was recently elected to the presidency 
of Hiram College. 

Oxford University authorities are think- 
ing of abolishing the wearing of gowns on 
the streets.— Badjtfr. 

Bancroft, the historian, is to deliver the 
Centennial Anniversary Address of Phillipa 
(Exeter, N. H.) Academy. 

The National School of Elocution will 
hold a session atCobourg, Ontario, Canada, 
from July 2d to August 10th. 

All the English Cabinet, save Mr. Cham- 
berlain, are University men— seven Oxford 
and six Cambridge.- .4*(rtim. 

A bust of Charle's Sumner, valued at 
$1000 is to be presented to Bates College 
by the senior class of that institution. 

Vermont. — Arunah Huntington, an 
eccentric Canadian, left $200,000 to be 
divided between the public schools of Ver- 

The graded schools of St. Paul, Minn., 
are so crowded that about half of the pupils 
attend in the forenoon and the other half in 
the afternoon. 

The bequest of Stephen Girard, originally 
two million dollars, bai been so carefully 
and suoce-ssfully managed as to be valued at 
twenty millions. 

Albion College, Michigan, proposes to 
make a now departure in classical education. 
It will teach all modem languages first, and 
ancient afterwards. 

used in this department is known, the 
proper credit is given. A like courtesy fr 

this department 
ureuii. is given. A '" 
will be appreciated.] 

Professor: "Who 

^position ( 

Peter Ill's 
mother?" -S^urfeni (noted for never being 
in want of an answer); "Why— er— the 
sister of bis aunt."— (Applause.) 

In the kingdom of Siam all college stu- 
dents are allowed but two wives. This is 
shameful. They are putting more rules on 
every year. After a while they will prob- 
ably be limited to one. The freshmen 
should certainly kick.— College Mercury. 

It takes twenty blows of a hammer in the 
bands of a woman to drive a tenpenny nail 
three inches. She misses the nail twice 
where she hits it once. How many blows 
does she strike in all, and how far can her 
voice be heard when she strikes her thumb t 

A VERV Solomon.— Teacher with read- 
ing class. Soy (reading): "And as she 
sailed down the river—" Teacher : "Why 
are the ships called 'she'?" Boy (pre- 
cociously alive to tlie responsibilities of his 
sex) : " Because they Deed men to manage 

Student translates: " And you shall eat 
yourself full for ouce in your life." Pro- 
fessor: "What does 'full' modify?" Stu- 
dent hesitating, the professor continues im- 
patiently : "Come, come, who is full?" 
Student: "Yourself." Mueic by the band. 
—Cornell Sun. 

A Brooklyn boy wrote 
the subject of the Quak 
scribed as a set who never quarreled, never 
gut into a fight, never clawed each other 
and never jawed hack. The production 
contained a postscript in these words : "Pa's 
a Quaker, but ma isn't." 

Keokuk Gate City : A teacher in one of 
our schools propounded the following ques- 
tion to her class of little ones : " If you 
c*n buy one elate-pencil for one cent, how 
many can you buy for five cents ? " A 
bright little lad promptly responded : "You 
kin git eight down town." 

"Now, boys, recite your verses; then 
you can coast." " I'd rather be a door- 
keeper in the house of the Lord than dweU 
m the tents of the wicked," repeated the 
older lad. " So'd I," ejaculated the junior 
youth ; and away he Hew after his sled be- 
fore the father had time to remonstrate. 

"How do you find the third side of a 
trinngle?" asked an Austin teacher of one 
of his pupils. Tlie boy grumblingly said 
iu a low voice thatihe teacher wasa doukey. 
"Say it over again, Johnny, and speak up 
lender. Perhaps your answer is the right 
one," replied the pedagogue, who i.« a little 
deaf.— Teros Siftings. 

A New York schoolgirl says her studies 
are arithmetic, algebra, geography, as- 
tronomy, grammar, United States history, 
general history, etymology, spelling, com- 
position, drawing, reading, writing, and 

singing by note. It looks as U her educa- 
tion is being sadly neglected. Unless 
French, Latin, mental philosophy, calculus, 
civil engineering, and hydrostatics are added 
to her studies she will be totally unfit to 
assume the duties of a wife and mother a 
few years hence. — Norristoum Serald. 

A Good Investment. 

By Paul Past.nor. 
In these days, when money grows, just 
like everything else, it is of great advantage 
to a young man, with a few pennies in his 
pocket, to know how to plant them so as to 
get the greatest possible return within the 
shortest time. There are thousands of 
ways of investing money, but only about a 
half-a-dozen of these ways are practicable to 
the average young man; and of these half- 
dozen ways, always one may be selected 
which is the best for him, all things con- 
sidered. As many men — so many ways of 
getting on in the world. No two business 
>r professional men I have ever seen were 
jxactly alike in their schemes and methods 

A great deal depends, then, upon finding 
what one is suited for, and investing all 
one's capital, talent, time or money, in that 
direction. I believe that everyone of us 
comes into this woHd with his place pro- 
vided for him. If he lives rightly, be will 
find it; if not, it is quite probable that he 
will lose it. Now I hold that the beat in- 
vestment which a young man can make of 
S50, $100- S200, to bring tlie figures down 
within the reach of all, is to jiut the money 
into the line of his natural tastes. He will 
very soon find out what these are. I do 
not believe that there is a young man in 
the United States who has not his individual 
"bent"; and it he takes the slightest 
thought about himself, he will know what 
that bent is plenty early enough to direct 
his energies to its carrying out. 

Let us suppose that a young man is con- 
vinced that he is " cut out " for mercantile 
life. But this is not enough ; he ought to 
and will, know what branch of mercantile 
life he prefers. So far so good. We will 
take it that he is fond of 6gurea and calcu- 
lations, and has a good head for what may 
be called " results." In such case he very 
wisely decided to start out in life at the 
business desk— as a book-keeper, if lie can 
get the position. He has, let us say, to 
begin vrith, $75. Now there are two ways 
inwhich he ean use this money ; and it is 
just here that a great many promising 
young men make the grand mistake of their 
lo ean take The money, go to the 
city, and support himself on it while he is 
looking for a position; or he can go im- 
mediately to some collegiate institute or 
business college, expend his $75 to the last 
cent in getting a good fit, and then step 
straight into the position provided for him 
by the management of the institution. 

Now which of these two ways is the 
good investment ; which best subserves the 
natural aptitude of the man, and brings 
him the quickest and fairest returns? 

The young man who went directly to the 
city, and invested his $75 in "hunting a 
situation,'' likely as not, was successful- 
successful, that is, in so far as to gel some 
subordinate, poorly paid position at once, 
where his ealary and attainments balancing 
about equally for a. long time, he is kept 
"on the threshold," as it were, of success 
until many of his brightest dreams and 
warmest aspirations are, in the expressive 
language of the Irishman, " killed to death." 
He did not make a good investment of his 
little seed-money. He was not wise enough 
to see that he needed perparation before he 
began his work. He waa in too great haat«, 
and consequently sufl^ered in the long run. 
He began making money before his cajui- 
panion, truly, but that was all the advantage 
he had, and it was a sadly brief one. His 
case is like that of a man who starts out to 
go to a distant town, on foot, early in the 
morning, whereas another and wiser man 
waita until the day's work is well in hand. 

and then goes leisurely and swiftly to the 
same placs by train. On the way he passes 
the man who started early —footsore, weary, 
ready to drop by the waysilo. The man 
who started last gets to their common des- 
tiuatioD first, Trausacts his business with 
pleasure and ease, and is perhaps enjoying 
a good souni sleep when the foot-traveler 
limps into town, too utterly fagged out and 
broken down to do anything hut sink into 
a troubled stupor at the first resting-place 
he comes to— if. indeed, he has strength and 
pers.'verance enough to roach his deatiua- 
nation at all. 

Tlie swift, scientific traveler is a good 
likeness for the young man who makes the 
best investment of money, time, and talent. 
A business college education is the same 
thing to a man's mind, in the way of rapid 
advancement in business, as steam and steel 
and iron roads are to the rapid transit of 
his body. " If it pays to take a good long 
start," it certainly pays to be ready before 
one starts. I thiuk I am not exaggerating 
when I say that $50 or $100 put into a good, 
thorough business education— especially in 
the two most important branches of pen- 
manship and book-keeping — will be worth 
more to a young man in the first five years 
of business life than $100 put into a part- 
nership, or investetl in getting an incom- 
petent person a good situation — which it is 
not at all likely that he cau keep. So I 
say to all iho young readers of the Journal 
— put your first money into your mind, your 
second into your pocket. It will prove a 
good investment. 


By Viiov. H. Russell, Jolimt, III. 
One of the grandest and noblest signs of 
educational progress is the universHl demand 
that woman as well as mau shall enjoy 
the God -given right to he educated. And 
that grand maxim given to us iu the sub- 
lime old Declaration of ludependence— All 
men are born with inalienable rights — seems 
now to embrace much more, and the press 
and people everywhere seomtc* be well nigh 
unanimous in demanding that education, be 
it of whatever kind it may, if it is good for 
man is equally good for 
glad to see the Journal, 
influence, applaud tht 
into line with the rest of the pre, 
pudiate the atrociously silly dogu 
Dix, in his ctlorts to secure the exclusion of 
woman from Columbia College. And what 
is BtUl better, I am glad to see, is our busi- 
ness colleges falling into line, led by our 
noble friend Packard, and demanding, in 
earnest and emphatic terms, an equal 
chance for both young ladies and gentle- 
meeting with the hearty co-operatii 
support of I 

best and most progressive of men, and it is 
sincerely to be hoped that the hat-eyed Rip 
Vau Winkles will take heed lest they be 
crushed beneath the juggernaut wheels 
of educational progress. Everywhere that 
this system has been introduced it has 
worked to a charm, and 
best of satisfaction, and is 
by all of the best teachen 

For the past two years I have giv 
special trial iu my own school, and an 
than pleased with the result, and from 
of schools from Maine to Texas coi 
me the undeniable evidence, that wb 
it has been tried it is working to a ch 
Women everywhere, are holding m 
the most responsible and important positions 
as teachers, and to deny tlieui the means of 
securing a thorough education in all branches 
is one of the most glaring and foolish ab- 
surdities of the age, and smacks so strongly 
of the barberism of the Dark Ages that it 
canuot, nor will not, be tolerated by right- 

and fall 

^ of Dr, 

Lud all the 

jiven the very 


Persons desiring a single copy of the 
Journal must remit ten r-.enis. No att«6- 
tion will he given to postal-card reqneeUi 

fl/jr ffirfP EN M A N "-S viS 

New York and Brooklyn 
Suspension Bridge. 

The above cut preBenis an excellent view 
of the Brooklyn liridge, which was opened 
to the public un May •24th. The following 
elatistics will serve to convey eome idea of 
il« coDstructioD and inaenltude : 


New YoT 

k towor conltilas 4» cubio yards masonry 


ton«r ooDtoui* 38,311 oubio yards ma«oiuy. 

l^iigtl. o 

nTerspao, 1.595 feel Cinohw. 

Le..g.l. o 

liiQd B)>aus, 930 fuel, and leOO feet. 

Lengib . 

lirooklyn appro&ob, 971 feel. 

Lf Dgth o 

Nuvr Yurk approaoli, l.S6'2 feel G inches. 

Clear Light of bridge 
Sigh-watorul 90 degrees 1 
Uight a Boor at lywe 

V eight. ; 

) high-water, 119 ( 

Tho nM ol bridge, otct JIS.OOO.OOO. 
Beyond a doubt, the bridge, as a whole, 
constitutes the grandest monument of human 
genius and skill that the world has 

To 1 

I grand work of art, we have 
deemed it proper to devote considerable 
space of our present issue, and we cannot 
do belter than to quote from the able and 
happy Address delivered by the Hon. Abram 
Hewitt at the celebration of the bridge 
opening. He said : 

In no iirevious period of the world's bis- 
toty could this bridge have been built. 
W ithm the last hundred years the greater 
part of the knowledge necessary for its 
erection has beeu isained. Chemistry was 
not boru until 1770, the year when political 
economy was uahered into the world by 
Adam bmith, aud the Declaration of lodi- 
peudenoe was proclaimed by the Conuneutal 

tained at the 
point of the sword by George 
Washington. In the 
year Watt produced his suc- 
ceBsful steam engine, and a 
century haa not elapsed since the first 
fipeciraen of his skill was erected on this 
contiueat. The law of gravitation was 
indeed known a hundred years ago, but 
the iutricate laws of force which now con- 
trol the domain of industry had not been 
developed by the study of physical science, 
and their practical applications have only 
been effectually accomplished within our 
own day, and indeed, some of the most 
important of them during the building of 
the bridge. For use in the caissons, the per- 
fecting of the electric light came too late, 
though happily in season for the illumina- 
tion of the finished work. 

This construction has not only employed 
every abstract conclusion aud formula of 
mathematics, whether derived from the 
study of the earth or heavens, but the whole 
structure may be said to rest upon mathe- 
matical foundation. The great discoveries 
of chemistry, showing the composition of 
water, the nature of gases, the properties of 
metals, the laws and processes of physics, 
from the strains and pressures of mighty 
masses to the delicate vibrations of mole- 
cules, are all recorded here. Every depart- 
ment of human industry is represented, from 
the quarrying and cutting of the stones, the 
mining and smelting of the ores, the con- 
version of iron into steel by the pneumatic 
process, to the final shaping of the masses 
of metal into useful forms and its reduction 
into wire so as to develope in the liighest 
degree the tensile strength which fits it for 
the work of suspension. Every tool which 
tho ingenuity of man has invented has some- 
where, in some special detail, contributed its 
sliare in the accomplishment of the final 

■■ Ah ' what u wonderous thiog it is 
One word, out. thought cau set iu motion." 

But without the most recent discoveries 
of science, which have enabled steel to be 
substituted for iron — applications made 
since the original plans for the bridge were 
devised— we should have a structure fit, in- 
deed for use, but of such moderate capacity 
that we could not have justified the claim 
which we are now able to make, that the 
cities of New York and Brooklyn have con- 
structed, and to-day rejoice in the possession 
of, the crowning glory of an age memorable 
for great industrial achievements. 

This is not the proper occasion for de- 
scribing the details of this undertaking. 
This grateful task will be performed by the 
engineer in the final report, with which 
every great work is properly committed to 
the judgment of posterity. But there are 
some lessons to be drawn from the hasty 
considerations I have presented, which may 
encourage and comfoit us as to the destiny 
of man and the outcome of human pro- 

What message, then, of hope and cheer 
does this achievement convey to those who 
would fain believe that love travels hand 
in hand with light along the rugged path- I 
way of timet Have the discoveries of 
science, the triumphs of art and the pro- 
gress of civilization, which have made its 
construction a possibility and a reality, pro- 
moted the welfare of mankind and raised the 
great mass of the people to a higher plane 
of lifet 

Changes \\-eiCH the Bridue 
This question can best be answered by 
comparing the compensation of the labor 
employed in the buildingof this bridge with 
the earnings of labor employed upon works 
of equal magnitude in ages gone by. The 
money expended for the work of construc- 
tion proper on the bridge, exclusive of land 
damages and other expenses, such as in- 
terest, not entering into actual cost, is nine 
million ($9,000,000) dollars. This money 
has been distributed in numberless channels 
— for quarrying, for mining, smelting, for 
fabricating the metals, for shaping the ma- 
terials and erecting the work, employing 
every kind and form of human labor. The 
wages paid at the bridge itself may be 
taken as the fair standard of the Mages paid 
for the work done elsewhere. These wages 

. 11.75 


Taking all these kinds of labor into 
count, the wages paid for work on 
bridge will thus average $2.50 per day. 

Now if this work had been done at 
time when the Pyramids were built, v, 
the skill, appliances and tools then in i 
and if the money available for its eiecut 
had been limited to nine million ($9,000,000) 
dollars, the laborers employed would have 
received an average of not more than two 
cents per day in money of the same pur- 
chasing power as the coin of the present 
era. In other words, the eflect of the dis- 
coveries of new methods, tools and laws of 
force has been to raise the wages of labor 
more than a hundred fold in the interval 
which has elapsed since the Pyramids were 
built. I shall not weaken the suggestive 
force of this statement by any comments 
upon the astounding evidence of progress, 
beyond the obvious corollary that such a 
state of civilization as gave birth to the 
Pyramids would now be the signal for uni- 
versal bloodshed, revolution and anarchy. 
I do not underestimate the hardships borne 
by the labor of this century. They are, 
indeed, grievous, and to lighten them is, as 
it should he, the chief concern of states* 
manship. But this comparison proves that 
through forty centuries these hardships have 
been steadily diminished ; that all the 
achievements of science, all the discoveries 
of art, all the inventions of genius, all the 
progress of civilization tend by a higher 
and immutable law to the steady and certain 
amelioration of the condition of society. 
It shows that, notwithstanding the apparent 
growth of great fortunes, due to an era of 
unparalleled development, the distribution ol 
the fruits of labor is approaching from ago 
to age to more equitable condiiious, and 
must, at last reach the plane of absolute 
justice between man aud man. 

But this is not the only lesson to be drawn 
from such a comparison. The Pyramids 
were built by the sacrifices of the living for 
the dead. They served no useful purpose, 
except to make odious to the future genera- 
tions the tyranny which reduces human be- 
ings into beasts of burden. In this age of 
the world such a waste of efl'ort would not 
be tolerated. To day the expenditures of 
communities are directed to useful purposes. 
Except only works designed for defence In 
time of war, the wealth of society is now 
mainly expended in opening channels of 
communication for the free play of com- 

and the communion of the human 
An analysis of tlie distribution of the 
surplus earnings of man after providing 
food, shelter and raiment shows that they 
are chieSy absorbed by railways, canals, 
ships, bridges and telegraphs. In ancient 
es these objects of expenditure were 
rcely known. Our bridge is one of the 
conspicuous examples of this change 
in the social condition ol the world, and of 
the feeling of men. In the Middle Agps 
walled each other out, and the fetters 
of prejudice and tyranny held the energies 
of man in hopeless bondage. To-day men 
and nations seek free intercourse with each 
other, and the whole force of the intellect 
and energy of tho world is expended in 
breaking down tho barriers established by 
nature, or created by man, to the solidarity 
of the human race. 


Why not ut once forego the shapeless lurawl 

And write Xopltait, aud uot to intuit your frieads. 
" What ! ho, my neighbor I bero I your ' A ulogroi' li 
" There 'tis. The devil, sir, why do you laagh f " 
"Lnughf No; I'm crying, sir; for God's sake Inn 

Shaped— nameless, meaningless— so 
A half-spelled grouping of unmeaui 

"Write fur all rendtngi— nc 
MalU to the druggist ooly a 

[htly « 

. spell a 

Vour work aright is really not begun 
Until a doceot page you can indite, 

An Appeal to the Business 
Educators oi America. 

The Auuual Meeting of the Business 
Educators' Asaociatton of America, which 
occurs in the City of Washington, D. C, 
the second week in July, promises to be 
one of the largest and most profitable Con- 
ventions of the kind ever held. I most 
earnestly appeal to all teachers of book- 
keeping and all penmen to he in attendance 
aud share the advantages aud pleasures of 
the occasion, aud, above all, to aid in elevat- 
ing the standard of our professional work 
to the highest point of elEciency. We have 
made a proud record by our individual 
efforts, unaided by endowments and the ac- 
cessories that have coutributed so much to 
the success of other educational institutions. 
Greater advances are yet possible, and these 
must come largely from the united eflorls 
of the whole profession. Let us, then, 
counsel together, and insure that no back - 
wark steps be taken. 

A. D. Wilt- 
President of the Association, 
Dayton, Ohio. 




Over Thirty Years a Business 

!Jv C. K. Carhart. 
3/y dear Ames: 

I'mfrssor Folaoin hands me your letter, 
asking for a brief sketch of his life-work, 
with tho remark that, likb friend Pnckard, 
ID tho }rarch number of the JO0BNAL, " }ie 
is very modest," ami wishes ine to write 
yoti whiit I know in regard to this matter. 
For many years I have bireii associated 
with Mr. Folsoni, either as a teacher in his 
employ, or as partner in business; during 
other years I have enjoyed with him tho 
pleasure of frequent intercourse and iuter- 
ehangc of thought ; and have listened many 
times to the story of his life, as connected 
with the early days of business educators 
and penmen. 

Mr. Folsom was one of tho pioneers in 
buBincss education, and, like Father Spencer, 
from whom Mr. F. acquired the beautiful 
hand he still writes, was an enthusiastic and 
sueeessful teacher of penmanship. 

E. (1. Folsom was horn in tho township 
..( Wayne, Ashtabula Co., 0., May J, 1821. 
His ratlicr was a farmer, and until the age 
■ if siMccii y.iiiuj,' Folsmn worked upon the 
fariii. Almiil tlile. time the family romoved 
to Young.siuwn, th.-u a sumll village; soon 
Hfter this tho fanner-boy, like many others 
of latter years, began to grow ambitious, 
and, having a taste for the beautiful, as 
well as the pratiticul, ho resolved to take 
lessons iu ponmausliip (.f the celebrated 
P. R. Spencer, whoso fame was then being 
widely heralded. 

Tliost.' wrn; not tho days of steam and 
eltflricity, or of tho "fast mail"; and so 
we -MH- liiiii starling out, on foot, for Jefl'cr- 
soii— a distance of nearly fifty miles — where 
P. K. .Spcinti ua.s then teaching a "writ- 
iug-cliiss." Oiw of the members of this 
class is now liis higlily- esteemed friend— 
whom we all delight to honor as a true 
man, a successful toaohor, and tho ox- 
president of the Business Educators' Asso- 
ciatiou — R. C. Spencer, tlie oldest sou of 
the great penman. Hero, together, from 
the author of that beautiful system which 
has made Americans the beat writers on 
the face of the globe, two of our now. lead- 
ing .-dncators took their first lessrms in 

of Dr. Henrv Ev.rett. It > 



Anil \ 


, lias bo 

di. u IS io-.ia_v lu luauy iv yoimg man, the 
"key-nnti-" of his &uef.<»8. Indeed, by the 
aid of his beautiful writing, and the faculty 
he possessed of imparling it to others, Mr. 
Folsom paid his way through college. 

At the ago of twenty, after ha\ing taught 
pennuiuship at Xew Lisbon and otlier 
places, and wishing to go to Cleveland, bo 
solicited the privilege of riding there, on 
liorsuback, from a dealer in hoi-ses, who 
was taking a few out there for sale. Cleve- 
land was finally reached, and that, too, 
mth an empty pocket. However, meeting 
an" old friend (the Rev. Mr. Ely) upon the 
street, Mr. Folsom borrowed of him the 
sum of twenty-five cents; this was in- 
vested in pen, ink, and paper, and soon 
yielded ample returns. 

At the earnest solicitation of friends, Mr. 
Folsom was, the following spring, urged to 
go to Oberlin, to begin a couree of study. 
Firet canio two years of hard work in the 
prejiaratory department; then four yeare in 
college; and all this time he paid "bis way 
by teaching penuiauship during vacations, 
mostly at Cleveland and Detroit. He grad- 
uated from Oberiiu in 1847, when Asa 
Mahau was pi-esideut, and received the de- 
gree of A.B. Ho also took the degree of 
A.M., in 1854, when Charlea G. Finney 
was president of the collegi-. 

Immediately after his graduation at Oher- 
lin_, Mr. F<dsom was solicited by the super- 
intendent of Public Instruction to take 
charge of the penmanship department in 
the Cleveland public schools. He did so ; 
in the meantime debating what profession 
he should follow. His inclinations led him 
to take up, fim, the study of theology 
under the celebrated C. G. Finney; and, 
afterward, the study of medicine, in the of- 

time, while teaching in the public schools 
and studying medicine, that he opened rooms 
in the old "Herald Building" on Bank 
Street, for the purpose of teaching book- 
keeping and penmanship. This was in 
I85I. His efforts met with success, and 
soon the work grew into a " business 
school," and was incorporated under the 
name of " Folsom's Mercantile College"— 
tfii Jirst 0/ the kind, with few exceptions, 
in the United States. Its success and rapid 
growth soon made it necessary to procure 
other and better rooms. These were found, 
and the college moved, first, to "Miller's 
Block," and afterward, to " Rouse's," on 
the corner of Superior Street and the " Pub- 
lic Square." While the school was in the 
former place, Mr. Bacon, of Cincinnati, 
came into temporary ownership, but shortly 
disposed of it to Mr. E. P. Goodnough, 
who, in turn, soon sold it back to the 
original owner and founder. 

It was during this time that Messrs. H. 
D. Strattou and H. B. Bryant, who after- 
wards established the celebrated "Inter- 
national Chain of Business Colleges," en- 
tered upon their course of business studies 
at the old " Folsom's Mercantile College." 
After completing tlieir studies, Bryant & 
Stratton also opened, in Cleveland, the first 
link in the great chain of colleges. Tliose 

disposed nf his interests lu all these schools, 
and has ever, since devoted his energies 
exclusively to the Albany College. 

During over thirty years Mr. Folsom has 
devoted himself steadily to the cause of 
business education ; liis aim seems to have 
been more to jdace this branch of study 
upon an enduring basis than to acquire 
wealth. It is scarcely necessary to say that 
his ideas are being realized; for if there is 
any branch of education which U destined to 
supersede all others, both in practical ap- 
plication and popular favor, it is that of 
business education. 

In those earlier days Professor Folsom, in 
common witli the few schools then in ex- 
istence, taught only three branches, viz., 
penmanship, book-keeping and arithmetic. 
With the exception of John Gundry, of 
Cincinnati, 0-, he was the first to introduce 
commercial law into the curriculum of busi- 
ness studies. Mr. Folsom certainly was 
tJu first to add Political Economy and 
Business Ethics. Ho was also among tlio 
first, if not the first, iu the Association to 
introduce the modern system of " Actual 
Practice" into the course of instruction. 
Ho also rejoices in the honor of haviug 
been the first President of the meeting of 
the Eastern and Western divisions of the 
"International College Association," at 
Chicago; on which occasion. President 

believed, but taught tho fact, that bn.ik- 
kceping or accounting is as mueh a science, 
and is based as surely upon principle and 
law, as is that of Mathematicj*. He was 
the first to base this science upon the 
foundation of value, as illustrated by the 
principles of Political Economy, and em- 
bodied his ideas in his " Logic of Aceoonta," 
published in 1873, by A. S. Barnes & Co. 
This work is now undergoing, at his bands, 
an important revision. 

Although over thirty years have come 
and gone, the veteran teacher is still at bis 
post, and imparts his much loved science 
with all the vigor of younger days, and 
certainly with riper knowledge and es- 

AS he glances back over the past, what 
memories must sometimes throng the 
chambers of his mind ! How the days and 
companions of old must flash before him. 
There is Spencer, father and sons; there is 
Lusk, Rice, Bryant, Stratton, Felton, Pack- 
ard, and a bust of others, all the com- 
panions of other days. Many gone over 
the river of Time; a few, still lingering, toil- 
ing lovingly on, in the noble work of mak- 
ing men and women self-sustaining, and of 
])hicing business education upon a founda- 
tion tliat shall stand as impregnable as the 
everlasting bills. 

i grand old days: P. R. Spencer and 
, as teacliors for Bryant &. Stratton, in 
one college— Folsom in another; both us- 
ing their skill as penmen to the best advan- 
tage, and both making it the great "war- 
cry." Finally, after a long, sharp, yet 
friendly, contest, the two colleges consoli- 
dated under the name of the "Bryant, 
Folsom, Stratton &. Felton Business Col- 

In 1862 Mr. Folsom sold his interest in 
the Cleveland College, with a view of go- 
ing to San Francisco and starting a similar 
school ; but, instead, came to ,\lbauy, N. Y., 
where he has been actively employed ever 
since in his chosen profession: part of the 
time, as partner, with Bryant & Stratton, 
iu the Albany Business College ; part as 
sole proprietor ; and latteriy ( since 1878 ) 
as partner «ith the writer. 

Mr. Folsom took possession of the Al- 
bany Business College ( which bad previ- 
ously been opened, by Mr. S. S. Packard, 
as the " fourth link in the chain") in 1862, 
and iu the Fall of 186:t he established a 
school in Troy, N. Y-, which be conducted 
for several years in connection with the Al- 
bany College; he finaUy sold the Troy 
school to J. R. CanieU. During that time 
he also became connected with Bryant & 

Stratton in other colleges : at Poughkeep- .. 

sie, Utica, and Ogdensburgh. FinaUy he i beautiful 

Garfield 1 

As a penman, the idea of using the Me- 
tronome in writing first originated with him, 
and was put to practical use in the old 
" Cleveland College." 

Professor Folsom has been no^ only an 
euthusiastic and successful teacher of busi- 
ness men, but also of business teachers 
Among'his old students wore : Gray, of the 
Portland (Me.) College; J. R. CarneU, of 
the Troy (N. Y.) College; J. E. Soulo, 
President of "Soule's Philadelphia Col- 
lege"; Wm. H. Clark and J. T. Calkins, 
who both, at different periods, ran the 
Brooklyn College, and A. J. Corbin, for 
many years a successful teacher; also W. 
R. Kimberly, who in early days ran the 
Philadelphia College, being succeeded by 
J. E. Soule. Among the students of latter 
years was J. A.'McCall, the present Super- 
intendent of the State Insurance Depart- 
ment, who is a graduate of the Albany Col- 
lege. We could mention a host of others 
did time and space permit. 

As an author, Professor Folsom is widely 
known. The new system of education de- 
manded new text-books ; his was not the 
mind to rest contentedly at ease, for he saw, 
in his chosen field of labor, the dawning of a 
that is as useful as it is true, aud as 
practical. He not only 

Curiosities of the Dead-Letter ^ 

One of the rrjoins of the Post-office De- 
partment building has recently been trans- 
formed into a museum for the exhibition of 
curiosities which have accumulated in the 
Dead-Letter Office. The articles exhibited 
number several thousands, and embrace 
everything imaginable, from a postage- 
stamp of tho Confederate StJites to snakes 
aud horned toads. Among the relics is a 
record of all the valuable letters received 
during 1: ? early days of the postal service 
in the c ; onies of North America. This 
record ;'.. ia the handwriting of Benjamin 
FrankliL^ : nd shows that during a period of 
eleven y: :-s only 365 letters containing 
valuables were sent to the Dead-Letter 
Ofifice. The records of the Department 
to-day exhibit at a glauce the enormous 
difference between the postal service of the 
present and of the early days of the coun- 
try's history. Tho number of letters re- 
ceived at the Dead-Letter Office during the 
last year was 4,207,496, or more than 13, 
600 each working day. Of this vast num- 
ber nearly 20,000 contained money to tho 
aggregate value of upward of $44.000 ; 25,- 
000 contained cheeks, drafts, money-orders' 
and other papers to the tot*,l value of about 
$2,000,000; while 52,000 had inolosures 
of postage - stamps. This vast amount of 
mail matter was sent to tho Dead-Letter 
Office because three-fourthe of the addresses 
could not be found ; one-eighth were ad- 
dressed to guests in hotels who had departed 
without leaving addresses; nearly 300,000 
were insufficiently prepaid, and as many 
more were either erroneously or i 
addressed. Eleven thousand bore 
scription whatever. 

Wherever practicable letters are for- 
warded to the parties addressed, if they can 
be reached in any manner. If they contain 
valuables, and the sender is kno^vn, they are 
returned; otherwise tho valuables are sold 
and the proceeds deposited in the United 
States Treasury. If letter- writers would 
exercise an ordinary amount of care, the 
majority of the work of the Dead-Letter 
Division would be dispensed with, and all 
the trouble and auuoyanco of losses by 
mail would be avoided. But the business 
of this branch of the Post-office Depart- 
1 year to year. — Selected. 

If you want the best guide ever published 
for home inutruotion in practical writing 
send *1 for the " Standard Practical Pen- 
manship Package," prepared by the Spen- 
e«rian Authors for the Pbnuan's Abt 


n properly 
uo super- 


l',ibli«hed Month] 5- at »1 per Yea 


glDffla iM-rtion. 30 wnU pflr line nonpwril. 
laoD PoS)' kSm llSob II7.V0 


W" ho[w to fender the JOUKMAI. BafficieiiUy Interert- 

rat» sod Hgvnta ; yet. knowing ibal ihe laborer Is worthy 

V. ', ' " ' 'I'.r 8125. a cipy 

Flourished Eagle 2Jx32. 

Bounding Stiig 2it3S. 

Lord's Pwyer. .....19x24. 

Qarfleld Memorial 19x24. 

KiunilyReoord 16x22. 


Lii i..t K. ° 


oXsrd's Gems 








■; too 150 













as poMible on 
ei or by RegU 


305 Broadway, New York. 





r publicutioiu 



■ Notlcs will b« given by postal-card to subscriber* ai 
Ui» ex]ilmtion of their sutMoriptlonB, at whiob time tht 
pa|H>r will, in till riuaa, be stopped until the eubsoriplioi 

New York, Juke, 1883. 

Why Efforts to Forge or Simu- 
late Handwriting are 

ll is iindovihtedly true that no two wrilers 
ever lived who wrote, lu all respects, alike. 
However luunh alike two writings may ap- 
pear to the tmfamiliar ohserver, there will 
always he a multitude of characteristic 
diflVreuces apparent to the wrilers them- 
selves, aud discoverable by an expert ex- 
aminer. In the writing of every adult there 
are countless unconscious peculiarities 
formed and repeated by the sheer force of 
habit, aud which c^iunot be at once and at 
will abandoned or avoided. 

Writing being a complicated mechanical 
struoiure, acijuired at first by study aud 
practice, and subsequently modified and 
individualized by long practice, presents a 
comhiuation of the habit of thought and 
meclmnical effort, more complex and full of 
habitual detail than any other human ac- 

The haDdvrriling of different individuals 
differs ia appearance and ohajaoterifltica aa 

widely a£ does the physiognomy, style of 
dress and general personal appearance of 
the writers, aud the writiogs are as certainly 
distiognishable 5'om each other aa are the 

It sometimes happens that in general ap- 
pearance different handwritings, as do differ- 
ent persons, have a marked resemblance to 
each other, iu which case mistaken identity 
is liable j in the handwriting, except by 
persons familiar with it or those who make 
a careful scienli6c examination, and of the 
persons except by intimate acquaintances. 
In cases where persons of nearly equal skill 
have learned to write by practicing from 
the same copies, and who have not subse- 
quently changed their hands by practicing 
under widely different circumstances, there 
may not be the very marked distinguishing 
characteristics or personality common to 

It is the peculiar eccentricities of habit in 
writing as it is the figure, dress, etc., in 
persons which leadily and certainly deter- 
mine their identity. A person of medium 
size, having regular features, without ex- 
centricily of habit or dress, makes no marked 
impression upon the observer, and is not 
readily identified, while a dwarf, cripple, 
giant, or person exceptional in drees or 
peculiar in habit, challenges attention, aud 
is recognized on casual acquaintance or even 
at sight. So, difterent writings consisting 
of regularly formed letters combined and 
shaded according to some standard system, 
are liable to have many coincidences of form 
and apparent habit, which renders their 
identity, when questioned, more or lees 
difficult, and sometimes to the superficial 
observer uncertain. 

Persons are never so identical in form, 
features, dress, habit, etc., as to be mistaken 
by intimate acquaintances, and usually 
where a strong personal resemblance is ap- 
parent to strangers, it ceases to be so upon 
a more intimate acquaintance. So, two 
different handwritings of nearly equal size, 
uniform slope, shade, etc., may as a whole, 
or in its pictorial efiect, present to the eye 
of a novice or casual observer much the 
same appearance, while to one familiar with 
them or to an expert examiner they would 
be without characteristic resemblance. 

Of a vast proportion of a writer's pecu- 
liarities he is himself unconscious, such as 
initial and terminal lines, forms of letters, 
their relative proportions, connections, turns, 
angles, spacing, slope shading, {in place and 
degree), crosses, dots, orthography, punctua- 
tion, etc., etc. These peculiarities being 
habitual, and mainly unknown, cannot he 
successfully avoided through any extended 
piece of writing. No writer can avoid that 
of which he is not conscious, nor' can any 
copyist take cognizance of and successfully 
reproduce these multitudinous habitual 
peculiarities, and at the same time avoid 
his own habit. A writer may with the ut- 
most ease, entirely change tlie general ap- 
pearance of his writing ; this may he done 
by a chq^ge of slope, size, or by using a 
widely different pen, yet in spite of all effort 
his unconscious writing habit will remain 
and be perceptible in all the details of his 
writing ; such an effort to disguise one's 
writing could be scarcely more successful 
than would be a disguise of a person to 
avoid recognition. 

Extra Copies oi the "Journal" 

will be sent firee to teachers and others who 
desire to make an effort to secure a club of 

Remember, you can get the Jodbnal 
one year, and a 7S-ceDt book free, for $1 j 
or a $1 book and the Journal for $1.25. 
Do your friends a favor by telling them. 

The Convention. 

In another column will be found an au- 
Donncement of the Executive Committee of 
the Fifth Annual Convention of the Busi- 
ness Educators' and Penmen's Association. 
From the numerous announcements received 
of intentioBS to be present, we are confident 
that there will be the largest and most 
popular Convention ever held by the As- 
sociation, and what bids fair to be a new 
and exceptional, not to say interesting, fea- 
ture, is the avowed intention of a large pro- 
portion of the members to go attended by 
their wives and daughters. This is a grand 
idea. We trust that all who are thus equipped 
will make a visible manifestation of the 
same at Washington; and those who are 
not, might find it a favorable occasion for 
mingling honeymoon and business. Let it 
be uuderstood, that to be well received, 
every member must be attended by one or 
more of the fair sex. All communications 
respecting the Convention should be ad- 
dressed to H. C Spencer, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, Washington, D. C. 

Dude Writing vs. Good Writing. 
Good writing, it is conceded, must bo 
legible, and he executed with freedom and 
dispatch. These eseeniial features of prac- 
tical writing are promoted best by making 
the letters smooth, uniform, simple and eym- 

A chirographic "dude," even though in 
his school-days he may have been taught a 
proper educational standard of writing, will 
manifest his dudeism by affecting great 
peculiarity in using his pen, and produce 
very eccentric, aud, perhaps, ugly forms as 
an affectation of superior personality. The 
dude prefers English to American penman- 
ship, and says it can be laid on with an 
ev-ah-so-rouch coarser pen. Educators and 
others who can write well yet indulge in 
the vice of writing badly, thinking such 
writing is respectable business-writing, are 
guilty of a great error, and are justly 
amenable to the charge of dudeimm. The 
better phase of business penmanship is its 
approximation to a practical edacational 
standard. To violate the law of legibility 
for fear of being accused of an attempt at 
'' high art," or of being pedantic, does not 
give one a shade of title to being known as 
a business-writer. The use of eccentric, 
unusual forms is not business-writing. To 
fold rough lines into irregular letters, want- 
ing in proportion aud uniformity, gives the 
fruition of "low art"; shows an uncouth 
touch ; and in many instances indicate that 
the mental and physical habits of the writer 
need radical and complete reformation. 


The stock of Ames's Coinpendiums is ex- 
hausted — ^no more can be mailed. A revised 
and greatly improved edition is now in 
course of preparation, and will be an- 
nounced when ready. 

Penmanship Examination. 

The superintendent of public schools, 
Washington, D. C, Hon. J. Ormond Wil- 
son, attaches due importance to penman- 
ship. He requires his teachers to become 
familiar with the subject ; to instruct sys- 
tematically, and to be capable of writing 
model letters on the blackboard, for iUus- 

The Hand - hook ( Id paper ) is now 
offered free as a premium to every peraon 
remitting $1 for one year's subscription to 
the Journal. Or, handsomely hound in 
oloth, for 25 cents additioD&L 

At the recent examination of the Wash- 
ington Normal School, the following com- 
prehensive questions on penmanship were 
given, and the candidates for graduation 
required to write out the answers ; 

let. Describe the proper manner of st/(m^ 
at the desk and placing the paper or book 
and holding the pen. 

2d. Name and describe the movements of 
arm and hand employed in writing. 

yd. Write, oD scales of lines and spaces, 
the seven princ^lea ; the short letters ; the 

semi-exUnded Utters ; the extended or looped 
letters : the capital letters classified ; the 
figures ; and make all conform to the 6«aleB. 

4lh. What is the rule for spacing the let- 
ters in words, for spacing words, for spacing 
sentences t Illustrate each rule. 

5th. Write systematically, with free 
movement, holdiog the pen properly, the 
following : 

" The purposes of commerce, of epistolary 
correepondence, of indentures and varying 
records, and the necessity of putting down 
our thoughts as they occur aud before they 
are forgotten, for review and improvement 
in securing maturity of mind, must ever 
make the art of writing one of inestimable 
value to mankind." 

Ambidextrous Writing. 

In the September issue of the Jour- 
nal a few hints were given, in Mr. Spen- 
cer's lesson, respecting ambidextrous writ- 
ing. Since theu some of the leading private 
schools of New York City have tested the 
method, and there are uow several hundred 
boys in those scliools who can write with 
both liands. About one hundred of them, 
principally the sons of hankers, merchants, 
railroad magnates, professional, and lii«rary 
men, have sent the Journal specimens of 
their efforts in left and right handwriting. 
Some of the specimens are very meritorious, 
considering the average a^e of the students, 
which is only twelve and one- half years. 
Among the best specimen sexamined should 
be mentioned those of A. Dryer, H. G. 
Lapham, W. Lipman, C. Vom Dorp, L. J. 
Goetter, A. J. Ottenheimer, U. Glazier, 
H. Davidson, C. L. Schurz, R. Jacoby, J. 
Friedlander, G. Sidenberg, A. T. Kemp, 
E. Jacoby, P. R. Bonner, J. W«issman, 
and H. Gould. 

It is noticeable that the style of writing 
in the specimens examined, written with 
the left-hand, is identical with that produced 
with the right-hand, showing only the 
difference of experience in muscular train- 

Teaching Business-writing. 

In another column will be found an article 
bearing upon this subject from that veteran 
penman and teacher, C- C. Cochran, pro- 
fessor of penmanship aud book-keepiug in 
the Pittsburgh (Pa,) High School. Prof 
C, in a letter, says, " With the position as- 
sumed by you in the May issue of the 
Journal, respecting teaching business- 
writing, I am in full accord." So (our 
position rightly understood) will be every 
really capable teacher of practical writing. 

Prof. Cochran names a long list of teach- 
ers whom he says have made numerous 
good business vpriters. With him we agree. 
Every really skillful teacher of writing has 
and is making good business- writers; that 
is, they are teaching the elements of good 
writing, good form, graceful combinations, 
and a free and rapid movement. These qual- 
ities, when introduced into business, polished 
and fixed by business practice and habit, 
make what is known as good business- 
writing. It becomes less systematic, and 
lacks the formality of professional or school- 
room writing. It takes on a personality in 
harmony with the character and circum- 
stances of each writer. The writing of nu 
two of all the thousands of businees-writers 
being alike, such writing while it has ati 
ease and a certain elegance which school- 
room writing does not have from its lack 
of precision and system, is not suited to he 
copied or imitated, since the varying inaccu- 
racies and personalities would lead the learn- 
er to such a vacillation in his practice as to 
confuse and paralyze his efforts. Hence we 
say, that what is known to the commercial 
world as " business-writing " is unteacha- 
ble ; while, as a fact, that system of instruc- 
tion and practice adopted by all good teachers 
of writing, and especially in the well con- 
ducted business colleges, has made, and is 
making ( united with husine-ss practice ) the 
multitudes of superior business- writers, fur 
which the Americans, as a raoe, are noted. 

The King Club 
For this mouth oumbere twenty-jive, and is 
Bent by J. F. Whiileather, peonoan at Fort 
Wayne (led.) College. The Qaeen Clob 
DQinbcre Mvenieai, and ta sent by S. H. 
Strite, peuman at the Southern Iowa Nor- 
mal School, Bloomfield, Iowa. The third 
clab in size Dnmbers sixtttn, aod is sent by 
J. H. Bryant, of the Spencerian BusineM 
College, Cleveland, Ohio. Clubs have been 
□umerous during the post month, hot not 
00 large aa during the earlier months of the 
year. To the many earnest friends of the 
JOUBNAL, and who are doing so much to 
e ii3 circulation, we extend our thanks. 

Book-keeper's Institutes. 

In the early part of last year a movement 
was put on foot to organize, in New York 
city, an association of book-keepers and 
accouulantfi. After holding a few prelim- 
inary meetings Ja the parlors of the Metro- 
politan hutel, tbo organization was per- 
fected; officers were elected, and the society 
soon became incorporated under the title of 
"The Institute of Accountants and Book- 
keepers of the City of New York." The 
association secured rooms at 20 Warren 
Street, and fitted them up in band- 
some style; there the meetings have 
since been held. The objects of the 
Institute may be explained as three- 
fold; rather it may be said that the 
society has three chief, or primary, 
objects in view, which are: first, the 
elevation of tlie profession and the 
improvement of its members, which 
are to be accomplished through lec- 
tures, the reading of Papers, and dis- 
cussion of subjects pertinent to their 
professional duties ; second, the estab- 
lishment of a fund for the benefit of 
the families of deceased members, this 
to be attained on a basis of uniform 
aasessmeuts; third, the aiding of its 
members, as occasion may arise, in 
securing, through co-operation wiih 
merchants, officials of corporations, 
and business men generally, positions 
for those oat of employment. 

There is, of course, through such 
an organization, much to be accom- 
plished which is not brought to view 
in these principal elements of design, 
but which will prove of service and 
value not only to those following the 
profession of book-keeper or account- 
ant, but will redound to thu use and 
advantage of the bu^siness coinumnity 
where the society is located. This 
Institute is composed chiefly of per- 
sons holding positions of trust and 
responsibility in many of New York's 
most extensive and popular mer- 
cantile concerns and corporations, and 
the plan of organization is such that only 
those in good standing and of acknowl- 
edged capability are enabled to become 
members. The general officers of the 
Institute are President, Edward C. Cockey ; 
Vice-president, Albert 0. Field; Secretary, 
Thomas B. Conant; Financial Secretary, 
Joseph Kodgera; Treasitrer, A. Garrison. 
These gentlemen were elected when the 
Institute was organized last year, and were 
re-elected at the Annual Meeting in March. 
An organization of the same character 
has been recently formed in Chicago, and 
adopted, as its name, '* The Institute of 
Accountants and Book-keepers of the City 
of Chicago." It starts ofl' with a good 
membersliip, and from the large number 
of applications for membership reported to 
have been received its succes 
assured. We understand ib; 
other of the large cities 
taken looking to the foru 
and we shall take pleas 
readers fully advised as 
done in this direction. 

Sample copies of the JotJRNAL i 
receipt of_ price, 10 cents. 

"It Must Have Been a Special 

Is a common observation when an ua- 
usoal degree of skill is displayed in the use 
of the pen. This idea is not only fallacious, 
but is exceedingly pernicious, as regards the 
acquisition of good writing, inasmuch as it 
tends to discourage pupils who write badly 
by leading them to believe that, not having 
" the gift " tbey are debarred from becoming 

Good writing is no more a gift than is 
good reading, spelling, grammar or any 
other attainment, and in the same way it is, 
and can be acquired, viz., by patient and 
studious effort. 

Writing is just ae 
study and thought as 
education. Study mu 
with practice. The ■ 
of writing 

much a subject for 
any other branch of 
t, however, be united 

must be learned by 
study, while practice must give the manual 
dexterity for its easy and graceful execution. 
Many persons fail lo become good writers 
from not properly uniting study and prac- 
tice. Careful study with too little practice 
will give writing comparatively accurate in 
its form and manner of construction, hut 
labored, stifi'and awkward in its execution; 

known and appreciated than hitherto, and 
tend to somewhat enhance the value of our 
diplomas (aw&rded by bim) in the estima- 
tion of tbe fortunate possessore. 

Ladies at Banquets. 

The graduates of Packard's New York 
Business College have lately organized an 
Alninni Association, and on the evening of 
June 2d, the Association tendered Mr. 
Packard a complimentary dinner at Del- 
monico's banquet hall, an unusual and 
interesting feature of which was tbe pres- 
ence of many ladies. We copy the follow- 
ing from Truth's report of the occasion : 

The Alumni of the celebrated Packard 
Business College at their dinner to its 
founder in Delmonico's last Saturday even- 
ing followed Truth's repeated advice to 
banqueters — " Instead of merely toasting 
woman at the bottom of tbe t^ast list, in- 
vite her to the feast and let ber be beard 

Accordingly, when that humoristic diner, 
Depew, came, be brought Mrs. Depew, and 
near by them were Judge and Mrs. Cowing 
and a score of " unattached " young ladies. 
President Packard and Judge Noah Davis 
made speeches (and Truth regretted that its 
limited space prevented reports), but clever 

C. E. P., Jerico, Vt.— As an interested 
subscriber to the Jouknal I would ask if 

there could not be so 
given in the JouRN 
recent subscriber or be wo 
already two courses of lesson 
have been given, and it is < 
begin the third course wb 
course of letter- writing ends. 

sons in fiourisbing 
^ns— Mr. P. is a 
would know that 

intention to 
the present 

J. F. Stublefield, penman a 
nercial College, Hamilton, Oh 

itals skillfully \ 
the wbolearm i 

of skill. 

lio Com- 

It to learn to make the cap- 
th the muscular than with 
ovementt 2d. Which one 
certain, supposing an equal 
i.e., with regard to form, 

icquired in each ? ad. Is it c 
majority of our best 


wbolearm -movement for making the capi- 
tals in card and copy writing, etc., while 
they advise their students to use tbe mus- 
cularf Ans. 1st. No. Anyone will ac- 
quire tbe power to make good capi- 
tals, and writing w itb the muscular- 
iiiovemenf upon the proper scale for 
practical writing with much less 
practice than upon tbe wbolearm. 
Many persons are led to believe that 
they acquire tbe wbolearm- move- 
ment the easiest because tbey can 
thus make large capitals easy, but 
when employing in making t^e let- 
ters upon the ordinary seiiio of writ- 
ing, there will be a great want of 
precision, and the tttort to make 
capitals upon this movement, except 
fur headings, superscriptions, cards, 
• N . (where great license as regards 
M/f and i)recision is permissible), 
li.iiis to scrawly flourished writing, 
wliich is the horror of business men. 
'-1<\. For large capitals the wbolearm; 
I'm letters, size of ordinary writing- 
scale, muscular. 3d. For cards, yes, 
aud properly ; for copies, we think 
nut — and those who do, should not, 

Our Sanctum. 

To many of lb*; readers of tbe JOURNAL our 
" Saiiclum " hsH already become familiar from actual 
vieite; but aa there are niauy tliousands who are 
straugers to ub and our place, except through tbe 
medium of tbe Journal, we have thought that to 

Journal might be pleasing, and, tbevefore. present 
tbe above view of tbe art department and editorial 
olEce, photo-engraved from a pen-and-ink drawing 
by J. H. Barlow. 

W. C. H., Lancaster, Pa. - 
you know of any specific for 
vousness in writing? At timt 
write well; at others, misers 
Ans.— Of cour 
but be a seriouf 
writing, but it 





while, upon tbe other hand, mucb practice 
with little study imparts a more easy 
and flowing style, but with mucb less ac- 
curacy as regards the forms of the letters 
and general proportion and construction of 
the writing, which will commonly have a 
loose and sprawly appearance. 

How Mr. Monteith got His 

Nearly one year since wo received, from 
H. W. Monteith, a teacher at Unionville, 
Conn., an order to send, to his address, a 
lot of diplomas — he promising to remit for 
same by return of mail. We sent the di- 
plomas as per his order, with bill. We 
waited a long time, and no response ; and 
four communications relative to the matter 
since addressed to bim remain unanswered. 
A teacher so well up in the practice of 
economy, and so well grounded in tbe 
moral ethics of business (to say nothing of 
tbe courtesies of correspondence), should be 
known and recognized as a bright and shin- 
ing light among the instructors of the ris- 
ing generation. 

We trust this brief statement of facta— 
entirely unsolicited on bis part — may cause 
the labors of Mr. Monteith to be better 

and eloquent as these were, a succeeding 
speech by Mrs. Croly seemed to be the 

iterlude. In- 
stead of customary jejune speeches about 
fellow who understands 
as Brigham Young did 
nmistakable Jenny Jam 
man. She said, 

I tbe practie 

other things: 

There is no curae 
ignorance. What e 


in work but the curBe of 

upid and ignorant men, but tbe only tbiug 
who admir 

) marry her I 


M. de Les 
seps, when fifteen ladies were invited to lieien 
to the speecbeB, the room was so full of tobacco 
smoke I could scarcely see, and the men did 
not stop Bmoking when tbe ladies enlered the 
room, but exhibited tbe most iDcumpreheuBible 
egoliem I ever saw. 

Now that the ban has been broken, let it 
be seen to hereafter that at all banquets the 
clear, pellucid delight of woman's presence 
shall dispel stupid speeches and expel the 
smoke erpellers until tbe regular toasts 
have been well browned aud buttered and 
the ladies have retired with lovers and 
husbands, leaving the bachelors to their 
accustomed baccbinalianism. 

It is the pen that has garnered and trans- 
mitted the wisdom of tbe sucoeoding ages. 

by the ac(iuiHition 

would be advis- 

devote a short period of time 

3 of exercise - movements be- 

ig to write. 

Subscriber, Newark, N. J. — Will you 

present, in tbe Journal, rhe writing staff', 

with explanationsl Ans. — See Spencer's 

lesson in this Issue. 

The New York State Teachers' Associa- 
tion will be held at Lake George, on July 
5th, fith and 7tb. The National Associa- 
tion is held at Saratoga Springs, July 9lb, 
10th and 1 1th, and the American Institute 
at Fftbyan's, July 11th, 12tb and i;ith. Ex- 
cursion tickets and reduced hotel rates make 
it easy for those meaning to attend either of 
the latter, to go first to the State Associa- 
tion and spend Sunday at Lake George. 

How to Remit Money. 

The best and safest way is by Post-office 
Order, or a bank draft, on New York ; next, 
by registered letter. For fractional parts of 
a dollar, send postage -stamps. Do not send 
personal checks, especially for small sums , 
nor Canadian postage -stamps, 

' A young man whose girl's name was 
Susan, said that when he left the world he 
wanted to do so by suey'a ride. 

Business-writers vs. Systematic 
Bt C. C. Cochbas. 
The toule between bonneM and sjete- 
tnatic writers in the columoe of tbe Jour- 
KAL ill »o amusiDg to me that I am tempted 
to eay aoinetbiDg ud tbe subject, at the risk 
of being voted an old fogy by both sides. 
I have, as you know, been a wrilicg-master, 
more or less, for over a quarter of a century. 
I have passed through all Ptagesof the fever 
of BD eotbusiastic penman. I have bad tbe 
measles, whooping coogb, scarlet fever, and 
love sickness. Thank my lucky star, I 
have passed through tbezn all safely and 
still exist. Once upon a time my scratches 
were in deinaod, and numerous slips of 
" BusiDess-l'enmanpbip " were sent broad- 
cast over the country, to inveigle uneopbis- 
licated youths into business colleges — Duff, 
EMStman, Robner, kept iiie busy for a de- 
cade or more. From these I received no 
personal honor or credit, save by the veteran 
founder of business colleges, the late Peter 
Duff, of Pitteburgb, Pa. Kober, of St. 
Louis, and Eastman, of Poughkeepsie, each 
had penmen who sent out theepread eagles, 
but tbey sent to Pittsburgh for the business- 
writing, and could not well have tbe name 
attached, as tbe writer was not at the time 
a teacher in these institutions. 

So you see, Mr. Editor, that away back 
in tbe 1860*8, this same topic was troubling 
mercantile colleges. The managers of these 
institutions were not satisfied with the busi- 
neBB-penmansbip of their teachers. The 
charge was, at that time, that ornamental 
penmen of those days could not " do^' buei- 
naga-writing, and tbe question arose, "How 
can tbey teach that which tbey cannot dot" 
The charge was true, that these penmen 
who sent out the spread eagles, bounding 
stags, etc., could not do business-writing; 
that is, rapid, uniform, legible writing, at a 
speed of thirty or forty words 'per minute. 
But what of their ability to write a model 
copy, analyze it, and present it clearly to 
the learner, with the proper position, move- 
ment, etc., which are the necessary founda- 
tion for rapid business- writing t I cannot 
speak from personal knowledge as to the 
St. Louis penman, but I boldly assert witb- 
ont fear of successful contradiction that the 
Poughkeepsie penman has made some of 
the most beautiful, systematic and orna- 
UQental writers, as well as unsurpassed busi- 
ness-writers, in America— I may safely say, 
in the worid. If I am not mistaken, the 
Pliokingers, Mageea and a host of other 
unexcelled penmen received their instruction 
principally from Geo. F. Davis, of Pough- 
keepsie, and I can speak from personal 
knowledge that Mr. Davis makes Number 
One business- writers. I believe the same 
may be said of ail well-conducted business 
colleges of to-day. I know that " Billy 
Miller," ot Packard's, and " Billy Duff," of 
Duff's mercantile college do J and I believe 
that all do. Now the proof of a pudding 
is in the eating. 

I beUeve also, that Brother Peirce, who 
pierces the readers of the Jooknal almost 
to death with good things on penmanship ; 
and Brother Michael, who strikes straight 
from the shoulder on " movement," make 
good writers. But I doubt very much, in- 
deed, that they have any " royal road'" to 
success, not traveled by others, or that they 
make any better business- writers or in a 
less time, than the host of others who are 
engaged in the same work. 

I believe all successful teachers in any 
department of education pursue subBtantially 
the same methods. The true principle is to 
supplement theory with a sufficient amount 
of practice to thoroughly master the subject. 
There are two classes of extremists. One 
class claiming that the syuthetical, or that 
of building up on known principles, is the 
correct method; the other class maintain 
that the analytical, or tearing down and 
taking apart, method is tbe best. In other 
wonls, some contend that theory must oome 
first, and others that practice must come 
firat. They forget that these are but two 

parts of the same method, and while war- 
ring with others, tbey are warring with 
themselves. There is, however, a drift in 
favor o( Doing first and Knowing after- 
wards ; but that there must be both theory 
and practice to insure euru;esa, cannot be 

Now these business-penmen, in my judg- 
ment have an extreme notion that practice 
must come first. Well, if they understand 
also, that theory and piactice must go close 
together, they may be successful ; but the 
cart is before tbe horse, and until the ma- 
chine gets well under way, and the horse 
can go backward as well as forward, I 
fear all who make the attempt will get into 
the same dilemma as the business- writing 
teacher (myth) who gave his experience in 
the last number of the Jouhnal. 

But this Paper is already too long to be 
read, and unless it be consigned to the 
waste-basket I shall conclude in another 
article, on TJie More Excellent Way. 

The Washington Meeting. 

My dear Ames : 

The evidence is before nie that the Con- 
vention of the B. E. A. of A. is to be held 
on the day appointed, and that it will be an 
trthy of our workers and their 

Au r JOl K.NAi:. 

business be devoted to methods of instruc- 
tion and management of olass-work in the 
different studies. As to the general drift of 
thought touching the sphere and importance 
of our specialty, there is no chance for dis- 
cussion, and scarcely anything to be said 
that has not already been said in various 
forms, and by men who are not likely to be 
overmatched by any speakers we may have. 
And I think we can safely trust so much of 
this work as may seem necessary to the able 
bands of President Wilt, Commissioner 
Eaton and Comptroller Lawrence. For 
my part, I am free to say that I care more 
to know just what is being done in the class- 
rooms than what anybody may think about 
the sacredness of our calling, or its exact 
position among the educational forces of the 
country. If I may be permitted to say 
anything so ungracious, I would say that 
just here was the weak point in our Con- 
vention of last year. The early -aud-late, 
in- season- and -out- of- season, penmen under- 
stood their business and attended to it, and 
I pity the sluggish brain that departed from 
the Gibson House parlors without knowing 
just how Peirce would take the kink out of 
a lazy boy's elbow, or how Michael would 
put the kinks in his mazy wholearm- move- 
ment to the astonishment and delight of the 
groundhngs, or what Henry Spencer would 

the only thing really taught ii 

■ schools 

I charge nothing for these suggestions ; 
nor do I presume they will be adopted ; but 
I fully believe that some such course would 
enable us to leave the Convention with a 
better taste in our mouths than if tbe ses- 
sion is absorbed in the consideration of per- 
functory essays, however brilliant they 
may be. Very sincerely yours, 

S. S. Packard. 
New York, June llih, 18S3. 

Too Late for this Issue. 

Just as our forms are ready for the press 
comes a somewhat lengthy article ft-oiii our 
friend G.W.BroOTi on " Business-writing." 
It will appear in the July number. 

Another very funuy story has just been 
tdid me. A woll-kuown artist who has 
been cultivating long hair in these short- 
hair days, went to his barber the other day 
to have these hyaciuthino locks trimmed a 
little. The barber went into a long-wiuded 
Butler harangue over his worla. The 
artist, getting tired at last,cried out : " Oh, 
cut it short; cut it short." The barber ap- 

ei§h c^ s ^SMspiZ'Dwioe 

12345 ocAfZ. 61890 

[ represents page S6 of Amet^s •' Hand-book of Artistic Penmanship "—a 3S-page book, gwing all tin principles and many 
ns for Jlouriaking, with nearly thirty standard and artistic alphabets. Mailed free until further, in paper covers 
{25 cents extra in cloth), to every person remitting ^1 for a subscription or renewal for the '-Journal." 
Price of the booh, py mail, in paper, 75 cents ; in cloth, ^1. 

work. There are many reasons why this 
should be the best among the meetings of 
the Association, aud it seems to me a very 
wise provision — showing great shrewdness 
on part of the Executive Committee — that 
the excursion to the home of Washington 
should be made in the middle of the session 
rather than at the end of it. These meet- 
ings should be, in the widest sense, social ; 
and especially this one, which is to be held 
in a southern city during dog days, and 
what could promote pleasant intercourse 
more effectively and delightfully than a day 
at Mt. Vernon. There can be no doubt 
that the "Penman's Section" will get 
work enough in, if Peirce of Keokuk, 
Michael of Delaware, and Hlnman of 
Worcester, are on hand; and the more dig- 
nified and ponderous deliberations of the 

proper " will not sufl'er from a 

ell on the Potomac. 
The Committee ask for " communications 
and suggestions." This is a communication 
and I am going to make in it a suggestion. 
Of course, I don't expect the suggestion to 
be followed, for doubtless tbe programme is 
already laid out— at least outlined ; but here 
it is : I would propose that, for once, in- 
stead of listening to and d^cuseing " Pa- 
pen," the great bulk of the time given to 

do, in any given case. But who knows, 
from anything that was said or done at 
Cincinnati, just how the different teachers 
there assembled would induct a fifteen year 
old boy into the science of double-entry 
book-keeping, or what were the methods 
in vogue in the different schools of teaching 
arithmetic, commercial law, or even that 
most important study, correspondence. If 
I am good at computation, there are just 
twelve hours set apart for the real work of 
the Convention— three hours on Tuesday 
afternoon, six hours on Wednesday, and 
three hours on Friday morning. I have 
willingly left out Thursday evening, which 
the Committee have set aside for " Papers, 
Discussions and Addresses," because Thurs- 
day is to be our recreation day, and after 
weeping over the ice-house at Mt. Vernon, 
I doubt if any of us will feel much like 
pitching into partnership settlements and 
defective trial-balances under the full glare 
of a twelve-light chandelier. It is quite 
possible, too, that twelve hours of real 
work will be better than more, if the time 
is judiciously spent. Let it be spent, not 
in reading and discussing " Papers," but in 
finding out just what is being done in the 
schools. Give the penmen a chance, but 
let U8 not leave the public to conclude that 

plied this iTiipomtivf ejaculation to his work 
in liiiini, ;i!hl not In his word of mouth, and 
the iirriht m.-r tnxn that chair sbom of Ids 

Boston correspondence Philadelphia News. 


Those who wish a good ink should read the 
advertisement of Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor 
& Co., in another column. The inks tbey offer 
have been tried, and proven lo be in no wise 

An Arkansaw boy, ^vriting from c(tllege 
in reply to his fathei-'s letter, said': " So 
you think that I am wastiug my time in 
writing little stories for tho local papers, 
and cite Johnson's saying that the man 
who writes except for money is a fool. I 
shall act upon Dr. Johnson's suggestion 
and write for money. Send me fifty dol- 
lars." — Arkatisaw 2raveler. 

Packard's Key. 

Teachers and siudentB will be glad lo know 
that the Key to tbe Packard Commercial 
Arithmetic is now ready. We call atteniiou 
to the publisher's card in another column. 


* Wirt ,5T,vr a •" ■""'^ 


1 f t 

<4 tM tiuttU] 


tiu^lu.loijfll.^ii imcoinjitomijmi^ ii'iHCJCtiktiw. not onfi|'cf tfiij^i- -3' 
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... l;i» ,,.Tj(»I.W>.Ji. n* rfKrind in tljr Si^ar^- rfrtn^Tnlj ; ^T) ^ tmfn^ md i)irtl,i>aioiI in I;i» Vtft« iw ^.i Bro tnuuims w.> ivUlt fti 

f wf f %>^^G^sw: E;e*id6nt of tlvejgoard or mdemiht\,^sMw^^^ 

32^ ,-}V.'l:iiiu-B <!urni:ni, Uiifim Dor 
at_.,'if lUillfM.11),*jW,rf. Aim J. jl.m, 

^^IfeJ UI,II,„ SU^ai,,,, Srf.-r%,u-., ^ 



(T;^^;-^ ResoLveo 

l^ i^afrvUvof -the dete^ ^^-4 


iTjllill.aami, ^elti' , 

ibBIidjiiwrat, liaaiailMcVD. 
l[OTm,S:"4tittla. Jlul,a/I KmI,,-. 

,^ -I'mriASiinm. i/MrpliJ)l'(f.™ii,fti;AVwi 

"•I "<" Pl">t0-e7igrai>ed from an tngrossed set 0/ reaolmmm executed at Iht office of thf rnurn„l" «■. ^f ■ 1,^ 

order., for all manner .} art«(,c pe,i-u,ork promptly executed at the "Journal" office, SOS Broadway, New York. 


The Stars. 

AsTomfDiKO Vblocity niTic which 

THEY Shoot throuoh Space. 
T)ie movrmcnt of all celestiHl hodics, 
althuugl) varyiDg, it is true, is chnracter- 
tzoA by a general velocity which fitaggcra 
hiimttD tmnginatiun. So cannou-lmli hiut 
a muzzle velocity wnnpwrable t« the spefd 
with which the laziest planet traverses space, 
or with which the corpse of the oldi'sl 
iiKMjn whirls about its centre. There are 
one hundred millions of suns Icdowd to as- 
tronomera— from etara of the first magni- 
tude like Vega or Sirius, compared with 
which our sun in like a mere farthing can- 
dlo beBide the most powerful electric arc, 
down to those tilipntian solar centers which 
lire hardly as l»rge as some planets of our 
celestial family. All of these are rushing 
through the eternities with electrical speed 
— I)ait»irig, cmssingt interchanging places 
in that enormous ragged belt of worlds and 
suns whereof we fonn but one invisible 
grain of matter. 

Sirius is rushing away from us at the 
rate of 22 miles a second ; Alpha Corona at 
the awful speed of 48 miles a second ; five 
lights of the Great Bear (Ursa Major) are 
moving from us into unknown regions ;il 
the speed of 19 miles a second ; while Vegii, 
tliat terrific ocean of white lightning, is 
rushing toward us at tho rate of 44 miles it 
Mocond, and Alpha of tho Great Boar at the 
rate of 4(5. We cannot even imagine such 
motion ! Nevertheless, that astral universe, 
to all save astronomers, seems immutable 
us destiny, changeless as God. 

Why is thist It is because of tho vast 
<listHuce8. The astounding courses of the 
stars are perceived by man only as almost 
imporccptiblc changes of position — deplace- 
mcnts 80 small that they are measured by 
fractions of seconds of the celestial arc. 
Now a second is the 60th part of a minute, 
which is the (iOth part of a degree, which is 
the 3,()00th part of the huge celestial circle. 
( Fliiiiiniiirioii treats this fact very impress- 
ively in his grand Astronomic Populaire. ) 
T\n! sun's disk appears to us to have a 
diameter of 1,8(>0 seconds. Suppose that 
the visible movement of a star should he 
exactly one astronomical second a year, that 
movement would only appear to us as the 
l,8(iOlh |iart of the diameter of the sun's 
visihlc disk. Consequently, it would ho 
1 ,ri(i() yeare heforn that star would soem to 
IIS to have moved even a distance equal to 
tlie diameter of the sun's apparent disk. 

But there are very few stars which can 
rovvel even one second a year; therefore, 
Hince the time of Jesus Christ few have 
visibly nu>ved a distance equal to the visi- 
ble diameter of tho sun. Arcturus is one 
oxcoplion; travelling at tho rate of 5,400,- 
(H)0 miles a day — a veritable leviathan 
.imong auuB— he would still require 800 
yours to change his position oven by tho 
tiny distance equal to the apparent diaiue- 
ler of the moon's disk. His speed is three 
socunds a year ; nevertheless, a fine thread 
would cover with its bn-adth the distiinoe 
traveraed by him iu the field of vision dur- 
ing twelve long months. 

There is one star even swifter — a star 
which has no name and which is marked 
No. 1,830 in Groombridge's catalogue. Its 
doiihicemeitt is seven seconds a year; its 
speed is uoarly^(i/ milium miUs a day ;— 
ilius it requires only S-iS years tu visibly 
change position by 1,860 seconds of the 
juv, or tho distance equal to the apparent 
diameter of the sun's disk. Well might 
Job exclaim: '* Behold the height of the 

We know, however, that the heaven 
which the eye of the first Pharaohs beheld 
was not as the heaven of to- day, and that 
the star-gazers of Babylon saw constella- 
tions now invisible to those Arabs who 
liaunt the banks of tho Euphrates. The 
time will come when men shall behold the 
Southern cross iu these latitudes, although 
it shall have ceased to illuminate the pam- 
pas of South America. The polar star is 
bidding us farewell; while Vega, supposed 
by some to be a sun twelve thousand times 

larger than our nwn,'and infinitely^brighter. 
shall take his place in the northern beavcD. 
Por there shall be new heavens and a new 
earth, and the former things shall not he in 
roiiiemhrance. — New Orleans Times-Demo- 

TuB Girl of the Silver Dollar.— 
The figure stamped on the face of oar Bland 
silver dollar is an exact likeness of Miss 
Anna W. William^, a young lady of Phila- 
delphia. The profile is the work of a young 
Britoo named Morgan. 

When Mr. Morgan came to this country, 
in 1876, to devise a stamp for the coinage of 
oor standard dollar, he at once entered the 
Academy of Pine Arts at Philadelphia, that 
he might more thoroughly Americanize his 
work. Here h<' remained for stveral months, 
then spent several days trying to sketch the 
head of the fanciful Goddess of Liberty. 

Finally, he concluded to abandon the idea 
of making a fanciful design, and, in its stead, 
use the profile of an American girl. Aided 
by a friend, he began searching for one 
whose beauty would entitle her to the honor 
of the position. For weeks he cootinned his 
search without success, until he was intro- 
duced to Miss Williams, then a resident of 
No. 1023, Spriug Garden St., Philadelphia. 

With g^reat ditficulty he persuaded her to 
sit for a sketch. After four trying sittings, 
Mr. Morgan succeeded in obtaining suffi- 
cient tracings to enable him to proceed with 
his work. With what degree of success be 
met may be seen by an examination of the 
silver dollar. As to tho beauty of her 
figure, Mr. Morgan declares her profile to 
be the most perfect he has ever seen either 
in this country or England. For two years 
the identity of the figure was kept a pro- 
found secret and the original picture is still 
cArefully preserved. --Home and School 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all communications not 
obj( cliot-able in their character, nor devoid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs, the colunms 
are equally open to him to say so and tell 

Our Premiums. 

Inasmuch as the Journal will, this 
month, be mailed to many thousand persons 
who have no knowledge of the character or 
style of the premiums, one of which is 
given free to every subscriber, we have 
added four extra pages for the purpose of 
inserting cuts— reduced size— of a portion of 


On receipt of the prices uiinexed, we will for 
wura by n-tiim of mall, or by express as stated 
aixy liiucla named In tbe loUowing Ust. 

By orilt't-iDg from us, patrons win nly not only 
U))uii receiving aeupcrior orUcie, but upon dcArg 
»o promptly. 
Aldus' Compendium ol Om'l Penmanship, ti SO 

Ames' Book of Alphabets l 30 

Bryant's Book-keeping, Counting Houfe Kd 3 SO 
Ames' Copy Slips, for msti-ucUon iind prao- 

tlta In writing, per i^hcct, cuntuinltig4l> 

M sheets, <M full sets of copies) S 00 

100 " (100 full sets of topitatj B 00 

Bristoi Bottrd,i-8heetthlel£,22,\S8ln.,prBht 00 

" 32x28, per slicct, by uxpress. . 80 

i'lxiich B. B.,34iS4, " " Jfl 

Blnck Cord Board. ^xSS, for whito Ink.. .'.'. 50 

Blaek Cards per 100 , ss 

Bluek Curds i)er thousand, by express S 00 

Wtaot'e dr'tng-paper, bo^pr«88, 15x20.$ 15 fl ao 

" '• - 17x22, 80 2 00 

J9xS4, 20 2 20 

ilxSO. 24 8 75 

28x^0, 65 7 00 

" " " aU.W, 1 76 30 00 

Blank Bristol Board Cards, per 100 U 

_," '* ■■ lOOO.byei. 1 60 

WlnsorANewton'BBaprsQD Ind. liik.HUck i ot 
Om&mratal Cordi, li2 dMigna, p«r paok of 25 cards, 

by "nail 2O 

Tbe New Speacerian CompeDdlam, Part 1, 2, 3, \, 

GngroMing Pens for lettering, per dot 25 

Crow-quill Pan. very fine, for drnwiDg, doc 75 

William*'* and Packard's Gems 5 00 

Guide 3 00 

Coogdon's Normal System of Plooriihing 50 

'■ " " Lettering. 80 

TliMe are good works for Uie money. 

Payson. Dunton &, Scribners Mannal 1 £5 

Sponge Robber, 2x2 in, very snperiof 50 

Roll Blackltoanla. by express, 

n^'.t*^!^*"* "^ ""■■■"""■■'""""'■'■■■" '" 

SlooB Cloth, one yard wide, any lengtti per yanl, 

4Ci iiiulieH wide, peryajd, slated botli sides 2 5 

Liquid SlaHng, the best id lue, for walls or wooden 

G^No goods sent by mail until oash'hMbeen re- 


ight pogM for ibe adranoemeoi vtpm-art. Ench 1 
«r wUl contain at Itatt (Are* pagea of engravin, 
Yrltlng, Pen.drawlngs or FloarlshlnB. 

"o"n"e time. 




Vouf iruly. 


Box 2105, NEW YORK. 

This Offer Appears Onlv Once, 

Bibb on & Metal 

205 Broadway, New York, 

First class work at moderate prices. 


g«'*J««PijS "■"pliHtd. A valuable book for begii 
<-Jl. H. C. BAILKV, Box 208, Sttretoga. N Y. 

Work i. equal io every resiiect in mv nbiim^ 

tea. Addreu. Priri 




n.X Ames . ZOS EaoAnwai: 

ThU Oor* U I'hoto-i:Hffrar»d /r^m J>«« a»(f Ink Copy. 


Cookbook, 25 cents. 01 hook*ellere or'by mail^*'" """" 
3-8 JKSSE Hasby A: Uo,. 10 Spcuoe St , New York. 

Jun PirBI.I8HKD 




fimbraclng gin'QLb and double entry, aiw 
adaptetl to Inaivldriul undcliiss iiiatnictioii ii 
school mill uuidcmics. By S. S. Packard uik 
H. B. BRyA>T. Price by mail, $1.00. Libera 
tfima for fli-st Introduction. 
This iiopiilur woik, which lor tlie lost flftcui 
fears bits enjoyed It (fi'eiitermeasureof tiu-fuvoi 
j( pmctlciil cdiicatoi-s tlian tuiy other of sin 




tmbracinglheTlicuryiurl !■■ 1. 1 1> .■ ..f Ar. ciiiits; 


. h.'ir-i. 

■ oi 

Price by iiiiill, (2JW. 

This new work in now ready for nso, and will 
:a found to be tlio most extensive and tlioroiiKb 
.-.'cjttitju upou the boIoqcq of accounts yet ptil> 

Tho book Is a ^eat Improvement tipon the 
Met ^ition in almost iiU respects, and will be 
'ound to do the required wo.k in huslneia col- 
egea and high bchools better than any other 
vork now before Ibe public. 



Bv IKA Mayhew, LL.D., 


Lime-kiln Club Philosophy. 

" Df M-zmt lias nr>w airove for luillin' ole 
hats and piUiTs <-'Utcr dc broheQ winders, 
an' I Hcizf- dc on^aahuii to ax yoa to rciiiem- 

" iJHt a front gate off it* Iiioges means a 
alip-shnd man in de house. 

" Dat a red doso means a hungry flour 

"Diit no man eher got work sittin' on 
d(? fc-nre an' digcusirin' de nt-eds ob de ken- 

'* Diit do less pollytick? a man hiis dr- 
mo' wmli he kin pay his grocer. 

" Diit argyments on religion won't build 
cIiHifhi's nor pay dc preachers. 

■' Dat a fam'ly which nobber liorrows nor 
Innis keejia naybiirs de longest. 

" Dat beauty will starve in de parlor 
wliar' coriimon Beuse will grow fat in do 

" Dal de world am full o' mice-holes, an' 
all di- cats need do am to watch an' wait. 

" Dat i-conomy doan' mean buyiu' kali- 
kcr fur ycr wife an' broad-cloth fur yerself. 

*' Dat progress doan' mean fittin' ole 
doalis to new buildin'a. 

" Dat liberty doan' gin you de right to 
cat aoodcr man's chickens. 

" Dat sutceas achieved by rascality am a 
fisli-ncl made o' yam. 

" Let ns now purccod to attack the reg'- 
lar programmy o' bizncss, an' if dai-* am 
any mo' conghin' an' spittin ober in de fur 
co'ner sartin pussons will witness purceed- 
ins dat will cast a gloom obt-r de ucx' fifty 

Sample copies of tbe Journal sent only 
n receipt of price — ten cents. 



The Champion Fire-Record. 

. or pnpw lo teach SpoDOerinn I 

(IT.. FmM niy.-on L„Ja ErU.) 


R. SPKXCBU. Prinoipol or PeDnnoihip D.p'tii.tit. 


No ratttlon.. Ciroalfin Am. 


.^jl'r°«l-«lge,» O.M.1 B.V.I 

.n.lo.if, ■.'io.oU. For I 
. m, ,«nH .ilb oui. iTnll.o, oi>« 


351 & 252 Broadway, N. Y. 


BfarloBville, Onondaga Connty, New York, 

General Neatpaper Subtcription Agent, and 
Pub1ijb«r of Swift's Haxu-uooks of Lvk Rkcifko. 

kinds; Blue, 3 kiods; Red, 4 kinds; Oraen, i kio'da- 
TeUow, Brown, Violet, Wbile, Gold. Silver, Indelible. 2 
kindi;- Sympatbetic, 8 kiDdi; Aniline Inlu, elo., eto. 

kinda; Ore 

; Glossy (bII colon), DraniDg,' Carbon. India 
n Inks. Ink-powder, Inks for mftrkiog paokaeea, 


Penman and Book-keeper. 



Special Offer.— The obt 

m to anyone sendiogr me 
1 Penman* O^J^, Me 
ading p^iodioal, U. 8. 

«■■ A. E 


■t&mps taken. Clob-Ust fne. 

V lowtogn 
per huDdred ; 
50 cla; pen 

les : Spenoerian Script, 35 cts. per doi.— ^ 
oorinhed, 12. SaiiiplM, 25 ctt. Nothing 


^ "We have prcatly increased our facilities 
for miiimfaiauiing Curd fuses, and offer a 
/cw of our many Styles. 

No. l-Leatber, rod, stitcli. Spkts .10 .7ii J^T 90 

• :i-Letttherette, HtlfflilnK'dcor. 10 .ii2 (ISO 
S-I.uutherette, openoinoeutiv 

Bilk Uucd, Cinsp. .20 S 00 20 00 
•l-Satiu Finish Itiisaitt Leather 

'^ pockets, rich, ,90 2 00 S2 00 

fi-Lvattierctte, covere<i with 

C-8ilk Plu; 

I'lush, nohhy, 
'" Plush, with iiu 
I liiitd, elegnnt. 

The above is only a small part of the 
Jarye slock o( Cases we make. Our Segar 
Cases. Letter Holdei-s are made in nil the 
newest styles, and at prices from 25c. to 
$3.00 each. Parties that lU-sirc lo puicluise 
above cases may make out a sample onloi- 
ftt dozen riitvs if four are oi-dercd at ono 
time. Priro for sample includes iiostago. 

manufacturer ju the city. 


PoolM»p, H. lb. lil and II Itn. ' 




SMnpip tiiiiiopn. u^ WrUiUKrapor. Or 
porl«».i!( Uixai JiTOP—** .■-...__'?.???' ..-"'S','.?' 

^•3j»lwTie«i. l5crM^"3ci'irror KiwTirtoi 


76-77 Hajsau Street. New Topk. 



Order by Letter or Number. ^S^i-^E 

1 A5 A.3 \4- I \- PorlOOO. Per 100. J^ ^ ^.^^nj 

' ■ ■ ''■'"'■'•v. tm S: sl^flls 

125 j||=io? 

les, Tunied Cor. 4 " 
See Price of Scmps. 

'■\ore. Turn Cor. 
iiited No. Tt2, 

•s^nd ou Lap, lii'ch, S-l, 
jle, Best. 1,2,3, i. Cor. 

5 00 ^=I|2J» 

fiOo. K = 5^59 

COc. hI^P'-s-o 

95o. OslaJlg 

Penman's Bristol Cards at Low Pricee. at^~-i^^ 

SKNi) FUR S.\MPLES. gts:,!.^! 

Odd Styles of anv kind Made to Order. ff^l-l 

Cards Cut any Size. Card Board hj the Caee. 1^1 ^ll 

t Folder, that coiitulus a 



Commercial Arithmetic 


n lexl-buok are entitled to a copy of the new Key, 

of detail, And U now feady lor uae. AU iuoh who do 
not receire il witbonl reqnwl from the publisher ou 
get it reftdily by notifying htm of the (hot 

Otben than l«aohera ualn; the Aritboiotin as n text 
book oaa g«t the Key by remitting to tLe pablisher one 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 

805 BROADWAY. /ll£W YORK. 

WANTED — September let. 1883, an eiperienoo.1 
teacher of rracllcal penmanibip and book-keeping. 

Send r^*n!en? of wri^r'^rtoSriihin" "oi d**En " b 
After Aiigtut Ist to tli^ Little Bock (Ark ) Corameroial 



1 pack of 25 cardj a«Dt post paid 30 Ota. 

500 port-paid, 

1000 " 5.00 

1000, by Bxpratc, 4.50 

Bmd for Olraolu. S&mplM SENT PRBB. 

D. T AHBS. 90S BraadwsT New Tork. 

W college branohM, particwlarly Engliab braocbea, 

Addrew J. j! SOUDER.*'^' 
C-1 280 W, MeditOD Street, Chicago, 111. 

Ilirougbouttbec ^, 

S^icldug n share of your patronage, we reapectfolly 

N. E. CARD CO., 

75-77 Nassau Street. N. Y. 
e Cuii deUfer«l ftsi apon iietlpt Bf prfoe. 

Wonderful, Yet True! 




Tremendous Sacrifice. 

Lot No. I - - - .50 

■' 4 - - - .S5 
" 5 - - - 100 
■• 6 - - ,.25 

•'■■;- - - T.50 


Made for First-class Trade Only. 

Don't fail to send ten cents fop 


No discount from thousand's price in 

any quantity. 

Job lot Silk-fringe Card.s, $2.50 
per 100. Job lot Ink and Revoiv- 
injj Stand, quart bottle.s, given for 
90 cents. 


We Make a Specialty of Manufacturing 

Odd Sizes to Order. 

Gilt-edge Cards, each corner dif- 
ferent way, $1.20 per 1,000. Ten 
thousand Flat Bevel Cards, i6olb. 
stock, for $22.50: assorted styles. 

N. E. Card Co., 


6-l>. NEW YORK. 





Ri>iNKti8 Ei*ct:AT*tBs' Association of 
Washington, D. C, June, 1883. 

The fifth anouAl meetiDg of the BusioeM 
Educators' Awociation of America will be 
held in the City of Waahiiigton, D. C, at Hall BuiMioe, roroer Ninth and D 
Htreela, hc^Duion Tuepdaj, July lOth, at 
10 oVIock A.M , and contiDuiog four daye. 

CommnnicatioDB recPivcd from meinbere 
wbo have been active in pwt yeart, and 
others who ioteiid to be with ui on this 
uccaaioD, indicate that the approacbiug 
meeting will be one of unusual interest, 
pteaJiure and profit. 

The time is considered favorablo to a full 
attendunce, it being after the school year, 
proper, has clofed, when principals and 
teacherfl are comparatively free for a Sum- 
mer trip, 8o needful for change, rest and 

It is suggested to the business educators, 
that their wives, eieters and lady teachers 
would be benefited by sharing the pleasures 
of a summer trip ; also, that the presence 
of the ladies would form an agreeable and 
useful element in our meetings. " It is not 
good for man to be alone." 

Washington presents many attr.irtioos 
peculiar to it as the Dationalcupital ; we can- 
not undertake here to set them forlh — ihey 
inutit be visited, to be appreciated and en- 
joyed. The magnificent public buildings 
and grounds ; the nation's treasures and 
curiosities; the smooth, broad streets and 
broader avenues ; the many parks, with 
their fountains and statues of America's 
heroes .». ,d statesmen ; these and many other 
features of interest invite educators to visit 
and revisit the national capital. 

During the Convention parties will be 
formed and shown through the public build- 
ings and grounds by friends well acquainted 
with all the places and objects of interest. 

The arraogements for the meeting are 
well advanced. 

The rooms to be occupied for the sessions 
are pleasant, and conveniently accessible. 

Special terms have been made with the 
Ebbitt House (Army and Navy Head- 
quarters), corner F and Fourteenth streets, 
for its regular accommodations, at :^2.50 
per day. 

It will not be necessary for those attend- 
ing the Convention to state the fact at the 
hotel, until they call for their bills, when 
special rates will he allowed. Our guests 
need not fear haviug inferior accommoda- 
tions, or being charged more than the above 

The general programme of the session is 
as follows: 

'/W.srfrty, July 10th. 10 A.M., roll-call; 
President Wilt's address ; general business- 
Afternoon : papers, addresses and diacus- 
eions. Evening: deception to Business 
Educators by Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Spencer, 
iu Business College parlors: music; short 
address by Hon. John Eaton, Commissioner 
of Education; response by President Will; 
Social conversation ; refreshments. 

Wednesday, July lHh. Morning and 
afternoon : regular sessions for addresses, 
papers, and discussions. Evening : address 
by Hon. Wm. Lawrence, first Comptroller 
United Slates Treasury. 

Thursday, July l:>lh. From U) a. u. to 
3 i: M. : trip to Ml. Vernon, on the Potomac, 
the home and tomb of Waahington. This 
trip will be provided members of the As- 
sociation, as guests of the Executive Com- 
mittee. Evening : regular sessiou for pa- 
pers, discussions and addresses. 

Ft-iday, July 13th. M< ruing: regular 
•ession. Afternoon: election of officers; 
visit to Executive Mansion to pay respects 
to President Arthur; adjournment. 

To the Penmen's section of the Associa- 
tion, every facility will be given for their 
addresses, illustrations, lessons and discus- 
sioni. The penmen of the country are 
heartily invited to attend and participat* in 
the meeliogs. 

From all interested in business education 
and in the meeting soon to be held, the 
Committee solicits free, full communica- 
tions and suggestions, 

Henbt C. Si'encbr, 
Warren H. Sadler, 
Daniel T. Ames. 

Executive Committee. 



EmbnrMa Uiirtory of W riling, wi\h fac-nmiU illriMratii.DB fritm aDcteot maotucripta: a large numljer orConi- 
plele Atphab«Ii of all kin<U. by Ihe lesdio^ Pen-ArlUU of England. France and G«niiBn)-; Oiiiaiii«nls bv RiMter. 

Stales. AUo. chapter* on Teschinjr PeDiDBOship, BiulnM* Letter- Writing, Off-Hand Flourlihing, How to Prepare 
Specimen* for Pboto- Engraving, Writing Cant* anil Inrilalion*. elo. Thi« book hu (w«l lhoii«nd« of dollars. The 

flemntly i>0DD(J. The book 1* Tery chmp at ten dallan a copy. AGENTS 'WANTED. It !■ the flnrat and beei 
■oiling book for agent* erer puMi»bed. AddreM. 
2-t:r Prof- O- A. GASKELL. FubUsher, Box 1534, New York CItj P. O. 

The Leading Work on Commercial Law. 

Class-Book of Commercial Law 



.nplete .xpTan.t 
, „//r,ighl and pa. 


ritteo exprffilj, / 


mmercial law ifl, th« faol that Ibis t)ook waa written by an eajjerieiuxd Uaeher, 
and bunnutmen. It hat bun examined thoroughly by tht but Ugal talmt. 
liat-ramt. 11 li niatJy prinioi and handKimcly l>nnnd. 



Prinoipa] of the Aiht^ny BueineM College, 
I . ALBANY, N. V. 

H. W. KIBBE, Utica. N. Y. 


I. J , May 


GentUmtn :—Siuc« becomiDg acquainted v 
speedy core wberever I have med it Among many, i 


tured hy & tlioroughty experienced cbemiat, and dues its work painlessly, epeedilj, radically, 
and finally. 

It has never been Itno^vn to iaiL 
We send tills remedy anywhere on receipt of the price, 25 cents, in U. S. postage stamps. 

ROBERTSON & CO., Pharmaceutical Specialties, 

Sole Agents. No. ^Id Bi-oadway, New York Oil 

For $2 the Journal will be mailed one 
year; also, a copy each of the "Standard 
Practical Penmanship" and the "Hand- 
book of Artistic Peumanship" (in paper 
coversj 25 cents extra in cloth). Price 
eaoh, separate, $1. 

I^To those subscribing at club rates, 
the book will be sent { in paper ) for 25 
cents; ( in cloth ), 50 cents extra. Price of 
book, by mail (in paper covers ), 75 cents ; 
cloth, $L Liberal discoaot to teachers and 

Learn to Write. 

Compendium u inolowd in ornamental com. Sample 

wpy wiU be maU*d oo nc^pt at tehoUtaU price, bOotatt. 

Addr«u J. R. BOLCOHB & CO.. Atwateh BLOCK, 

^'.'.^ CixvuLAno. Oeio. 

N i:i; WANTED. 

., oa» ot PsstLurg AitT Jouuu. 



noy, TeetimoniaU. CeSi 
305 BrMtdway, New 1 


Assorted expresiiy for the use of Penmen and Card- 


1 MANUAL of oU 

oloi», 50 MDta. Koyal Society 
U»6 Of Color*, 50 oenta. Of 

JK8SI Hahrx ft Co., 
to Spraoa Stmt, N«w YoA. 



Adapted for u 
and th« 

Be with or without Text-Book, 
only eel recommended to 




ant & Stratton 









larif adapted for Public and Private Schools and Book. 
Sent Poat-pald od receipt of 35 ceata. 



Shading T Square. 

feollon of OUT deulps I have bad oocasion to pQt yoor 
patent ruling and tintinR T wjnare lo every pOMible tjMit, 

•igoeil. Respectfully, C. B. SlCKKI.^, 

Detigner and Drartaman, Am. Bank Note Co., N. Y. 

D. T. AMHB, BBy.— 2)«or Sir; One of yonr pa(«nt T 
iqnaies baa been In Mutant nse by me lor laiiie time 

bn»iobe« of drawing lo wbich I bave applied it. Very 

tmly youri, EDWARD B. JolTES, 

Designer and Draftaman. witb D. Appleton Sl Co. 
Atlakta, Ga., Sept. H, 1881. 

hand «afely ; and, after pnttlng tbem to Ibe uvereat leaU, 
we are delighted wilb Ibe perfection of the work done 

It U an instrument tbat iboold be used by avary draft*- 

snt and nufol pen lor execotiog OuiUne. Old 

3te<l by tbo cm. We are ooDfltautly ustog IhtM Peas 
d ptU« tbem hif[hly ; a set ol three mailetlfur 20 oanis. 


lUi mltlBf. AddiMi, PsHiua' 

- _ Abt Jourhak 
BrMdmr. New Tor 

William Steele, ssiiiiit«] bj his wiTe, is teach- 
ing wriling-olaseea at Ljncliburg, Va., he is 
highly cumpliinented hj fonnpr patrooB. 

B. F. Kelley nili give iustraction in pen- 
maDftbip, dar or erening, during the Humnipr 
monthB, at ihe uptown office of the Penman'8 
Art JovttSAi., 27 Union Square. 

Tajlor'a Bueiness College, Roch^ater, N. Y., 
ha« recently occupied new and more com- 
motiiouB room» in the Cryatal Palace Block, 
79 and ii\ East Main Street. 

L. Mitdanin/,, the celebrated card-writer, is 
now located in New York. PerBOUB wsbing 
elegantly- written cards will do well to read 
hiB advertieemenl in anoilier column, and then, 
of course, patroui;^e him. 

O. S. Complon and J. B. Leech, late gradu- 
alee of G. W. Michael, Oberlin, Ohio, have 
engaged to teach writing Ilie coming year— 
the former, at the Normal School, Peirce, Ohio ; 
the latter, a( the Normal, Richmond, Ohio. 
Mr. Michael is enthudiaalic, and, it would 
Beem, auooesBful, in his work. 

Me«srB. Time. Stewart and Wm. P. Ham- 
mond, have lately announced the opening of 
the Stewart & Hammond BueineBs CoUegf. 
Trenton. N. J. Mr. Stewart is one of the very 
beat practical writers in the country, wliile Mr. 
Hammond is a well-known author of a series 
of copy-booka and a system of book-keeping. 
Both are skilled and experienced teachers, and 
will, no doubt, vindicate ibeir ability to con- 
duct a first-clasB buBinesa college. 

Prof. W. H. Devon, on belmlf of the etndenls 
of the Bryant, Stratton & Sadler Business Col- 
lege, Baltimore, Md., recently presented Mr. 
R. M. Rother, cashier of the German Savings 
Bank, with an elegantly-engrossed and framed 
series of resolutions, making graceful acknow- 
ledgment of the benefit derived from the course 
of lectures on "Money and Banking," which 
he recently delivered before them. The en- 
groBBing, R beautiful specimen of pen-art, was 
executed hj Prof. Patrick, of the college. 

Nolewortliy epfcimens of penmanship have 
been received as follows : 

D. n. Farley, teacher of penmanship and 
book-keeping. Slate Normal School, Trenton, 
N. J., a letter, and several elegantly-flourished 
bird deelguB. Frank J. Oaliay. Lake Centre, 
Minn., a letter. C. R. Wells, special teacher 
of writing in the public schools of Syracuse, 
N. y., a letter. N. H. Prouty, Chariton 
City, Mass.. a letter and a specimen of 
writing a year einoe, which shows very 
creditable improvement, for wliicli full ciedit 
is given to the Journal. C. W. Rice, 
Denver (Col.) Business College, a letter. 
D. C. Taylor, Oakland, Cal., a letter. S. R. 
Webster. School of Shorthand- Writing, Rock' 
Creek. Ohio, a letter, and specimen of off hand 
Hourinhiug. D. McLachlan, Canada Business 
College, Chatham, Onl., a letter. Jas. W. 
Westervelt, special teacher of writing in the 
public schoola of Woodstock, Out., a letter. 
S. 0. Williams, special leafher of penmanehip 
and book-keeping iu the public schools of 
Lockport, N, Y., an elegantly- written letter. 
R. S. BoUBoll, penman at the Bryant, Strallon 
Si Carpenter Business College, St. Louis, Mo., 
a letter elegantly-written, and a list of twelve 
dubsoribei-s to the JournaI,. Irving E. Dale, 
Fi-ench's Business College, Boston, Mass., a 
letter. C. N. Crandle, Bushuell, 111., a letter 
as specimen ot flourishing. F. P. Prenett, 
Port Worth (Texas) Business College, a letter. 
W. E. Ernst, Youugstown (Ohio) Busineee 
College, a letter, and specimen of flourishing. 
Jno. W. Brose, a student at Peirce's Business 
College. Keokuk. Iowa, several well executed 
specimens of flourishing. A. E. Dewhurst, 
Utica, N. Y., a letter, and card specimens. 
S. A. D. Hahn, Davenport (Iowa) Business 
College, an elegantly- written letter. H. S. 
Taylor, son of A. J. Taylor, of Taylor's Busi- 
ness College. Rochester, N. Y., several speci- 
mens of HouriBhing. and A. J. Taylor, a 
Bp1endidly-wrin».n letter. T. J. Marksberry, 
Moi^an, Ky., flourished birds. 


The Packard Commercial Arithmetic, 

By .S. S. PACKARD, of Packahds BrsiNEss College. 



1. CoHFLBTB, 320 pp.. lai^e octavo. 2, School, 275 pp.. duodecimo. 

The CompleU edition, fltst iMoed In Jane, faaa ptuMrf to il« fifth Ihuiuand. and the School Mlition, fli 

im>>tic — hftviofT ^rown oiit of the waoM utn oosmopobtan Institution, and haring been ta 
ing teacher* of pracliCBl ahthmetlo ia tbi* counlry, 3il. They are fTniiun^ly adapted 

nple*. and c«rlain subjeoU not appticabit 

Retail Prices: Complete Edition, $1.50; School Edition, $1 

PrUxa to Schools: Complete Edition, $1 ; School Editioa, 75 c( 

Among thow who haTe adopted and are u»iog ibe lareer work, ate : T. B. StawtU. of the Bryai 
ege. Provideooe; EaUm d- ISumeU. Baltimnre: Gto. H'. Brtnon. Jarkminvillo Hi - J J" " ' 
'. Ridtr, Trentoe. N. J.; LiUibridgt 
t, Logansport, Ind; O. A. FUining, 
neapolU, Minn.; Ch. B. VtriU. FrankUi 

<k. Mich.; s'trunk tt 

. Btoomington, i 

Baton it lAmUty. "" 



! Bradford, ] 

Kj);. &ft»oi.BrookIj-n,N.Y.; & A'trr, St. Johni, N. B.: Btrtha Bann, Lowell, M^. ; C. W.R.>1 

S. S. PACKARD, Publisher, 805 Broadway, New York. 


Serfes of 

Onii PENS 

:^KyLVvW^S^ ^^b ^ti^^^\>gg»^'g>V»J 

What knowledge is of moat worths f 

What every boy and girl should study. 
What every teacher should study. 
What will save thousands of dollars. 
Wliat will prepare every boy for business. 
What will avoid troublesome litigation. 
What is more important than "ologies." 
What will make this study teachable. 
What branch has been too much neglected. 
What sliould be used in every school. 
What every teacher should adopt at once. 

L. L. L.; 



first supply for 


D. APPLETON & CO,, Publishers, 

Nbw York, Boston, CnicAoo, San Francisco. 


nng I 



ue elaborate piec« of flouriBhiog (teat) 35o. 

wo .pcclmeD. of flouriflhtDo- (dillereDt deaign,) 50 " 

ne ihciel of uHtfng (81x11?, Jooludlog two itylo. of 

DO heaotifiil set of Offhand Capitaia IS " 

1 — Plain while Briatol 35 o 45 o 

a — Qill-edge. 

Penmanship and Art Department 

BuBhjieU, rU. 

13 leMoTu Id ornamental peDmanibip. by mail 

Specimen of aoumhlng aod bunoess writing 

Whulearm oapitata, variety of capitals and oombl- 


Penmen'* chart (22ria) coneUts of ftxeroiMt, prin- 
dple«, Dgniw, alphabeU, oombinstioni, biui. 
neM-wrihng, birdi, card wrlliDg. leHering. etc. 

oil painniig. lAndicape, m»rine, portrait. 








iDl>- (»35.00) thirty 

C. N. GRANDU. Manager, 
3-12 BusHNELL, 111. 

doun. Addrew 
r, Morgan, Ky. 


oily. »3.()( 





MOTICE. If.yoD with to 
6-t BIHSB iL Hort-MAKM, E 

la ft good p«n-a 




niMjj^i ^ 



" Mr. HadftrKBz doM a very extensive card 
businee*. He is an excellent writer and flbould 
t liberal palrooage. Hi» card-work is 
unexcelled. D. T. Ahb8. 


Rochester Business University Book-keeping. 



uiii tlie pn^a September 

of othei 

Sample copiee will be i 

It next September. 

•t v?holeBale price, $1.25. A circular containing o 
of tlie book, will be mailed free to any address. 


t^KIeil their InteDtlon to ad< 

ailed lo teachern for examination at the 
monials similar to those given below, together with a complete descripti 

WILLIAMS & ROOERS, Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 


iiilX Uke obafge of t hrri- tim< 



' '"?. 

eeplng n 



iirly "Til 



American Popular Dictionary 

' AMEBlCAtt 

a word in &e BngrliBh 

1 OlC 

American Countiso-boom 
cif n new inoutlily magazine — tlu' first nu 
l>er nf wliich will appear in July. Its m 
»ion is to 8ii,.|.ly ii ".ml in tlw lipid of in 
fill i.n.1 |,r;„n/,.l m.- ii 
imiviiled Ii,. .1 I I- 

1.11 .-1 

liu il 1 



1 llii- M 

,|,t. o 

. It 

■•ill t 


i,'(iicm! business expe- 

higliesl importance in the iimnagoment of 
business affairs in a plain, straightforward 
Hlylo, which iiono can fail to coniprohemj. 
It will cover, in one department, the dis- 
ciissiiiu of all subjoctB pertaining to that 
brunch of counting-room work which it has 
hitherto been the aim and effort of The 
Hook-keeper to foster and improve. It 
iipply its readers with carofuUy-pre- 

lared reviews of the market, and reliable 
eports of financial and commercial opera- 

Attention is called 
pectus which will appear 
''*■■■ TERMS. 

Yearly suhscription 

the < 


nths - 


irtK ht received, or single 
number* supplied by netvsdealers 
ly Subscribers to The Hook-keeper 
will be supplied with American Count- 
ing-room til expiration of subscriptions 
without tulditional charge. Address all 
orders and communicatiuna, 

American Counting-room, 

p. 0. Box 2126. NEW YORK. 


National Indexed Atlas. 

From Government d Special Surveys. 

d StAtw, togvthn 

topograpble*! map* 

M. oiUwi. vitiligo, !>OI 


Unitad StatM Wv Uvjmrtu 
OapvtiDraU, ibe'Poal-oIfl 
SlatM NavMl Oburrator)-, 

and Cfluiiit 
Uie Unli«l 

Ucurf* U. WhMlw. CUnnoe Klu. «c.. «l«.i tnm tbe 
QoT^Rion UT Seerctarie* of mart of tb* Stales and T«r- 
ritoriasi frumtbeCivU EoginMia ul U>« phooipal Rail- 
way«i (him County SurT(>yoi«,Cl( 

initKvripl n 

i liuianoM, 

br ui for tbs purpOM, and to p«rfMt A 
UlU«s Speeial Smrvtyt hav« bMu made. 

tb« part of uameruiu oot\m of CompU«n, 6 

h. But to gel your influence and mK>d 
work In behalf ot our paper, ne will send it. po«t-paid, lo 
yonr addreu. during tbe whole twelve month* of 1683, 

improve our paper aa we promise to do in the January, 
1863, iuue ol our paper. tl.OOO worth of prizea will be 

in "SawyeTianPenmRn«hlp,"and in " Sawyerography— 
Universal Sburlhand," will t>e giren, and prisea awarded 
rorproflciency and improvement. 

Sawyerogfapby 1.00 

Caoadian Peaman (SeU-Initraotor) - - .79 

Total worth (3 CD 

All for 11. Addreu, 

Sawvkb BkOb., Importers and Pnbliaben, 




Wyckoff. Seamans & Benedict, 

•'■ 381 A 283 Broadway, J 

DM* College. Ub 


to solicit suberiptioDs lo the Prnma»'s Abt JoukNAL 

New Spennerian Compendium in parts (6 parts 

Congdon's Normal Lettering and FlooriehlDg, eaoh 
Slandard Practical Penmanehip, by tbe Spencer 

F^yErJlSrW^V"^'".....'".?..!*!"^;^" 1 00 
Marriage Certificate, 16*22 1 00 

I»rd'B Prayer ' " \".\'.\\ViV.\i'l."^ll^^ 50 

Bounding Slag. 24s32 50 

Flourished Eagle, 24x32 50 

CeDtenoial Picture of Progress, 22s2S 50 

•^ 28x40 1 00 

Ornamental aad Flouriabed Cards, 13 desigiu , aew, 




New Series Book-keeping. 


New York Book-purchasing Agency, 

whose fine penmanship goes to all partfl of the 
country, will write your name, in the style 
which has made Madarasz famous, uu thirty- 
six cards, and inclost same iu a b&ndaome 
Russia-Leatheu Card-Case, on receipt of 


sent by express for $1.30 per quart. Receipt 
for its manufacture, 30 cents. 

On receipt of $1 and ten 1-ceiit stamps I will 
send you the following, prepaid, viz.: 

2 Sets of Capitals, different, , . . wnrtb .'>U 
1 Brilliant Black Ink Recipe ..." .ao 

3 Specimens of Flourishing ..." .50 
Box Steel Pen " .50 

Total worth . 



no two alike, only 54 cents. Single sets, '25 
cents. To students and others dssiring a 
variety of the latest styles of Capitals, tliei<f 
will be found to be the finest pen-and-ink work 
executed by any penman in the world. 

^^On receipt of twelve 1-cent stamps Bam- 
ples of cards will be sent, showing tbe niosi 
wonderful command of the pen. 

Professional penmen often inquire letuit pen 
is used by Madnrasz that he can make suuii 
fine hair-lines and bold shades. Tbe identical 
pens will be sent to an;" address for 50 cent* 
per box, and for the very finest quality, tlO 
cents per box. After five years' constant use 
these pens cannot be too highly recommended 

Poor writing made good, and good writiu|,' 
made BETTER, by using the improved 

Patent Oblique Penholder. 

Mailed to your address for twenty ceiilM- 

SUPERB Specimen of Letter-writing. 

and am confident that I will please you. 

L. MADARASZ. Penman. 

p. 0. Box 2105, New York City- 




LESS." ^" 

Ple&ae meDtioa the JoURMAl» 


Entered at tiik Post-Offick of 
New York, N. Y., as Second-Class Matter. 

O, T. AMES. Editor and Propri 

NEW YORK, JULY, 1883. 

Vol. VII.— No. 7. 

Lessons Omitted. 

Offing 10 tfip large ainuQot of other mat- 
tor we dedired to present in this number, 
and Ilie fact that both Prof. Spencer aud 
onrgelves have been so occnpied with affairs 
pertaining to the Hueiness Educators' Con- 
vention, and the cflort for a short vacation, 
88 to interfere with lh« preparation of copy 
and illUBtratioDS, both the WriliDg-Leeson 
and the article on Correspondence have 
been deferred. One or both will appear in 
the Augnst issue. ^^ 

Report of the Fifth Annual Con- 
vention of the Business Edu- 
cators and Penmen of America. 
In view of the fact that a verbatim re- 
port, in pamphlet form, of the proceedings 
of the Convention is to be immediately 
published, we ehall attempt little more than 
an outline of the proceedings, giving pre- 
eminence to that portion which relates more 
specially to peuinanship. 

The Convention couvened on July lOlh, 
in the hail of the Speucerian Business 
College ( Lincoln Hall ), Washiogtoo, D. C, 
and was called to order by Hon. A. D. 
Wilt, of Dayton, Ohio, President. 

The following members and attendants 
were present : 

Hon. A. D. Wilt, Daylon, Ohio. 

C. E. CaI.Y. N^w York city. 

S. S. Packard, New York cily. 
MisB LoTTiu E. Hii.L, New York city. 

D. T. Ami:s, New York city. 
Mre. D. T. Amics, Nbw York city. 
H.m. H. A. Sl'KNX'KR, N«w York city, 
n. 0. SPESCKR, WaBhinglon. D. C. 
Mr*., n. C. Si-KNrKU, Waehingtou, D. C. 
Lyman I' Sii m i i;, Washiiiglon. D. C. 

LE1>NAJ:i. >I( X, I ,: \V;,,|iingI.»ll. D. C. 

M'''^ ^i^■...n V,, ,, , ,. Wa^l.inp,,.,,. D. C 
CJr.o. i;. Lu ii.i,. Waeliiiiyiou, D. C. 
!•:. e. low.NsiiND, Washington, D. C. 

(-inn. n. I). MrSSF.Y, WftBhlDKlOIl, D. C. 

J. W. 8WANK. WaBhinglon, D. C. 

J. O. T. Mt'CARTHV. Washi.jgton, D. C. 

D. A. JJnowN, Washington, D. C. 

M. D. Casky. of the V. S. Treasury, Wash- 
iugton. D. C. 

K. C. 8i'i:\(Kit. Milwaukee. Wis. 

C. H. l'i;ni<r:, K-olcuk, Iowa. 

J.W. Hkown. .I,uksn..vill»., 111. 

Hon. U:x Mvmi, m I ..noi,, Mich. 

URlAti .M. 1.1 1 ( 

G. W. Ml. II M 1 ..!„., iin. Ohio. 
A. H. liiNMVN, U.w^.iM, Maea. 
MfB. A. H. Hi.NMAN, Worcester, Masa. 
W. H. liBltimore. Md. 
Mre. W. H Sadlkr. Baltimore. Md. 
W. H. pATitKK, Baltimore. Md. 
V. E. Rnr.F.lts. Ruehfaler, N. Y. 
A, S. Osi»oi!M.. U.,ch«8l».r, N. Y. 
C. P. .Mkai.s, Syracnae. N. Y. 
W. N. Yfukx, Luiidou. Canada. 
Mrs. W. N. Vkkkx. London. Canada. 
Hon. A. J. Kn>KH, Trwitnii, N. J. 
.r. M. Frashhr, Wheeling, W. Va. 
Mrs. J. M. KitASiiKIt, Wheeling, W. Va. 
Mils Framibh, Wheeling, W. Va. 
Miw Frasiikh. Wheeling. W. Va. 
Muster Frasiikr. Wheeling, W. Va. 
C. X. CiJAMM.K. BuBhnell. III. 
Mrs. C. N. CHAM.I.K. Buehuell, III. 
R. S. CoLi.ixs. Kiug'a Mountain, N. C. 
(i. M. Smithde.m., tireeasburo, N. C. 

the prureedings of the meeting and super 
intend their publieaiion. 

A letter was read from Mahlon J. Wood- 
ruff, Manager of the Russell Erwin Manu- 
facturing Co., New York, favoring the es- 
tablishment of the Piatt R. Spencer Memo- 
rial Library at Geneva, 0. Tlie letter con- 
tained an eloquent tribute to Mr. Spencer's 
devotion to the cause of bu*iine=s education. 
Communications on the same subject were 
received from Jay P. Treat, Esq., and Mr. 
P. W. Tuttle, of Geneva, 0. 

Messrs. Packard, Sadler, and Mayhew 
were appointed a committee to draft suita- 
ble resolutions relating to the establish- 
ment of the Piatt R. Spencer Memorial 
Hall and Library Association at Geneva, 0. 
Mr. Packard, of New York, spoke for an 
hour on the subject of the management ol 
business schools. He first gave a rapid 
sketch of the history of business education 
during the past thirty five years, most of 
which he has seen and much of which he 
has helped to make, and then took up the 
subject ot buildine up and conducting busi- 
ness colleges. He believed in vigorous but 
appropriate advertising. Business education 
is in itself a wholesome idea, and what is 
wholesome cannot he too strongly or per- 
sistently placed before the public. He 
drew the contrast between the schools of 
thirty- ffve years ago, when the proprietors 
of competing institutions were implacable 
and the educators of to-day, who 
in the best sense co-workers, and who 
year after y 
change views o 

Then there w 
500 students i 

r of Edu 


Prof. C. E. Cady waa appointed to report 

on all the vital questions 
nto the domain of teaching. 
ire not in all the country over 
1 the business schools. Now 
than 40,onO,aud the Commis- 
ation is forced to give them a 
A spare in his annual reports, 
colleges had, in fact, come to 
in an important sense repre- 
;an educatiim. Ho entered at 
length upon the liberal method of encour- 
aging the young men and women by fully 
recognizing the best there was in them, and 
holding them to account only as men and 
women should be held to account ; and he 
laid great stress upon the beniticent effect 
of educating the sexes together. He had 
had grave doubts at first as to the feasibility 
of this plan; but all doubts had long since 
thin air, and he could see no 
. large school should not be 
a largo family. Men and 
women have to meet in all the relations of 
life, and the more they learn to measure 
each others' intellectual worth the better 
for both and for all. He cxtoUed the 
teacher's profession, and claimed that there 
was not a nobler or more dignified title in 
all the world than that of schoolmaster; 
that the man who showed himself to be a 
born teacher was just as divinely called to 
1 fact more so 


than many of them, __ „.„ ^„ 

the fact that among the representatives 
present fifteen p. rsons at least had followed 
the profession for twenly-tive years on an 
average, and their robust health and excel- 
lent appearance must be accepted as prima 
facie evidence that they were finding in 

their work not only recompense in a mate- 
rial way, but a satisfaction quite beyond that 
which rests on the accumulation of money. 

He alluded to the eminent men through- 
out the land who had shown great zeal in 
the work before them, and especially of 
ex-Pres. Gaifield, whose glowing eulogium 
delivered before the graduating classes of the 
Spencerian College in Washington, in 1867, 
had become classical. 

In conclusion, he besought the members 
of the Convention to be true to their good 
work, and not to forget that, as no man 
can live to himself alone, it is a noble thing 
to live tor others in the way of building 
them up in all good things. The teacher's 
pay, however ample, is not his best nor his 
chief reward. His reward is Id the happy 

the hearts of his pupils which will domi- 
nate their lives, and which will bear fruit 
long after he has gone to his rest. 

When the Association assembled at the 
afternoon session President A. D. Wilt, of 
the Dayton ( Ohio ) Business College, de- 
livered an able and interesting Address, in 
which he reviewed the rise and progress of 
business colleges, dwelling at length on the 
benefits to be derived from a thorough train- 
ing in the theory and practice of business. 

A. S. Osborne, of the Rochester ( N. Y. ) 
Business University, led in a discussion of 
the Method of Marking, as employed in his 
writing classes. Discussion followed, in 
which Messrs. R. C. Spencer, Michael, 
Peirce, Ilinman, Rogers, Goodman, Meads, 
Brown, aud Mrs. If. C Spencer, of Wash- 
ington, participated. 

The exercise and discussion related to the 
effect of various methods of marking for 
advancing pupils in writing. The prevail- 
ing sentiment seemed favorable to some 
method of marking writing in all written 
exercises as tending to induce greater care 
and excellence than otherwise. The fol- 
lowing we give substantially in the words 
of The Washington Daily Post: 

Upon the conclusion of this discussion, 
Professor D. T. Ames, Editor of the Pen- 
man's Art Journal, and a well-known 
expert, proceeded to give a general talk 
upon the principle employed by him and 
his profession in detecting forgeries. He 
began by referring to the general employ- 
ment of experts in trials. ** Sometimes," 
he paid, in answer to a question, "it is 
easy to distinguish forgeries; sometimes, 
almost iinpossibl.'. No two persons write 
exactly alike. No man, either, writes his 

Though diflering, the diflerences are in 
the slight variations of the same forma and 
personalities: as between two kernels of 
the same kind of grain, which may vary 
widely in form and size, and yet leave no 
ground to doubt their identity; while kernels 
of different kinds of grain may closely rtf- 
semble each other in form and size, yet 
will each lack the characteristic features of 
the other— as, for instance, two kernels of 
corn may differ widely in form and size, yet 
neither could be mistaken for a jwa or other 
grain however close might be its resem- 
blance in size and outline. There are 
multitudinous habits in writing formed and 
practiced onconeciously, and, being so, no 
writer can entirely divest himself of them 

and at the same time adhere to any written 
style for big letters; tliis is a great difficulty 
that confronts the forger or a person seek- 
ing to disguise his writing. 

Of a vast proportion of a writer's peculi- 
arities he is himself unconscious, such as 
initial and terminal lines, forms of letters, 
their relative proportions, connections, 
turns, angles, spacing, slope, shading ( in 
place and degree ), crosses, dots, orthogra- 
phy, punctuation, etc. These peculiarities 
being habitual, and mainly unknown, can- 
not be successfully avoided through any ex- 
tended piece of writing. No writer c^n 
avoid that of which he is not conscious, nor 
can any copyist take cognizance of and 
successfully reproduce those multitudinous 
habitual peculiarities, and at the same time 
avoid his own habit. A writer may with 
the utmost ease entirely change the general 
appearance of his writing; this may be done 
by a change of slope, sire, or by using a 
widely different pen; yet in spite of all effort 
his unconscious wriliug habit will remain 
and be perceptible iu all the details of his 
writing. Such an effort to disguise one's 
writing could be scarcely more successful 
than would be a disgiiise of a person to 
avoid recognition. 

"Forgeries," he continued, "are generally 
confined to autographs. The methods em- 
ployed to forge them are various. One way 
is by tracing the autograph on thin paper 
and then re-tracing it. Another method is, 
by practicing upon the autograph to be 
forged until a more or loss exact copy can 
be written off on the customary movement, 
la the first case, on examining the forgery 
there is generally noticed a hesitancy in the 
line — a drawing movement — and it is not 
practical to impart the customary shade of 
the genuine, while first carefully tracing the 
lines; these must be shaded, or, as it often 
called, painted-in; subsequently, these sec- 
ondary lines, however skillfully done, are 
plainly visible when examined under a 
microscope. Signatures made this way are 
well calculated to deceive those who judge 
from ordinary appearance and do not study 
them closely. The other method— that of 
practice and free-hand— is usually detected 
by the presence of some personal rharacter- 
of the forger and the absence of the 
habitual characteristics of the genuine 
I autograph, and quite frequently by this 
I method the forger will deem it necessary to 
retouch shades, in order to bring the for- 
gery to a sufficiently close resemblance to 
the genuine, which is always fatal to a 
forgery when skillfully examined. There 
will also, in thi3 kind of forgery, be more 
or loss hesitancy in the writing noticeable 
under the glass- an indication of thrtught. 
No one can write as freely when he is 
thinking how he is forming hia letters as he 
can otherwise. Let any one of you write 
your own signature, aud then try to copy it, 
aud you will find that the second signature 
has not the freedom of the first." 

The professor here illustrated forcibly 
upon the blackboard by requesting one of 
the audience to write his own autograph, 
naturally, twice upon the board, when he 
called upon one »f the skillful writers pres- 
ent to copy one of the autographs as nearly 

Ht possible. The |>roffMor iheo gave, .a 
v«ry interestiDf^ and akillful aoalysia, ehow- 
iutf tlic very cliffereot character betweeu the 
uattiral variations uf habit as between the 
gcutiiDe aiit'igrapbn and tbe (lifrereoco as 
betwecD tbe geouiae kdcI cpierl sigoature. 
" MaDjr forgeries are execatcd with con- 
summate skill, aod some well'Digh defy 
detcctiuD. Id some cases in which I have 
lieoa coDnulted I have declined to express 
an opiuioo,on'iDg to lack of positive indica- 
tions, or the limited compoehioo called in 
queHtion. The most difficult cases for an 
(expert lire wheo only a few words, coDtaio- 
ioti, perh«j)8, not more than a dozen differ- 
«ut letters were at hand. From these few 
letters, and the handwritiDg of, perhaps, a 
do^ieo persons, the guilty party had to be 

At the coQclusioD of bis talk a general 
discussion of aa interesting character fol- 
lowed, in which much icformatton coccern- 
iug forgeriec, peculiarities of penmanship 
and dilKcultics of expert-work were evolved. 
Id the evening, the members and invited 
guests — ninoDg whom wore many of tbe 
prominent citizens and oflicials ot Wash- 
ington — aseembti'd in the commodious 
parlors of tlie Spencerian Businesa College, 
wliere they were most hospitably received 
aud entertaiucd by Professor and Mrs. H. 
C. Spencer, by whom brief «od fitting 
remarks of welcome wore made, whii^h 
were respuLded to, on behalf of the guests, 
by tlie Pre*ident, A. V>. Wilt. Most charm- 
ing vocal music was rendered by Miss 
Scott, of the Taberpaole Choir, and Mr. E. 
J. Whipple, while E. C. Townaend, Pro- 
fessor ot Elocution in the Spencerian Bus- 
iness College, rendered eeveral highly 
cntertaiuing recitations. Tlie entire even- 
ing was p«8Bed in a nmst social and 
pleasant mauDer. Toward the close of the 
eveuiug the whole parly sat down to an 
elegant supper. 

The exercises of AVednegday commenced 
at 8 A.M. by the Penman's Section, which 
\va» led for twenty-five minutes in a dia- 
eu8!-ion on mclliods of teaching writing by 
C. II- Peirce. lie advocated iKo practice 
of figures as a basis for (]uic-k aud accurate 
movemeuls in the use of the pen. Pupils 
who could inako figures rapid and well 
could write correspondingly well. His 
order of drill was to deveh)p — 

I. Form. 

^. Arrangement. 

3. Speed, singly. 

i. Speed, i>romiscuou8ly. 

5. Endurance. 

G. Habit established. 

7. Combinations. 

ti. Style. 

!). Individuality. 
He would never practice so rapidly as to 
PHi'rifiito form. His plan was favorably re- 
ceived. As a result of this drill, pupils 
aciiuired the power to make good figures 
Willi surprising rapidity. Ho showed his 
own iivtrsge speed to bo Kit) ciphers to the 
itiiuute, U'i sixes, 120 fours, 140 eights, 90 
fives, HO threes, 108 uiues, DO twos, and 80 
sevens. He also illustrated the ability of 
the trained mind to write dowu figures 
accurately while thinking or talking on 
another subject. 

Prof. S.S.Packard had adopted and com- 
mended the plan, aud said thai during his ex- 
perience he bad ueverkuown a person to make 
good figures who was not a good writer. 

Au interesting discussion followed, par- 
ticipated in by Cady, H. A. Spencer, Good- 
man, Michael, Urowu, Frasher, and Wilt. 
Messrs. Maybew and llinmau had tried Mr. 
Peirce's plan and secured good results. 

G. W. Brown led in a talk on business 
wriiiiig. Ho said ho had almost come to 
believe that good writing was not necessary 
f'T good teaching ; he did not believe in the 
superhUive niceties of the wiiting-master. 
These slalemeuts led to a sharp discassiou, 
participated iu by Messrs. Osborne, Rog- 
ers, Hioman, aud others — the prevailing 
seutiment seeming adverse to Mr. Brown's 
The regular eesaion of the day was 

opened at 10. A.u. by Kobert C. Spencer, 
with a very able and valuable Paper upon 
'■ Property and Progress." His Paper 
elicited more than ordinary interest. 

W. H. Sadler delivered an interesting 
lectore on arithmetic, evolving some new 
ideas concerning the science and ready nse 
of numbers. 

Au important feature of tbe day's proceed- 
ings was the reading by Mr. H. C. Spencer 
of a Paper, entitled, "The Fundamental 
Theory of Acconnts," by Charles E. 
Sprague, Secretary of the Union Dime 
Savings Institution, Xew York, and co- 
editor of American Counting-room. Mr. 
Sprague's article was a clear and compre- 
hensive discussion of the tenns "debit" 
and "credit"; their true significance and 
use in business; also, un explanation of 
tbe uses and forms of the balance-sheet. 
At the close of the reading a unauimous 
vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. 
Sprague for his very able and instructive 
communication. On the opening of the 
afternoon session Mr. William S. Aucbin- 
closs, of Philadelphia, produced his noted 
" Averaging Machine," and explained it 
to the Convention. The machiDe was 
designed to lessen the labor of calculation. 
The necessities of modern science have so 
increased tbe mat hemali can's work that it 
is no longer possible for a busy man* to 
spend the time required for performing the 
long series of similar calculations which fre- 
quently become necessary. The machine 
is designed to perform intricate mathemat- 
ical problems without mental labor, and 
the illustration of tbe methods by which it 
is operated was greeted with enthusiasm by 
the Convention. A committee appointed to 
test it thoroughly subsequently reported 
that the averaging machine accomplishes 
all that is claimed for it. 

Mrs. Sara A. Spencer delivered a practical 
lesson on the use of words and the forma- 
tion of phrases, clauses, and sentences, with 
blackboard illustrations, which elicited the 
warmest praise and commendation of the 
Association. A rising vote of thanks was 
tendered the lady. 

Mr. E. C Townsend, Professor of Elecu- 
tion in the Spencerian College, delivered an 
address on tbe practical uses of elocution in 
the business affairs of the world. 

Prof. Packard did not favor elocution as 
a branch for basinets colleges to make a 
speciality of. He taught reading and elo- 
cution through daily reading of news and 
market reports aloud by his students. 
What was necessary was, first, ideas ; then 
the ability to talk on one's feet. 

H. C. Spencer objected to Prof. Pack- 
ard's method of treating the subject under 
consideration. His college had been in the 
habit of employing a teacher of elocution 
for many years, and had found it a good 
thing. Prof. Packard had also employed 
iu his institution elocutionists who had 
been trained in other schools. Elocution is 
the development of tbe voice in order that 
it may properly express the emotions of the 
soul. Prof. Townsend, during his services 
in tbe college, bad wrought a work whose 
value money could not fairly define. 
Young men should be educated for citizen- 
ship, and in this country the art of public 
speaking might be correctly classed among 
the duties of a citizen. Instead of decrying 
tbe art of elocution we should commend it 
for all it is worth. The effort of Prof. 
Spencer elicited applause, 

Mr. Brown, of Adams Express Com- 
pany, and instructor in phonography in the 
Washington Spencerian College, spoke on 
phonography and its remarkable growth 
in tbe last few years. Tbe time bad 
come when it should be introduced into 
the system of general education. The 
proof of this is the great demand for short- 
hand writers and for shorthand periodicals 
and books. In all large cities thousands of 
pbonographers are employed, and tbe num- 
ber is constantly increasing. Phonography 
should at once be incorporated iu the curri- 
culum of husiuess colleges. The speaker 
explained by a blackboard diagram a 

shorthand machine, recently put on the 
market by a St. Louis firm, for taking 
down puplic speeches and dictations. 

G. W. Michael, of Oberlin, Ohio, led a 
discussion on teaching writing. He did 
not claim to have originated any styles of 
letters, but said he had developed a new 
plan for teaching pupils to write rapidly 
from tbe beginning. Mr. Michael's plan 
did not appear to commend itself to other 
teachers, as the prevailing opinion and 
practice was to adopt a more deliberate 
movement at the outset, and, after forms 
are made with reasonable accuracy, work for 
speed. Mr. Michael has the courage of his 
convictions, and abounds with enthusiasm 
in bis work, which seems to have produced 
commendable results. 

Mrs. Bailey, of Virginia, exhibited and 
explained specimens of Heed's chart of in- 
struction in penmanship. By means of 
small covers, bung on hinges, different 
portions of letters were concealed or opened 
to view, so as to show the various relations 
the several groups of letters sustained to 
each other. As an example, the capital 
letter R is completed upon the chart, and, 
by means of covers, is changed to a B, and 
then to a P. This method is ingenious, 
and is commendable as a means of illustrat- 
ing the relative construction of letters. 
This same method was developed some 
years since by H. W. Ellsworth, of New 

Mr. H. C. Spencer delivered an interest- 
ing Address on tbe art of instruction in 
penmanship that was listened to with pro- 
found attention. He illustrated the plan of 
spacing and joining letters, and discussed 
abbreviated forms. 

The night proceedings were opened by 
Hon. Ira Mayhew, in a comprehensive and 
interesting discussion of tbe decimal system. 

Judge Lawrence, First Comptroller of 
the U. S. Treasury, delivered an admirable 
Address upon the " Mission of Business 
Colleges." He testified to the great utility 
of business colleges, and of the good that 
had been accomplished by them in giving 
the present generation a practical training. 
The Judge was given a unanimous vote of 

The evening programme was closed by 
Prof. Packard; in au elaborate and practical 
illustration of the classification of accounts, 
which elicited warm commendation. 

On Thursday, at 8,30, Penmen's Section, 
C. H. Peirce discussed movement aud trac- 
ing exercises as an aid to speed and ac- 
curacy in writing; his examples were placed 
upon the board with great accuracy. Dis- 
cussion followed by Messrs. R. C, H. C. 
and H. A. Spencer, Michael and Ames- At 
10 A.M., the Convention adjourned for an 
excursion, tendered to the Association by 
the Executive Committee, upon the 
steamer Corcoran, to Mount Vernon — the 
home and tomb of Washington. Its sight 
is upon the Virginia shore of the Poto- 
mac, about fifteen miles below the city. 
Throughout the entire distance the scenery 
was beautiful, the day was pleasant, and all 
things conspired to render the trip a must 
delightful one. 

Mount Vernon is in itself picturesque 
and grand, which, united with its historical 
associations as the home and last resting- 
place of tbe Father of his country, renders 
it a hallowed and interesting place to every 
American. The old mansion of Washing- 
ton has been carefully preserved, as nearly 
as possible, in the same condition as it was 
when occupied by bim. In the rooms re- 
main the same quaint old furniture which 
he used, presenting to the visitor a striking 
aud truthful contrast between the meager 

nd Iu 

of J 

and a century ago. Arriving at the mau- 
sion tbe party were most courteously re- 
ceived and escorted through the buildings 
and grounds by the genial and urbane Su- 
perintendent, Col. J. McHeury Hollings- 
worth, whose many anecdotes and remiu- 
is<*nces of the place and its former occu- 
pants, were alike interesting and instructive. 
In a large ball erected and ftirolehed with 

tabled, chairs and other conveniences forthe 
aoeommodatioa of excursion parties, was 
spread a sumptuous repast for tbe entire 
party, provided by Mr. and Mrs. H. C. 

Spencer, of the Spencerian Business Col- 
lege. The party returned to the city at 
4 o'clock, and all were entbusiastio in their 
expressions of satisfaction and delight with 
the trip. 

At 6 30 P.M., A. H. Hinman presented to 
the Penmen's Section his method of leach- 
ing writing. He advocates the omission of 
initial and terminal lines ; also the shortening 
of capital letters and loops, as tending to 
make writing more legible by giving more 
open spacing and clearer margins. Dis- 
cussion followed by Messrs. Peirce, H. C., 
H. A., and R. C. Spencer, Michael, Meads, 
Brown, Packard and Ames. After which 
D. T. Ames addressed the Association upon 
the application of artistic penmanship to 
commercial purpDses, in which he explained 
the method of making drawings for repro- 
duction by photo - engraving and photo- 
lithography. He said that through the aid 
of these processes the penman's art had as- 
sumed a new importance in the commercial 
world, and opened to the real pen-artist a 
broad and fruitful field. By the aid of these 
processes the skillful penman became prac- 
tically an engraver ; all drawings made with 
clear, black lines, however fine, could he 
perfectly reproduced upon relief plates and 
printed upon a common press the same as 
wood engravings and type, or transferred to 
stone and printed as lithographs. India ink, 
freshly ground in water in a slopeing tray 
until it is entirely black, should be used. 
Drawings should he made upon fine bristol- 
board, and twice the size of tbe desired 

Gen. R. D. Mussey, of the Washington 
bar, delivered an interesting .Vddress on 
" Business Law." Tbe speaker advo- 
cated the adding of a law department to 
tbe business colleges, and illustrated the 
importance of business men becoming famil- 
iar with the practical knowledge of the 
laws of the country. The gentleman was 
listened to with profound attention, and 
was thanked by ttie Convention. 

Prof. F. E. Eagers, Secretary of the 
Rochester Business University, delivered a 
lengthy technical Address on " Actual Busi- 
ness Practice for Business Colleges," illus- 
trating bis system by drawings on the black- 
board. The Address was received with 
marked manifestations of approval by the 

Messrs. Packard, Sadler, and Mayhew, of 
the Committee appointed to draft suitable 
resolutions relating to the establishment of 
the Piatt R. Spencer Memorial Hall and 
Library Association at Geneva, Ohio, re- 
ported in favor of the early founding of such 
an institution as follows : 

The Committee to whom was referred 
the matter of the Spencerian Memorial Hall 
Hall aud Library reported the following, 
which were adopted : 

1. That we deem it in every way appro- 
priate and befitting that the Association 
should ally itself to the scheme of perpetu- 
ating the memory as it is already perpetuat- 
ing the work of the author of Spencerian ; 
and that this is the occasion which should 
be seized upon for carrying that purpose 

2. That the steps which have already 
been Uken by the Piatt R. Spencer Mem- 
orial Hall and Library Association, in erect- 
ing a building in the village of Geneva, 
Ohio, for a public hall and library, appeals 
at once to our sense of what is the best 
thing to be done, and that what we do 
should be to aid directly in tho work. 

3. That we propo e that this associa- 
tion shall cause to be prepared, or shall 
adopt what may have been prepared, and 
what may be prepared, a beautifully en- 
graved document, which shall serve aa a 
receipt fur contributions to the fund for this 
purpose. This document to contain a por- 
trait of p. R. Spencer, and be in all respects 
a beautiful and acceptable souvenir. 

4. That through the colleges represented 
in this Association subscriptions be solicited 
in all parts of the country, and efforts be 
make to popularize this subscription aod to 
so extend a knowledge of the enterprise as 
to secure the best results; Therefore be it 

Mesolved, That the representatives of, 
busioess colleges in the different cities of 

the Uoited Sutes aod Cnaailu uorlertake to 
■ecara fuBdn to foond the Plait R. Speocer 
Memnrial IIhII aorl Library of Geneva, Ohio, 
aod will co-operate with the pareat associa- 
tion under their charter, to that end. 

L. L. Williams, Preoident of the Bofi 
Dess Univeraity of Rochester, N. Y., was 
elected treasurer and financial ageDt fur the 
Piatt R. Spencer Memonal Fund. 

A letter waa received from the Execative 
Mansion inviting the uemhers of the body 
to caIl*upon President Arthur. 

A resolution wae adopted tendering the 
thanks of the Convention to the press of 
the city o( Washington and conntry tor the 
liberal and accurate report of ita pro;eed- 

The following reaolutions of thanks to 
Mr. and Mrs. H. C Spencer, offered by 
S. S. Packard, were UDaniinousIy adopted, 
and were gracefully respoDded to by both 
Mr. and Mrs. Spencer: 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Con- 
veotioD be tendered to Mr. and Mis. H. C 
Spencer for their very great appreciation of 
our needs, individually and colleclively, and 
for their more than courteous attenlion to 
thene needs. 

Resolved, That as words have limitations, 
□otwithsiaoding the geoeral impression that 
our English vocabulary contains sufficient 
to express the greatest depths and the finest 
shades of ineauiug, we feel the paucity of 
language to gi?e voice to our deep sense of 
gratification for all that we have received at 
their hands. 

Resolved, That in view of these limita- 
tionp, we carry in our hearts the unuttered 
thanks we feel for all that we have re- 
ceived, and express our hopes that our 
hosts may live forever and receive in this 
life and the next all that they deserve. 

1 selected as the 
St National Con- 

Rochester, N. Y., 
place fur holding the 

The election of officers for the ensuing 
year was next proceeded with. Prof. Sadler 
nominated Mr. 11. C. Spencer for President, 
a suggestion that was received with ap- 

Mr. Spencer declined, and nominated 
Mr. Charles E. Cady, of New York ; Mr. 
Cady was elected. The following additional 
officers were elected : Vice-presidents — 
W. H. Sadler, Baltimore, Md. ; C. H Peirce, 
Keokuk, Iowa; W. N. Yerex, London, 
Ont; Frank Goodman, Nashville, Tenn. 
Secretary and Treasurer ~ A. J. Rider, 
Trenton, N. J. Executive Committee~L. 
L. Williams, Rochester, N. Y. ; G. W. 
Brown, Jacksonville, HI. ; A. H. Hiuman, 
AVorcester, Mass. Executive Committee, 
Penmen's 5«(i"om — Daniel T. Ames, New 
York city ; A, S. Oihorne, Rochester, N. 
Y.; C. H. Peirce, Keokuk, Iowa. 

At 10 A.M. members took carriages to visit 
points of interest in the city. After view- 
ing the Capitol, Treasury, and other depart- 
ments, the members were driven to the Ex- 
ecutive Mansion at 1 p.m. to pay their re- 
spects to the President. The ladies and 
gentlemen, about forty in numljer, were in- 
troduced to the President by Prof. H. C. 
Spencer, principal of the Washington Busi- 
ness College, with remarks as follows : 

"Mr.Pkesident; The ladies and gen- 
tlemen present are members of the Business 
Educators' Assooiaiiou of America, and 
have been holding a Convention in this 
city. They are representatives of the busi- 
ness colleges established iu the cities of our 
country. Haviog completed the sessions of 
their Coavoutiou, ihey desire, before leaving 
the national capital, to pay their respects to 
the Chief Magistrate of their conntry. 

"Your honored predecessor.James A.Gar- 
field, was a lifelong friend of business edu- 
cation and a warm personal friend of many 
of these ladies and gentlemen present. As 
the representative of the business college 
of Washington, it is my pleasant duty to 
introduce thorn to your Excellency." 

The members were then each introduced 

to the Prepident, who received them with 

much cordiality, after which he addressed 

them in the following words: 

"Ladies AND Gentlemen: The Presi- 

is pleased to see you here, 

country. The great interests of the country 
are represented by its business and the intel- 
ligence of the people. Ii is very fitting that 
these should be combined ; you represent 
them both. The President sbuuld be friendly 
to these interests, and is therefore glad to 
meet yoo, and wishes for yon the greatest 
possible success." 

An informal meeting was held at the busi- 
ness college at 3 P.M. to listen to a lecture 
and to witness an exhibition of chalk and 
charcoal drawing by Prof. George E. Little, 
who rapidly executed, in the presence of the 
delighted audience, pictures of fruits, ani- 
mals, and distinguished persons, making 
striking and lifelike portraits in the amaz- 
ingly shoit lime of thirty seconds to two 
minutes for each. 

At the close of the exhibition, D. T. 
Ames moved " that a vote of thanks be ten- 
dered to Prof. Liltle for his most successful 
and remarkable exhibition of skill in free- 
hand drawing," and said ; " It excels any- 
thing that it has ever been my pleasure and 
good fortune to witness." The motion was 
enthusiastically carried. 

Mr. S. S. Packard read the following, 
which was unanimously adopted as the sense 
of the meeting: 

Inasmuch as Mr. D. T- Ames, of New 
York, editor and publisher of the Penman's 
Art Journal, has, Irom its incrption, 
aided and promoted the purposes of the 
Business Educators' Assncialion— having, 
iu fact, in an iinpnrlaut sense been its 
father ; and inasmuch as his hand and heart 
are ahvays in the work of our specialty, 
always ready to do good work for educati<m 
and m irality, we. the members of that As- 
so.iaiion iu convention assembled at Wash- 
ington, feel it to be no less a duty than a 
pleasure to commend Mr. Ames and his 
Journal to public favor. 

Especially do we commend him and it to 
the favorable regard ol the business educa- 
tors of the country, and to the young men 
and women who are entering upon a busi- 
ness education or a business life. 

The Penman's Art Journal is an 
organ of no uncertain sound. Its utter- 
ances are bold, decided, and in the direcli'in 
of all good achievements. We look upon 
it as the most valuable of all the agencies 
for promoting sound ideas of the great work 
in which we are engaged, and we liereby 
pledge to it our hearty co-operation and 

Resolutions of thanks to all the retiring 
officers were passed, when the Convention 
adjourned to m^et at Rochester, N. Y., at 
such time as the Executive Committee shall 


1 the 

cpression of all 
who attended the Convention ihat this was 
the most interesting, profitable, and enthu- 
siastic Convention ever held by the Associa- 
tion, which was largely owing to the kind 
attention shown the members by the citi- 
zens of Washington, and the very liberal 
and hospitable attention bestowed upon 
them by Mr. and Mrs. Spencer, who 
spared neither labor nor expense in their 
well- chosen efforts for the social enter- 
tainment of their guests, whom they seemed 
to consider all the attendants to be. We 
are fully conscious that our share in such 
hospitality cannot be suitably requited in 
thanks; we can, therefore, only hope that 
our hosts will at some future time place us 
in a position to return a more sobetantial 

The Road to Success. 
By Paul Pastnor. 

No ene saw him, as he sat with bowed 
head in the little dingy attic room, which 
was at the same time htf 
and kitchen. It was a brc 
that was bowed so pathel 
curling locks falling down 
bands folded on the table, _ 
blue-veined forehead peeping 
fresh and fair as any girl's. His arms were 
crossed at the wrists, and under them lay 
an open book ; while the shortening candle, 
so long unsnutfed, burneil dimly, filling 
the room with an unpleasant smell. 

" Oh, well," he sighed, " I shall have to 
give ■ 

study, bedroom 
pn, boyish head 
rally— the 
over the slight 
nd the white. 

..«,. glad u. .ee. .»;-;«;;;„ oTu.": i iz:i:\:::;j'LZT::f::::ii 

my last cent is gone. I will stay the week 
out, live as I may, and then if nothing 
turns up to give me a lift, why back I must 
go to the old humdrum, hopeless life on 
the farm— dig and delve, dig and delve, 
never growing any wiser, never growing 
any happier, and in the end, perhaps, hav- 
ing just enough to lay one decently away in 
the ground!" 

The boyish face was raised from the 
table, and bent wearily above the book 
again. It was a handsome, open, winning, 
face, but alas! so careworn, so prematurely 
wasted and sad. It showed traces of hard, 
close work — of sleepless nighrs and early 
morniog vigils — of disappointment, too, 
and a weary longirg for something better, 
higher, yet still far out of reach. 

Henry Deering was a young law student. 
By dint of hard scrimping, hard woik, and 
an occasional small loan from some less 
hardly circumstanced friend he had resolu- 
tely worked his way through college, and 
was now endeavoring, wiih all his might, 
to comjdete the two years' course of legal 
study necessary to prepare him for admis- 
sion to the bar. He had chosen a famous 
law school in New York City, not so much 
because of its superior advantages as 
because in the great metropolis he was mure 
likely to pi<-k up odd jobs here and there, 
upon the scanty returns of which he was 
resolved to pay his way. But it was, indeed, 
a hard struggle. Employmeut waa to be 
had but occasioually, and that of the most 
menial and ponrly paid sort ; rent — even of 
his little attic room —was high ; it cost 
something to buy food, though the resolute 
young fell-.w actually lived on almost 
nothing; and, lastly, to meet the term 
bills took about all be could scrape to- 
gether, to do his best. So it is uo wonder 
that he was discouraged that April night, 
as he sat next to the roof of the old tene- 
ment building and heard the dreary rain 
paltering on the sluugles. It was true that 
his last cent was gone. A eiieap twenty- 
cent meal at a neighboring restaurant — 
the only meal be bad had that day— took 
all that was left of the princely sum of five 
dollars, earned by two day's hard work at 
the docks. " I will stay the week out," he 
repeated to himself, as he flung himself 
down on his bare mattress that night, 
"and ilieu, if nothing turns up, I must go 

The week passed. Henry lived from 
hand to mouth, often haviog to absent him- 
self from lectures to earn enough to pay for 
bis frugal meal at night and keep his land- 
lady from turning him out of his dingy 
room. On Saturday morning he strolled 
despairingly out upon ibe crowded streets. 
It was the busy day of the week in the 
great metropolis, ;ind throngs of seriou-s- 
faced people were flowing in steady streams 
past each other on the broad pavements. 
"I must get some steady employment 
somewhere," thought Henry Deering, "and 
pursue my law studies whenever opportu- 
nity oflers. I cannot live like a dog any 
longer." This resolution gave him new hope, 
and he strode sturdily along, now and then 
stepping into some particularly inviting- 
looking store, to ask if they didn't want a 
willing helper, and taking every repulse 
with a cheery "All right, sir," that made 
the proprietor half sorry he hadn't en- 
gaged him, even at the necessity of mak- 
ing a place for the handsome young fellow. 

But when noon came, and nothing bad 
been gained, hungry, tired, thoroughly 
disappointed and half angry with himself 
for his headstrong ambition, Henry Deer- 
ing was about ready to give the whole 
matter up. He had just five cents in his 
pocket, which he had earned by helping a 
drayman lift a piano-bos; and with this 
he slipped into a dirty little restaurant and 
purchased a cup of muddy cofl'ee and a 
biscuit. Poor as this fare was, it served to 
take away the sharp edge of hii ravenous 
appetite, and gave him a sense of strergih 
and warmth from within which was almost 
refreshing. He determined to go back to 
his lodgings and study for an hour or two, 

and then set out upon bis ()uest again in the 
latter part of the afternoon. 

Hardly, liowevfr, had be toiled up the 
rickety stairs and seated himself at his 
table to study, when in marched his laud- 
lady, and demanded rent for that week and 
for the ensuing week in advance. " I 
ilaresu't trust ye no longer," she said, 
insolently. "My motto is, pay and stay, 
or quit and git. Y'U have been mighty 
slow about eomin' around with the rent 
this M-eek, and so I know that aotnethiu's 
the matter of ye. You must pay now, and 
keep the room, or else pack np your duda 
and git." 


did poor Henry remonstrate; the 
vixen was obdurate. The money she 
would have, or the room. Finally she 
consented to let him remain until over 
Sunday, and then if the rent was not forth- 
cotniiig he must find lodgings elsewhere. 
The young man again sallied out upon the 
street with feelings which cannot easily be 
imagined by those who have never been in 
circumstances somewhat of the same kind. 
To say that be was despondent and well- 
nigh hopeless would be hardly strong 
enough. He was clean discouraged, and in 
the despair of the moment — terrible as it 
may seem — thoughts even of self destruc- 
tion floated through the young man's mind. 

In thia fr? 


down one of the principal thoroughfai_., 
when, suddenly looking up, he saw a well- 
dressed gentleman with one coat-sleeve— 
his right — tucked into his pocket, standing 
at the open door of one of the stores, and 
gazing anxiously up and down the street. 
Indepd, so almost importunate was his look 
that Henry stopped, hesitated, and finally 
stepped forward with his hand to his cap 
and asked if he could be of any service. 
The gentleman looked earnestly down upon 
the sympathetic, frank face of the young 
man before him, and suddenly asked — 
"Can you write?" Henry was somewhat 
surprised at such a demand from one who 
seemed to be rather looking for some mes- 
senger to run an errand of life and death; 
but be answered, promptly and respectfully, 

"Step this way," said the gentleman, 
quickly leading Henry down the long 
salesroom of the store to the cosy office be- 
yond. "Here, take this pen, and show me 
what you can do. Write your name, and 
some sentence following." Henry sat down 
and wrote in smooth running business hand, 
" H- nry D. ering. Perseverance is the 

" Good ! " said the one-armed gentleman, 
as he picked up the slip and scanned the 
fair chirography. My secretary has failed 
me to day— his irregular habits, as usual 
—and I have a large amount of important 
correspondence to dictate. Therefore, if 


propose to use you as 
' Secretary _pro tern' for the rest of the day, 
at a liberal salary." Henry's eyes slione 
with gratitude; but he simply said, I will 
do my best, sir, and thank you." Oh, bow 
many times he thanked his fortunate stars, 
as be sat there writing smoothly and rap- 
idly, that he had made a study of penman- 
sliip in his college days, aud acquired the 
graceful hand of a ready writer! Visions 
ployment and good wages in 

his favi 



' hahi 

hope that perhaps the 
" of the present secretary 
of the kind gentleman who had employed 
him would result in a change in that office, 
favorable to himself. At seven o'clock llie 
gentleman ordered in a delightful litth' 
lunch for both, and at nine (.'clock he closed 
his desk and informed his faithful atnan- 
uensis that tlie labors of the day were ovt-r 
—and. indeed, never so satisfactorily per- 
formed before; with which, he handed 
Henry a crisp five dollar b,ll, with the re- 
quest that he should drop in again on Mon- 
day afternoon, if he had no other engage- 
mtul. Henry came, of course, and his 
kind empb)yer, being at leisure, gradually 
drew from him his story. At its close, he 
put bis hand kuidly on Henry's shoulder, 


sod mi—" Yooog man, I believe you faire 
iMmeil the be»l l»ion ..f life, HDiJ practiced 
it too. PerseTenioce w the road to succeaa, | 
•ad joa h«vo traveled it nobly. N..w, if 
yoa are »illiD(! to t«Ve a liel|iiog haod, I 
am oaly too glad to lecd it I have di»- 
cbatged my eeorelary. II.1 came into the 
office, Ihia mornine, dfouk and inaolent, 
and I loKl him hi. tcrvire. were no longer 
ncede<l. The ro.ilion is not an onerous 
one, and yon icill have all the moruing for 
your studies — will you accept itt" 

That night Hf'ury wrote home, '* I am 
all righl now, niotbcr. Perseverance is the 
road to success. " 

Agnosticism in China. 
Every true Confucian, says the North 
China Herald, is an agnostic, lie believes 
only iu the seen ; the unseen he regards as 
unknown and unknowable. When asked 
how we should serve the spirits, Coufuciiis 
replied, " Unal.le to serve men, how can 
we serve spirits t " Confine your thoughts 
to human duty. To serve men well is the 
beet way to serve the gods. To the ciues- 
lion which immediately followed regarding 
death, his answer was, " Not knowing life, 
how can we know death t" Attend to the 
present : why trouble yourself with insolu- 
ble ridillee about the future? Life and 
death are one. Live well and you will die 


vas a tlioroiigli-goiug ag- 

C. iiu <tid t 

ot deny the existence of 

and *>pirits, 

nor the posaibility of a 

e lifo. He B 

inply regarded such sub- 

as bej'i'Dd h 

uman knowledge, and re- 


tuscd to diecusa Ihein. He was sure of his 
five BeoaeB, and declined to move a step 
further. Aa an agnostic the Confuclaniat 
18 tolerant of other crt'cds. Ho goes even 
further, and will admit that for the ignorant 
iiiiillitiide, and edpeoially for M-oinen, aa 
apparatus of gnds and detnons is necessary. 
He does not carp, therefore, to proclaim 
his Rceptu-ism, still lees to actively propa- 
gate it. His creed is only for the wise : the 
masses are better as they are. He will 
eubioribf! to the teinjdea and take part in 
idolatrous ceremonies. To the common 
people, Confucian agnosticism has never 
been very satislactory. But the agnostic 
pliilosophy has not been without its influ- 
ence on the masses. There is but little 
religious fervor, and scarcely any deep faith. 
The people will ridicule their own gods, 
laugh at their own worship, and freely 
criticize all the creeds. Speak to any 
Chinese — no matter what his rank — about 
the future life, and his reply is almost cer- 
taiu to bo: "Who knows anything about 
itt" and is likely enough to add, "Ealing 
and .'.Irinking are realities," implying that 
all else is doubtful. Refer to the subject of 
future rewards and punishments, and li 
sarcaslio remark will probably be, "I have 
seen the living sufler, but never seen the 
deail iu citngues." The present is certain ; 
the future is all unknown. He therefore 
keeps a sharp eye to tho present chance. It 
must be now or never; there may be no to- 
tnorrow. Intense worldliness and general 
animalism are the natural results The con- 
elusion of the whole matter shows how far 
superior morally the original and orthodox 
sysiems of Buddism and Taoism are to the 
agnostic attitude. 

Not Responsible. 

It should be distinctly understood that 
the editors of the Journal are not to be 
held as indorsing anything outside of its 
editorial columns; all couimunications not 
obj( tliouttble in their charatiter, nor devtiid 
of interest or merit, are received and pub- 
lished; if any person differs^ the columns 
ore equally open to hiin to say eo and tell 

Whenever a new and startling fac*. ia 
brought to light in science, people grst say, 
"It ia not true"; then that '• ii is contrary 
to religion": and, lastly, "that everybody 
knew it before." 

Henry WiUiam Ellsworth. | 

The subject nf this sketch, author of the 
" Ellsworth System of Penmanship and 
Book-keeping," was born in 18^6 on one ] 
of the highest hills of Chautauqua County, 
State of Sew York, overiooking the United I 
States and Canada, and in full view of the 
white caps of Lake Erie, which gave pri- 
mary writing lessons to the ancient P. R. 
The early lifo of Henry William Kllsworth 
was spent on a farm and in attendance at 
the district school until the age of sixteen, 
when he went to the Frcdonia Academy to 
''complete'' his cducition. While in attend- 
ance there, one Corydon L. Gray (now 
bt-ad book-keeper for Messrs. A. A. Low 
& Son, of New York ) organized classes in 
penmanship, and young Ellsworth began a 
course of lessons under him, but Mr. Gray 
having left liefore Ellsworth had obtained 
more than an inkling of the art, the acad- 
emy was without a writing teacher. Soon 
after, a traveling professor of the period 
came into town and advertised to teach to 
perfection "in twelve easy lessons of one 
hour each," but his writing was so inferior 
to the standard set up by Mr. Gray that it 
ouly excited ridicule among the students. 
At this juncture, young Kllsworth feeling 
that, if the performance of the "professor" 

student, whither he uext went as tt^arher. 
From Buffiilo Ellsworth was sent to tlie 
Detroit College, and assisted J. H. Gold- 
smith till 1860, when he was " moved on " 
by Stratton to New York city to fill a jio- 
sition in the public schools, and assist 
Lusk :md Packard { then preparing tho B. 
and S. book-keeping series) at the N. Y. 
College, located in Cooper Institute. Dur- 
ing all this period Ellsworth was uncon- 
(ciously acquiring the knowledge and 
experience which, in 18(il, convinced him 
that there was still great room for improve- 
ment in both niJSlNESS penmanship as 
adapted to the masses, and the method to 
be pursued in teaching it in the public 
scluiols wherein the masses are to be edu- 
cated; and he at once entered upon his 
life work of foimding a system of jiusiNEss 

teaching it by teachers of every grade. 

in ISfil his first series of copy-books 
was iml)lished, mainly for his own classes, 
which then numbered some 3,000 pupils 
per week iu the public schools alone. The 
chief improvement;^ in this series were a 
reduction in the number of books from 
twelve to six, and the higlit of loops anil 
capitals to a scale of thirds instead of 
/our(ft«, and also the introduction of 

period tlif 

Kllsworth B.-ok-kerpiui: an 
IS pr^parc.l and yuV 

entitled him to that cognomen, he might 
himself assume to teach plain writing, and 
timidly ventured to make the suggestion to 
the principal of the academy, then Daniel 
J. Pratt, A. M. (now the eHicient secretary 
of the Board of Regents at Albany ), The 
aspiration was promptly encouraged, and 
young Ellsworth was at once installed as 
teacher of penmanship in the academy, 
although the "professor" still held forth 
witli all his attractions at both day and 
evening performances. 

Once in the breach, it was "sink or 
swim" with Ellsworth, and his determina- 
tion to swim, aided by the stimulating con- 
tidence of the worthy principal, soon 
developed the ambition to excel in the art, 
and, like the ancient cobbler, 

He continued his studies, and taught pen- 
manship and book-keeping in the academy 
till 1857, when ho gra<luated and entered 
the offices of the Erie Kailway at Dunkirk. 
But his ambition as a teacher soon caused 
him to accept a position in the Lockport 
Union School, in 1858, whero he trod in 
the footsteps of tho illustrious Packard, 
who was then foiling tho Bryant and 
Slmtton chain of colleges. At Lockport 
one of bis most cnthusiiistic pupils was 
young W. H. Sadler { now President of the 
Baltimore Business College) whom he en- 
eouniged to enter tlie Buffalo College as a 

abirevialed capitals, not heretofore recog- 
nized in copy-books. Perceiving the ne- 
cessity of some standard compilation of the 
commonly received rules and principles of 
pcninnnsliii) in text-book form, for the 
guidiince of teachers, he, in 1862, published 
his "Text-book on Penmanship and Let- 
ter-writing" — the first modern work of the 
kind, and forerunner of the various hand- 
books by other authors,- who saw at once 
the advantage of such a work in extending 
their systems. Iu this text book were first 
introduced black cuts with white Ictieis, to 
illustrate blackboard writing. This was 
followed bj a series of (2) charts on the 
same principle, in 18G3, and suggestei) a 
new departure in the chart business, which 
was at once followed by the "leading " (? ) 

From IS'iC to 1872 Ellsworth published 
The Wnting Teacher, the pioneer jjaper 
devoted to penmanship. This, too, was 
apprceiated, and found imitating competi- 
tors iu the shape of •' Bulletins," '* Teachers 
of Penmanship," etc., and paved the way 
for the great and permanent success of the 
Penman's Art .Journal. 

From ]8(i;i to 1871 Ellsworth managed 
the Ellsworth Business College, of Broad- 
way, New York, as an auxiliary to his 
teaching, publishing, and authorship work, 
associating with him Prof. D. T. Ames, 
during the last year or two prior to its 
transfer to other parties. During this 

lisb.d by him in 180!*, and his "Steps of 
Book-keeping" in 1876— seven years later 
— with the hope of bringing this inipnrlant 
subject into more intelligent shape for the 
average pupil and teacher in tho publii; 
school, where its study is so universally 
neghclpd. But the publication of his Tra- 
cing Books, in' ]8()7, opened the wav for 
a competing series by every author, upon 
the subject, and solves the problem of ele- 
mentary effort in penmanship by using the 
hand to convey the writing idea to the 
head, as well as vice t-er*o. In 1871 the 
copy-books of 1861 were revised, to incor- 
porate his newly- discovered scale of slant 
and proportion based on the Triangle 3: 
4 : 5, which at once placed the Ellsworth 
System upon a scientific footing by regulat- 
ing absolutely the width ot letters and 
spaces, and securing perfect uniformity iu 
all these respects, not only in the- copies, 
but the ruling of the page in both dircc- 
titms to regulate the writing. In his 
crowning work, the " Iteversible Series of 
Writing-books," 1877 {patented 1879), 
another and -new departure was made, in 
which not only an entirely new set of 
copies of faultless style and grading, but ii 
Nfciw FOBM Oii" BOOK was introduced, 
constructed to overcome the well-known 
objections to the old copy-bocd* wherein 
the sheets are underfolded at the back, 
producing a curved and springy surface, 
which will not lie flat, and the leaves of 
which cannot be removed without destroy- 
ing the book. Moreover, twice the surface 
is exposed, and twice the desk-room is re- 
quiied that is actually needed. The 
Reversible Writing-book overcomes all 
these obstacles and more, and opens the 
way to greater freedom in practice, and, 
by means of blank practice sheets inter- 
leaved, overcomes the arbitrariness of the 
old book by supplying the means of over- 
coming the Inequality of practice essential 
to perfect the work of the copies, thus af- 
fording the combined advantages of loose 
l)aper and a book. - 

This brief sketch shows how Ellsworth 
has improved his time for the past twenty 
years or more, and, wliatever posterity may 
say about it, he will doubtless be credited 
with an honest and independent eff'ort to 
vuilce his mark iu the writing profession. 

Use The Pen. 

Back Numbers of the "Journal." 
Please Note. 
Every mail brings inquiries respeotian 
back numbers. The following we can eemi, 
and no others: All numbers of 1878; »!' 
for 1879, except May and November ; {<>t 
1880, copies for months of January, Feb- 
ruary, April, May, June, August at"' 
December only remain; all numbers for 
188J, and all for 1882, except June. H 
will be noted that while Spencer's wriiiue 
lessons began with May, the second lewon 
was in the July number, so that the series 
of lessons is unbroken by the absence of 
the June number. Only a tew copies of 
several of the numbers mentioned above 
remain, eo that persons desiring all or any 
part of them should order quickly- AH ih'^ 
51 numbers, back of 1883, will be niaiJ<-J 
for $4.0(1, or any of the numbers at 10 ceu's 

m^^m^^^^. ^2^ e :;io»7<Avr^^-, 

Educational Notes. 

[Cotnmunications fur Ibis D«panm«>D( may 
be addrem-wl lo B. V. KELLKT.'^Ori Broadway, 
New York. Bri.-f educatiaoal iteme solicited.] 

The Yale Alumni Associatioo of New 
York )iM a inrmberehip of over 400. 

Jay GoHid ban contril.ated $5,000 to the 
Rutgers Collegn cDdowtnent fund. — Ex. 

The bell used at Wellpsley College, 
Ma«8., 18 from an aoeient Buddhist temple 
in Japan. — Ex. 

Brown UniverBify has juat received 
9100,000 for the emtowineot of a chair in 
Natural Science. — Argonaut. 

CdUego thpHtric-alB are not allowed at 
English uiiivorsities, heing forbidden by 
the Faculty. — Notre Dame Scholastic- 

The Faculty of Amherst Collpge, Mass., 
has forbidden its students to take part here- 
after in intercollegiate athletic contests. 

The total gifts and bequests of the late 
John G. Green to Princeton College foot 
up nearly a million and a half. — School 

Princeton has reeeived upward of $2,- 
500,000 since Dr. McCoeh took charge. 
Dr. Muegrave recently gave $80,000.— 
Concord ien sis. 

There arc in the Uoiled States over 3,- 
200,000 colored persons, over 2,200,000 
native white, and over 7,000,000 foreign 
born whites who cannot write. 

In Portugal, according to official statis- 
tics, 825 out of every 1 ,000 can neither read 
nor write. In Switzerland but one in a 
thousand lack these acquirements. 

Four thousand dollars has been collected 
for the (ixtenaion of the workshops of the 
Indian Training School at Carlisle, Penn. 
The school is doing better work in civiliz- 
ing the ludiaUB than the army on the fron- 
tier. — The Age. 

The following is the list of the oldest 
colleges in this country: Harvard, founded 
in \m9] Vale in 1701 ; the College of New 
Jersey ( Priucetnu ), I7-I(i ; University of 
Pennsylvania, 1740; Brown, 174(;; and 
Dartmouth, 17()i>; Rutgers, 1770.— 2ar- 

pHiLLii-s Exeter Acadbmv.— Prof. 
Alpheus S. Packard, of Bowdoin College, 
was a classmate and roommate of George 
Bancroft while a student here. Three 
great hiatorians of America, studied at this 
school, boarded tu the same house, and paid 
their board out of the same charitable fund. 

The Michigan Legislature, by an almost 
unanimous voti-, has passed a bill requiring, 
among its other provisions, iustruction with 
special reference to the effects of alcoholic 
drinks, stimulants, and narcotics generally 
upon the human system. After September 
Ist, 1881. no certificate will be granted to 
any teacher who does not pass a satisfac- 
tory examination in reference to these sub- 

A St. Louis judge has decided that a 
teacher stands in loco parentis, and has 
therefore the right to flog an unruly 
scholar. As to when he should whip and 
when he should not, the teacher is the 
judge. "Whipping," the court says, 
" hurts bad boys only a short while. The 
sentence against it is productive of positive 
injury. Pour years' experience in adminis- 
tering criminal law convinces me that the 
boys who become criminals are boys who 
don't get whipped."— il/i«M. Jour, of Ed. 

A teacher iu London, on being asked 
what moral education or training he gave 
to his scholars— what he did, for instance, 
when he detected a child in a lie — an- 
swered as follows: "I consider all moral 
education to be a humbug. Nature teaches 
children to lie. If one of my boys lies, I 
set him tow-rite soim- such copy as this: 
* Lying is a base and infamous offence.' 
I make him write a quire of paper over 
with this copy, and he knows very well 
that if he does not bring it to me in good 

1 he will get a (logging." — Popula: 

Educational Fancibs. 

[ lo every inetaDCe where ihe eourc« of any 
ileal used in this department is known, the 
proper credit is given. A like courtesy from 
otlit<rs will be appreciated.] 

It does rather stir up the bile of a col- 
lege president to speak of him as ninniog a 
dude factory.- -.Fereman's Herald. 

A Kentucky schoolmaster got a verdict 
of seventeen dollars the other day in a suit 
brought against the trustees for damages 
from a cold caught running after them to 
get his pay. 

LBgical Sequence — A comfortable re- 
Uection for the indisposed. A lazy boy is bet- 
ter than nothing. Nothing is better than a 
studious boy. Therefore a lazy boy is bat- 
ter than a studious boy. 

A lady complains that she is not getting 
educational value for her money. To 
show that she was mistaken her husband 
asked their little boy on his last return 
from school six questions. To five he re- 
plied correctly. The answer was, " I don't 

"You write a beautiful hand. I wish 
that I had such a hand," said Mr. Flasher 
to a lady clerk at the hotel. *' Am I to 
consider this as a proposal ? " asked the 
bright, lady. " Well~er — yea — if my 
wife is wilting to let me <iff," replied the 
accomplished Flasher. — Detroit Post. 

" What Will the Harvest Be f '' was the 
subject of an essay at the Commencement 
exercises of a Boston female seminary, last 
week. As there were nine in the graduat- 
ing class it is probable that the haryest will 
be four divorce suits, one elopement, and 
four woman's suBrage advocates. — Fire- 
man's Herald. 

Here is an authentic instance of true and 
faithful love : A Plttstield, Mass., school- 
girl, in order to convince a jealous boy that 
she liked him better than some other 
urchin, exclaimed : " Of course I like you 
better than I do Bill, for don't I miss words 
in my spelling lesson on purpose so as to 
be down at the foot of the class where you 

Enthusiastic Professor of Phijsics, dis- 
cussing the organic and inorganic kingdoms : 
" Now, if I should shut my eyes — so — and 
drop my head — so — and should not move, 
you would say I was a clod ! But I move, 
I leap, I run ; then what do you call 
met" Voice from the rear: "A clod- 
hopper." Class is dismissed.— Vassar 

Teacher : " What is a kiogd()m f " 
Pupil : " A country governed by a King.'' 
T.: "What is an Empire?" 
P. : " A country governed by an Em- 

2.: " Very good. Now, coming to our 
country, what is a Republic t" 

P. (confidently); "A country governed 
by a republican ! " 

Said a teacher to one of his highest pu- I 
pils ; " If your father gave you a basket of 
peaches to divide between yourself and 
your little brother, and there were forty 
peaches in the basket, after you had taken 
your share, what would be left?" "My 
little brother would be left, for I'd take all 
the peaches. That's the kind of a Con- 
gressman I'm going to be when I grow 
up."— Kx. 

AsTROKOMiCAL.— " Agathe," said he, 
pointing with the half- evaporated end of 
his taffy stick toward the bes]>angled Occi- 
dent, "what star is that blazing out over 
yonder t" "That, Miletus,'' said she, 
scratching her nigh ear on the capstone of 
his shoulder-pad, "that is Mercury, my 
cherished one." "You don't sayt" was 
his answer. "You don't say!" Well, I said 
when it got up to ninety-three this after- 
noon that I believed it would ekii» out the 
top of the flue, and, sure enough, it has." 

M. Lefebure de Fourcy 
student in physics once upon a time, and 
the young man, being nervous, failed utterly 
on the first question put to him — a very 
simple one. " Bring this gentleman a 
bundle ('f hay for his breakfast," remarked 
the disgusted examiner lo one of the attend- 
ants. "Bring two — the professor and I 
will breakfast together ! " added the sin- 
dent, who thus suddenly regained and 
asserted his self-posession. 

A teacher in a suburban school was giv- 
ing )ier class an object-lesson a few days 
ago, and drew a cat upon the blackboard 
for its inspection. She then asked what 
there was on the cat, and the unanimous 
reply was. "Hair." "What else!" 
she queried. There was a long pause of 
consideration, but finally the hand of a 
bright-eyed little live-year-old shot up, and 
almost simultaneously came her triumphant 
answer: " Fleas!'' — Boston Post. 

employed in teaching the "young idea how 
to shoot," you should not make (aces in that 
manner, for it will make you awfully ugly 
looking when you grow up." 

Gertie looked one moment at the 
"schoolmarm," who had never, even in her 
"sweet sixteen" days, been accused of be- 
ing pretty, and hoped to trace effect back 
to cause by askiug her: "What did you 
use to make faces for when you were little t" 

"When My Ship Comes In." 
By Mart E. Martin. 

" Who can tell what passenger our ship 
is bringing to us as she is sailing across 
the sea!" These were the words that 
tloated out to Fred Devol, from a room ad- 
joining the one in which he had been 
doing some carpenter's work. Whether it 
was because hi.' had been so busy that he 
had only heard these words, he could not 
tell; but just as he laid down bis hammer 
the words lloaled to him. The person 
who was reading had stopped so suddenly 
that it almost appeared tc Fred as if it had 
been spoken in answer to his thoughts. 
In after years Fred found out that Dick- 
ens, who knew so well the feelings of the 
poorer classest wrote those words; hut if 
Dickens wrote them, as Fred remembered 
having heard them that day, he never 
could tell. Stick in his memory they 
would, just as he had first heard them. 
Life had seemed harder to hear tlian ever 
that day, aud the thought had just oome 
into his mind, will tmj ship ever come in f 
when through the open door there floated 
out to him, in a soft sweet voice, "Who 
tell what passenger our ship is bringing 

she is sailing 


He picked up hi 
went back to the shop with a lighter heart ; 
for it seemed almost a promise that a bet- 
ter day would sometime come to him. 

"Old Savage has just beeq iiling his 
saw," called out some of the men to Fred 
as he opened the door of the shop. "Oh, 
you needn't look as if you were frightened 
to death, but you'll catch it ! you staid the 
thirtieth part of a second over your time ;" 
and Old Savige filed away. Fred was an 
apprentice to Savage, and he knew well \vli;it 


the I 

called him, had a falsetto voice, aud when be 
got into one of his frequent rages the men 
said he could pipe his voice shriller than a 
tile drawn across an old saw. It was the 
delight of some of the men, when their 
mates were the victims, to stand behind 
Savage's back, and, with a nail, go through 
the pantomiue. Wi'.h every elevation of 
Savage's voice this man would dumbly 
run a nail higher and higher up the saw — 
much to the amusement of every one iu the 
shop. Upon poor Fred's head fell these 



upon any 


They had long been the terror of his life. 
Fred was a Creole, but what were the ex- 
act circumstances that had drifted him into 
Savage's hands Fred himself did not quite 
know. Evidently he was of good parent- 

age, as his finely -funned features and 
pure accent clearly showed. When Old 
Savage was closely pressed for an answer, 
he would Say that he got him from one of 
the yellow fever nurses. Tbis nur^e had 
been sent down to New Orieaus during an 
epidemic, and had brouphi the boy back. 
The nurse bad said that he bad seen all the 
boy's friends die, one by ouq; and he 
couldn't have the heart to leave him there 
alone. The nurse had afterwards died, and 
I poor Fred had fallen into Old Savage's 
clutches. Fred remembered uothiug of 
any other life than this one he was leading 
with Savage. As he stood now, looking 
so frightened at the words of the workman, 
you could see that he was not very tall for 
his eighteen years. He was remarkably 
slender and girlish in his figure. His 
hands were of exquisite iiudd — the fingers 
tapering; his hair black ; complexion dark, 
but clear; his eyes large and brown, and 
usually gave you a pleading glance. Now 
they carried in them a hunted, startled look, 
for almost before the workman hail finished 
speaking Savage came in. He began on 
Fred in such shrill torrents of abuse that 
one of the workmen blew the words to 
another from behind his hand: "It's an 
8ra." Fml, after the first shock to his sen- 
sitive nerves, bore it better, and quietly 
went on to his work ; for back to him came 
the promise that some day his ship would 
come in. As it would take the men from 
the shop, and Fred, being handy with his 
tools, was often sent, as he had been to- 
day, to do some little job : at one time it 
would be a door that needed a weather 
strip; at another, a shelf to put up. In 
this way Fred saw that there was a differ- 
ent way of living from that in Savage's 
house— that there were diflerent people in 
the world from the rough, but kind-hearted, 
men in the shop. 

at him up-town to 
? shelves in a store. 
sr of the store, as 
rney. Mr. Bernard 
but few thought to 
! he kept was called 
a second-hand book-store; bnt it was a, 
perfect museum of odd things in that line. 
Everything could be found there, from a 
well-thumbed school geography to the rare 
old volumes, so dear to a hook- lover's heart, 
but impossible to be found in any other 
place hut Barney's store. While Fred was 
at work, he couldn't keep his eyes from oc- 
casionally wandering from one shelf of 
books to another. Never had he been in a 
more inviting place. The store had noth- 
ing of the dingy, dusty air, that its name 
would suggest. It WHS a large, light, airy 
room; with a home look about it that was 
not lessened by the cozy sitting-room be- 
yond that Mr. Bernard had partitioned off 
for Madame Bernard It was as quaint 
and !is pretty as the madarae herself. 
Here she sat, or, as some customer would 
come in, she would briskly step out and 
help in the sale, or the hunt for some de- 
sired hook. As Fred went on with his 
work, Barney approached him and said: 
" I want to get a yoimg man in my store 
so that madame does not have to jump up so 
many times. Do you like your work so 
well that you cannot come and live with 
ust" Barney knew as well as others the 
kind of a life Fred had to live. 

" Like it, B.irney f I would change it for 
almost anything if I could; you would not 
take ire, would you, Barneyf" 

"Yes,'' said Mr. Bernard, in his broken 
English { Fred never found ont what his 
nationality wns ), come right away, I will 
pay you a small salary each week, and you 
can live with me aud madame." 

Fred was delighted; he felt several 
inches taller when he went back and told 
Savage he was going to leave. Savage 
raved, but it did no good. Fred took his 
place in the store, and soon won the love 
of the two old people. It was only a few 
weeks after entering upon his new duties 
that Fred, while piling some books on a 
shelf, stopped short iu his work. He had 

do some work on g 
Fred knew the o 
many others did, as 
was his correct uat 
call him so. The e 

come acroM ooe that deeply inUreeted him 
— CO deeplj that he Btood uiotinQleea, one 
foot resting on the coooter, the other upon 
a lower shelf. Deeper aod deeper did the 
iDterent grow, uotU he jumped dr>wD and 
■eated himKlf on a etool. His work was 
all forgotten ; and it was well for him that 
he waa not itill at work for Savage. As 
an hoar passed be could hardly then tear 
himself away. This was a hook on writ- 
ing — a guide to hosioeaH-wriliDg aod orua- 
mental peDroaoship. Nolhiag oew to 
many, hut the first that Fred had ever 
seen, or eveu heard ahout. Finally, Fred 
put the book away in a secure plar^ and 
finished his work. When Mr. Bernard 
came io, Fred aoked him to sell him the 
hook. "You may have it for nothing, my 
boy," said Mr. Bernard. "I bought it 
with a h>t of hooka." From that day Fred 
detencioed to make of himself just as fine 
a penman as the aotfaor of that hook. 
During all the time he whs knocking shout 
be had pick>d up a very good fdunda'ion 
forau education, but he wrote in a cramped, 
angular hand. Now he went to work in 
earnest. Day after day he copied during 
every moment that he had to spare. For 
the first time in his life he had an object to 
gain, and an end to achieve. Before, he 
had always worked at the biddiog of others. 
He did not make the progress that be 
wished to make in wriliug, yet he deter- 
mined not to give up. One day, when Mr. 
Bernard was out, madaine very busy within, 
and the store entirely free from customers, 
Fred went to work on his writing. He 
worked wilh a will entirely forgetful of the 
store and all his surroundings. He did not 
notice a tall and very scholarly looking 
gentleman when he came in. He stood 
quite close to Fred ; stood and watched 
him for a long time. Finally, the feeling 
that some one was near him caused Fred 
to look up. " You will never accomplish 
it in that way," said the gentleman, quietly 
and with a smile, as Fred's eyes met his. 

" What made you try to write all that in 
Buch a short timet It won't do; but the 
improvement you made from the first is as- 

Fred did not realize for the moment that 
he had never seen this man before, but 
listened attentively. The gentleman went 
on to Bay: 

"Don't let your eagerness to improve in 
writing make you lose all of your judg- 
ment in striving." 

"But I did not know, eir," said Fred, 
" that I was trying so bard until you 

That is just what I mean. You aban- 
don yourself to your desire to learn to 
write, and, consequently, do not make the 
progress that you would if you were cool- 
headed. You have, id all probability, said 
to yourself: *I will never cea?e striving 
until I can write copies iu this book.' It 
will be just as like as not that you are aim- 
ing at something that is impossible. The 
result will be that you will show, in every 
letter you form, that over-heated blood is 
gallopinE through your veins. Curb this 
hot spirit; aim not quite so high at first; 
have full command of yourself; then with 
a thorough knowledge of the rules for wri- 
ting, you can bid your will lead your hand 
in the desired way." 

"Why, sir," said Fred, "I thought it 
was right to strive and work in learning to 

" It is, if you do it aa I have told you. 
Now follow out my directions, and see if 
you do not accomplish it." 

Just theu Mr. Bernard came in; the 
gentleman secured the hook he was seek- 
ing. As the gentleman passed out of 
Bight, Mr. Bernard said: "That is the 
great scholar, Mr. Poulson : he ia a pub- 
lisher (.f a great iiiafiraEiop." 

Fred pnuMiced ins writing after that, 
under the iustrucliots Mr. Puulson had 
given him. He was astonished to see the 
progreps be made. A Utile was accom- 
plished each day, until he loved the art to 
8Uch a degree that he loat all consciousnees 

of aelf in his practice. Before he realized 
it he had reached such perfection in writing 
that if he had not quite come up to the 
author, at which he aimed, he had very 
nearly reached that point. One morning 
the knowledge of what he had attained 
came to him all at on.e. His impulsive 
nature gave the shout, long and loud : "My 
ship's come in ! " Madauie rushed from I 
the inner room, wringing her handn, and | 
exclaiming: " ilfon Dieu ! What you cry 
ont BO for f No ship could come into this ' 

Fred laughed at ber and at his own ira- i 
pulsive nature. Yet well he knew that for 
the first time in his poor life his ship had 1 
made a trip across the sea, well laden with i 
material that would give him every success \ 
in life. Mr. Bernard was a ripe scholar, i 
and Fred could not have fallen into better 
hands. Now that he (•aw what wonderful I 

and to the sides rose up like great n 
The front open and close down 
river, from where the cool sea-breeze was 
wafted and stirred the trees to low music 
above ynur head. To lie there beneath 
those trees, with opeu air, upen sky and 
open sea, — with the harebills, the dainty 
ferns, and many bright flowers springing 
up from the green moss at your feet, this of 
itself was enough to make one happy, and 
to he grateful for existence. It was here 
that Fred Devol used to come, away from 
the smoke and the dust of the city, and He 
down beneath the trees. It was here he 
dreamed his first dream of greatness. 
Here he first knew that the poetic genius 
was within him. Fred Devol kept the 
secret of his first poem a long time — fearing 
he had overestimated hi^ own (>ower. One 
day Mr. Bernard found his poems, and was 
impatient until one was in Mr. PouIsoq' 

t vai photc-evgravtd from an original ptn-Aravnng tjeevtedhy Mr. GriJJitU, 
i ttudent of Mutsttman's Gem City Butinen College, Quincj/, UL 

success Fred had made in writing, and I 
that he wished to improve in every way, ho 
helped him. No one knew more people 
who could help Fred's writing, hringiug , 
him iu a pecuniary I enefit, aud soon he 
had no need to accept the salary that was j 
due him in the store. 

One of Fred's greatest pleasures, when , 
he first went to Mr. Bernard, was that he 
could go into the open air when he wished, 
without the fear of a scolding. As the 
years went on, it still contiuued his great 
pleasure. Many a day he would start for a 
walk to Happy Htdlow. The way to it 
was across a covered bridge, then a turn to | 
the side led you into a road that lay side by I 
side and wound its way with the river you : 
had just crossed. This road went winding 
its way by river and hill-eide until it 
brought you tfj Happy Hollow. It was 
well named Happy. It was a hollow made 
by several hills standing together fronting 
the river. 1 don't think you could find a 
more lovely spot than Happy Hollow, on a 
bright May day. The hills to the back 

hands, so great was his appreciation of 
what Fred had done. 

The poem was submitted to Mr. Poulson 
for puhlicaliou, written in Fred Devol's 
hand that was far more beautiful than the 
one that made Poe's first poem acceptable. 
It was accepted and published in Mr. Poul- 
son's magazine, where Fred Devol placed 
many tnore. 

Fred Devol succeeded so well in all that 
he undertook that, when thirty- five years 
of age, Mr. Poulson offered him the editor- 
ship of his magazine. Fred. Devol was 
not only willing to take it but abundantly 
able to manage the magazine- 
It was only a few mornings after he ha»l 
begun his duties as editor that Mr. Poulson, 
holding a letter out to him, said : "That is 
a beautiful hand-writing; I never see a 
lady's letter written as beautifully as that 
but I think of an item I saw in a penman's 
paper." The editor commended a lady 
writing- teacher in these words : "She 
writes with great uniformity for a woman." 
Now Fred, my dear boy, that was a 

slander oo the fair sex. You may take any 

large city and go through its schools, and 
where will you find one boy who writes 
well you will find five girls who write bet- 
ter. It is so in families. It is only when 
men are compelled to use writin^L,' iu hu&iness, 
or make writing a sppciality, that it is difi'er- 
ent. Fred Devol did not attempt to enter 
into H discussion on this topic. What in- 
terested him more was that he had to replv 
to this letter. It was an opportunity he 
had eagerly longed for. This letter was 
from Mary Doane, a contributor to the 
magazine, and Fred Devol had long been 
interested in her. Although a universal 
favorite with ladies, he had never had a 
passing fancy for any one. Tiiis one wo- 
man, speaking through her contributions, 
had stirred Fred Devol's whole nature as 
no other woman had been able to do. He 
was glad now to come this much nearer to 
iier, although he Tuight never see her face 
to face. Fred answered this letter, and a 
constant exchange of business letters drew 
them nearer. Fred thought in her every 
article she poured out her heart to him and 
no one else. He knew that in everything 
that he wrote he had long since ceased to 
speak to any one but her. 

After he had bfcn on the magazine 
about a year Fred Devol resolutely made 
up his mind to ask Mary Doane to marry 
him, and, if she consented, to go over the 
long distance and marry at once. Pru- 
dence whispered to him: "It might he a 
case of Marjorie Daw" ; Pride whispered : 
" You are the man who never picked up a 
paper in which there was a case of two per- 
sons marrying on first sight but you threw 
the paper down and said: " Can there he 
two such idiots iu the world f " Fred De- 
vol listened to neither; the strong heart- 
yearning that he felt for Mary Doane, and 
he believed she felt for him, conquered. 

When Mary Doane received his letter 
she was seated in her own pretty cottage 
that was nestled in among the trees. 
After reading it she neither felt shocked, 
indignant, nor surprised. She had all along 
felt this heart-yearning for Fred Devol, 
but did not dream that he felt it. His pic- 
ture she had seen in the magazine, and his 
writings had found an answering chord in 
her own heart. Why should she not marry 
himf This was the way she reasoned: 
Why should a person be compelled to see 
each other face to face when they had so 
long read each the secret thought of the 
other? Why should she not trust himT 

She wrote him that she would marry 
him, and over the long distance he went. 
He reached the pretty cottage among the 
trees and entered. It was no case "f 
"Marjorie Daw," for, lo I his ship is sail- 
ing in, and froiu her deck has stepped the 
passenger she is bringing : it ia sweet aud 
lovely Mary Doane- A woman not tall. 
yet of grand and noble mien. BeantifLil 
she is with her fair English face and her 
blue eyes that look so steadily into yours. 
She is near Fred Devol's own age. TIk^' 
beauty of her face, you can see, comes not 
from features alone, but from the soul 
■within. Does this heart-yearning for earli 
other cease when they meet in tlie iiesti. 
face to face? No! they know lliat they 
were made for each other as surely if 
while Adam slept his ship sailed to tn'" 
from over the sea, and left to him Kv--. 
the one fair passenger. 

The *' Hand-book" as a Premiun 

We have . 
until further i 
paper) free to 
a subscription 

, the "Hand-hook" 

pory person remitting »> '" 
ar renewal to the Joub-nai 
for $1.25, the book baL.I 
eomely bound in cloth. Price of the ho"!- 
hy mail, in cloth, $1 ; iu paper, 75 ci?tii- 
Liber&l discount to teachers and agents. 

Itinerant Professors. 
Aktki.k II. 

Bt Chandlek H. I'FiRcE. K«okuk. Iowa. 
Yw, we all plead gnilty to having been 
once a traveliog teacher of peoinansbip, 
and we are proud of it. This is the first step- 
piog-Btoiie, and he who would climb must 
not ignore the assisunce gaioed in this 
field uf usefulness. We have no regrets; 
hut, uu the contrary, are proad of having 
done much good and gained a class of know- 
ledge that is invaluable for the superstnic 
lure of a successful career. We look back 
with pleasure over a conquered field, and 
believe that the inomentuin gained is our 
constant support in these days when others 
are hailing between two opinions. The 
itinerant professor is a necessity, and is sure 
to thrive if be possess ability and the re- 
quisites of manhood, with force and energy 
enough to create an electric current. 

We must not demand too much at first, 
liowever, as we have admitted that the be- 
ginning is here, and we caoDot, consist- 
ently, be too critical. 

Young man, launch your tiny bark upon 
the sea of strife and world of waters, trust- 
ing to fortune and a strong arm for a safe 
arrival iu the golden harbor. Be just, be 
true to your own iutorestii, and you will 
never want for encouragemeat. 

Nothing great is lightly wod, 

Nothing won is lost, 

Every good deed nobly done, 

Will repay the cost. 

Place in Heaven your utmost trust 

j^JJjjou will to do. 

And if you succeed 

You must paddle your own canoe. 

Why do you hesitate t 

I don't know just what to do. 

But you must know if you ever hope to 

I have no confidence in my ability. 

Are you positive you know your busi- 

How can I know it without having taught, 
and how can I teaoh until I know howT 

What a predicament. 

What ability have you t Do you know 
anytliing more than how to write and draw 
a few birds and beasts of prey ? 

What do you mean by ** How to write t" 

I mean, can you execute smooth, even 
writing, with that degree of skill that will 
demand recognition by with whom 
you come in contact. 

Yes, I am not wanting in that. 

Can you introduce a little speed in your 
copy-hand, and produce what is always of 
the greatest interest to a busineae com- 
munity, viz., Business-writing T 

Xo, I scarcely think I can. I didn't think 
that was essential. 

In your profession everything is esgenttal 
that will kelp you to help others to Jielp 
themselves. If by your power you CJin 
lead others to acquire what you possess, 
your services must be in demand, and will, 
of necessity, command liberal returns. To 
say the least, you should make this an ob- 
ject and improve yourself as soon as pos- 
sible. It surely will benefit you in many 

I have made a good start in drawing and 
can show fair results. 

What is the object of drawing? 

It serves an excellent purpose to show 
executive ability. The drill gained in reach- 
ing any degree of proficiency iu drawing 
gives superior increased power in the field 
of writing. It lends a certain enchantment 
to writing, and assists one to accomplish 
the result with greater ease. The orna- 
mental bears the same relation to the prac- 
tical that algebra does to arithmetic. 

Do you deem ornamental penmanship a 
necessitf/f Diamond cuts diamond. Yan- 
kees answer one question by asking an 
other. There are many things deemed a 
necesstty that were once considered a luxury. 
If we consider how little will servo our pur- 
pose, we surely must conclude that both 
ornamental penmanship and algebra muet 
fall to the ground. 

A knowledge ol algebra will benefit any- 
one, not so much in dollars and cents, but 
in the satisfaction of knowing something 
beyond ordinary. Ornamental Penmanship 
is well enough in its way, and like algebra, 
serves a purpose that must not, and cannot, 
be ignored. An ignorant cry of a majority 
against it does not prove anything. If 
algebra assists one materially to understand 
arithmetic, and ornamental assists in the 
practical, I sorely am safe in concluding 
that each should be taken in its time in 
order to get a more than ordinary develop- 
ment. A thorough understanding in the 
lower must be gained through the higher. 

Is this conclusion satisfactory ? 

So far I am safe. I can write fairly well. 
I think I understand the development of a 
business handwriting, and I will try and 
profit by what you say as to drawing, that 
through it I may reach what others have 
done in writing. 

But if you expect to be a teacher you have 
only half begun. 

Yes, I told you I didn't know what to do, 
and that I have no confidence in my ability. 

What ability did you refer tof I have 
but the one. 

But you must know that if you would 
teach well, you must possess teaching- 
power or teaching-ability, in addition to 
executive ability. Confidence comes from 
the possession of both, and you cannot 

is not what he should be, then he should 
seek to solve this one " Problem of the 

A Train for Dudes. 

There is talk of putting on a regular 
English train betweeu Boston and New 
York. Everything in the way of luxury, 
confort, speed and safety has already been 
perfected. There are no such cars and 
engines in the world as the Consolidated 
road runs, yet, wishing always to supply 
an unsatisfied public, the experiment of 
running a train of English coaches has 
been agitated. English engines, with no 
cabs and one pair of 11 -foot drivers, will 
be imported ; also, first-class compartment 
coaches, seating eight persons in each part, 
or twenty-four persons iu each car. The 
high rate of speed accomplished in Eng- 
land is attained by running small trains, so 
here but four of these cars will be used on 
each train. One train will leave New 
York and one Boston simultaneously each 
day, and make the run in about five hours. 
The train may possibly carry the mail, 
paying five dollars a minute to the Govern- 
ment for each and every minute's delay — 
just as they do in England. The "guard" 
will pass along on the outside of the train 
and collect the tickets through the win- 
dows. There will be no Tentilation, and 


n'e present tltt above alphabet of plain capitals for lohalearm or combined movement practic 
photo-engraved from pen-and-ink copy executed at the office of tlie "Journal." 

know your business and be successful in it 
without a knowledge of both. 

If this be true, I am only half a man and 
must look to my laurels. If the demands 
of any business are known, I must meet 
those demands if I meet Huccess. If I shut 
my eyes against truth, or in ignorance grope 
in the dark, it will avail me nothing to cry 
aloud when lost. 

You must prepare for the contest. To 
say that I will try is not enough. You 
must demand that preparation of yourself 
that belongs to this day and generation. 
When you were a child, childish things 
were becoming to you; but now that you 
ptipteud to act for yourself, it becomes you 
to act the man and prove your act by all 
knowledge essential to a full and complete 
exposition of your claims. But how am I 
to gain a knowledge of teaching t How 
do medical students get practice in their 
profession f Are they not required to pur- 
sue a certain course of study, lectures, etc., 
etc., prior to going out to practice? Can- 
not you do the same ? Have you done this f 
I thought any one who could wri»e and 
draw a little could teaoh. Young man, yon 
were never more mistaken in your life. 
If the itinerant professors from early times 
down to the present have not been received 
with open arm.<i it is easily accounted for 
by reflex action. Other callings are suf- 
fering from indiscretions, but this does not 
remedy this case. If the itinerant professor 

not much confort to speak of, but then "it 
will be English." There will he no water, 
no toilet-room, and the passengers will he 
locked in and unlocked only at their desti- 
nation—all so English ! The fare will be 
about $20 or " four pun, me lud," and the 
portmanteaus wili be "pasted" and not 
checked. The full fares aud postal service 
will net something over $2,000 each trip. 
There are so many that go everything En- 
glish that it is expected that coaching- 
clubs, English pug-dog owners, polo play- 
ers, fox-hunters, and dudes will patronize 
and roll up the receipts of the new train. 
It will not be necessary to use any of the 
new $5,000,000 loan, as it is a known fact 
that anything brought over here that is 
English always pays and pays well. One 
of the trains should be called the " Flying 
Wilde," and the other " Lightning Lang- 

When to Subscribe. 

For several reasons it is desirable, that, 
so far as is practicable, subscriptions should 
begin with the year, yet it is entirely op- 
tional with the subscriber as to when his 
subscription shall commence. Those who 
may be specially interested in the very prac- 
tical and valuable course of lessons com- 
menced by Prof. H. C. Spencer may have 
their subsoriptiona begin with the May 
number, in which is the first lesson of the 

A Hard Witness. 

" Do you know the prisoner well?" asked 
the attorney. 

" Never know him sick," replied the 

"No levity,'' said the lawyer, sternly. 
" Now, sir, did yon ever see the prisoner at 
the barf*' 

" Took many a drink with him at the 

" Answer my question, sir," yelled the 
lawyer. "ILnvloug have you known the 

"From two feet up to five feet ten 

" Will the court make the ' 

"I have, Jedge," said the witness, anti- 
cipating the lawyer: "I have answered 
the question. I knowed the prisoner when 
he was a boy two feet long and a man five 
feet ten." 

" Your Honor " 

" It's fact, Jedge, Fm under oath," per- 
sisted the witness. 

The lawyer arose, placed both hands on 
the table in front of him, spread his legs 
apart, leaned his body over the table and 

"Will you tell the Court what you know 
about this case ? " 

"That ain't hia name," replied the wit- 

"What ain't his name?" 

" Case." 

"Who said it wast" 

" You did. You wanted to know what 
I knew about this case. His name's 

"Your Honor," howled the attorney, 
plucking his beard out by the roots, "will 
you make this man answer?" 

"Witness," said the Judge, "you must 
answer the questions put to you." 

f'Land o' Goshen, Jedge, hain't I been 
doin' it? Let the blamed cuas fire away. 
I'm all ready." 

"Then," said the lawyer, "don't beat 
about the bush any more. You and the 
prisoner have been friends?" 

"Never," promptly responded the wit- 

" What I Wasn't you summoned here 
as a friend?" 

"No sir; I was summoned here as a 
Presbyterian. Narry one of us was ever 
Friends. He's an old-line Baptist, without 
a drop of Quaker in him." 

" Stand down," yelled the lawyer in dis- 


" Stand dowu." 

"Can't do it. I'll sit down or stand 
up " 

" Slieriir, remove the man from the box." 

Witness retires, muttering : " Well, if he 
ain't the thick- headedest uuss I ever laid 
eyes on." — Ulica Observer. 

" I has been axed several times o' late," 
remarked Brother Ganlner as he opened 
the meeting in his usual bland manner, " if 
we war* to have any new mottoes or prov- 
erbs or maxims fur de summer Pezun. De 
Committee on Sayin's has handed in the 
follerin' bill o' fare fur hot weather : ' He 
who sleeps by day will hunger by night.' 
'Industry am de peg on which Plenty 
hangs her hat.' 'Argyment makes three 
enemies to one friend.' ' Men who go to 
law mus' expect to eat deir 'taters widout 
salt.' * De biggest balloon kin be packed 
in a bar*! M-hen de gas am out.' De rattle 
of de empty wagon kin be heard furder dan 
de rumble of de loaded one.' " — Detroit Free 

The Common-sense Binder. 

This convenient receptacle for holding 
and preserving the Journal should bo in 
possession of every subscriber. It is to all 
intents and puqposcs a complete bindrr, and 
will contain all the numbers for four years 
Mailed for $1.50. 




PabUiphed Monthly at «1 per \ 


iDfl* [DMrtloD. 30 oral* per hae DonpwvU. 

ID V^m |m!oO $mM $l^SM 


iKft AodTlrw-ti^ " woure, nol only Ibe piitfono«* of 
kll !!,<•« who u« iDterw.*.! >D .Vlllfiil writiDK or twwhiD*. 


To ftll who rwnil »l. w« will moil lh« JoUIWAr. ono 

book' of Artltiic Pennmn.hlp '•; or. for 1125. a copy 
boand In olollt. For ti tb« " Han.l book," tn clotb, and 
the "Standanl Pmcilcn) Pramaiiahlp," vill bolh be 
mftlled irtih lb« Bnr copy ol Ihe JOUIISAL. 

The Cmlenola) Piolura of Progt«a> 9Sx38. 

*■ Ploori*b«l Bairle 34x32. 

■ Bouudioji Stag Mx39. 

■; LordsPmyer 19xM. 

'■ Family Reoorf. ."!".!!!"!!!"!!! 1)6x22! 

" Marriage CertlBcate 18l2S. 

Th> priM of eacb of these *rorka, by mail, U SO oeois 


and »12 we will send a nopy 

prire K. Or. a copy ot ■ 

Of P«ninan«bip "; relaU. fo 



Wllhoot a BPECIAI. pre 

mall the JOUitRAL. one yea 

er tta rollowe: 

aco^lei $1.75 

J :: 300 

jSO ;; ^,50 

The will be mailwi to olubt at 95 ceuta ( In 

The JOUSKAL will be 1m 

led tta nearly as poMible on 

alter de«i«rned for iniertioo 

Remlttaiioe«*biiu1d be by 




SiibMtttplloni to tbe P 


promptly aileudod lo by the 



uvene Street. [Fleet St.], 

London, Buglaad. 

I<oital-canl lo subM be 

opped unUI the tubMsriplioo 

New York 

July, 1883. 

Teaching Business-writing. 

Til.- ColUffe Record for Juno, and tlio 
College Quarterly for July, of Jacksouvillp, 
in., coiitaiQ soinowliat extended articles liy 
G. W. Brown, proprietor of ihe Jaekson- 
villo Business College, coinl)Htiiig the ideas 
advanced tlirough recent numbers of the 
Journal tlmt business writing 
taught. We do not propose to ci 
iuto the disoussion of this innttc 
personal interview and discussic 
Brown at the late Convention in Washing- 
ton wo aro convinced that the chief diffcr- 
onoe between his and our views consists in 
tho difference of construction placed upon 
tho term " business-wriiiog " — he using it 
in tlie sense of practical writing, or that 
which is best adapted to business purposes. 
In that sense wo agree with Mi. Brown 
that it can be and is successfully taught. 

characteristicD of the writer, into, as it were. 
a distinct pereooality, which staods for and 
reprr.icntij its author and nobody elsi-. Such 
writing can be no more appropriated by 
another pen<i>ii than can thr> physique of its 
antluT, and is. we jimriii iintraeliublc. 

Exhibits at the ConventioD. 

One of the interesting features of the hite 
Convention was tlic nuinerniis specimens 
of penmanship there exhibited — some of 
which exhibits were of professional work, 
wliilo many others were arninged for ex- 
hihiling the result of school -work. Among 
the former were numerous specimens of 
flourishing and drawing by R. S. Collins, 
of Kings MoimtJiin, N. C. ; an engrossed 
testimonial to Charles .Stewart Parnell, by 
.lohn O. T. McCarthy, of War Department, 
Washington, D. C. ; specimens of flourish- 
ing, writing and drawing, liy C- N. Crandle, 
Penman at tho Western Normal College 
and Commercial Institute, Bushnell, III.; 
a finely executed specimen of illumination, 
in gill and colors, was exhibited by Jiiines 
B. Philp, of Washington. From the office 
of the Penman's Art Journal were ex- 
bibited a scrap-bnoU containing specimens 
from various penmen of the United States 
and Canada, another containing specimens 
of the original pen-and-ink designs, witii 
copies of the same, reproduced by photo- 
engraving and photo-lithography, in forms 
of diplomas, certificates, testimonials, coin- 
mcreial forms, etc. 

Hanging upon the walla, in the college- 
rooms and balls, were a large number of 
exquisitely executed specimens of practical 
and ornamental penmanship from the pens 
of H. (' and L. P. Spencer. 

G. W. Brown, of the Jacksonville ( 111.) 
Business College, exhibited numerous spe- 
cimens of good practical writing, executed 
by teachers and pupils of his institution. 
Similar and very creditable speciiuens were 
exhibited by A. S. Osborne, penman at the 
KochcBter ( N. Y.) Business Uuiveisity. 
There were also on exhibition a largo 
number of specimens collected from the 
writing departments of the public schools of 
Washington, wbich were of exceptional 

New Versus Old and Tried Ideas 
and Methods. 

Re-iolutions transmitted to tbe Conven- 
tion by Prof. W. p. Cooper, of Kiugsville, 
Ohio, presented to the Association by a 
resolution offered by R. C. Spencer, of Mil- 
waukee, Wis., with remarks complimentry 

. Mr. Co 

A Trap that Catches. 

Any visitor to Washington who fails to 

the Seci 




r further 
From a 
with Mr. 

3 have 

icd till 

applied to tho best style of practical writ- 
ing as taught in schools and colleges, re- 
molded and fixed, as it is sure to be, by the 
eiigenaes of business life and tbe personal 

Treasury Department will miss one of tli 
most interesting sights of that city of 
wonders. There are exhibited all the 
various kinds and styles of counterfeit 
money, paper and coin, which, from time 
to time, have been captured by tho United 
States detectives, together with the photo- 
graphs of all the persons who have been 
arrested f<.r making or passing such money. 
There will be seen counterfeits of all grades 
of excellence, and by every conceivable 
method known— notes so finely engraved 
as to deceive the very elect, and others so 
pooriy made as to excite wonder that 
any one dare offer it, or that any one 
could receive it as genuine. There are 
several notes exquisitely executed with a 
pen and brush, which have passed many 
times as current money; even the siken 
fibre which is now introduced into the 
pajior upon which all government notes 
and bonds are printed was finely imitated 

Remarks of Mr. Spencbb upon the 
Resolutions Offered by Him. 

Mr. President: I desire to present to 
the Association a series of resolutions by 
Prof. WUliain P. Cooper, King8ville,Ohio, 
who was for some years actively engaged 
in business colleges. Mr Cooper not only 
attained high rank as a teacher of penman- 
ship, but bec^ime known as a aentleman of 
liberal attainments, rare intellectnal en- 
dowments, and social qualities. His retire- 
ment from college work, on account of im- 
paired health, was cause of general regret. 
Mr. Cooper's interest in the profession is 
manifest by the resolutions which I have 
the honor to present, prepared by him. I 
ask that tbe resolutions be published in 
the Proceedings. 

Resolution.s Offered uy 
R. C- Spencer. 

Whereas Prof. William P. Cooper, of 
Kiugsville, Ohio, an accomplished teacher of 
ppnmanship.for many ye rs identified with 
business colleges, has, by reason of impaired 
health, been obliged to relinquish regular 
professional labor; Therefore 

ResoUtd, That we extend to Prof. Cooper 
assurances of our appreciation of his faith- 
ful and efficient services to the eauje in 
which he still retains the deepest interest. 
Kinosville, Ohio, July, 1883. 

Sesolved, That while we favor free dis- 
cussion in everything legitimately belong- 
ing to the science or art of peumanship. 
also the methods of teaching accounts, we 
cannot help urging the many and able 
authors in our day. placing their views in 
type, to consider well the soundness of 

lie, they i' 

i.l t.bcy, 

i cesse t 



is Mr. James 
)se markedly 
scarcely sug- 

At the head of this 
J. Brooks, a gentlcm 
courteous and pleasant 
gestive of a chief of rogue- catchers, but the 
spoils of his craft bear evidence that he is a 
terrible snare in the way of the usurper of 
Uncle Sam's money-making prerogative. 


The stock of Ames's Compendiums is ex- 
hausted; no more can be mailed. A revised 

and greatly improved edition is now in 
course of preparation, and will be au- 
nounctd when ready. 

defensible . 
lie. TliHt, 

Resolved, That we cannot believe all 
things mutable and changeable in the mat- 
ters of Art and Education, or that the beau- 
tiful is simply what we are pleased to im- 
agine it. Certain ideas, certain methods, 
and certain principles will be sound forever; 
others admit of change or improvement. 
Once having discovered the truth and the 
best way in any or to any degree, we ask the 
people to stick to it, and to discriminate 
carefully in regard to points of departure 
in any direction. There may be schools of 
art, in the matter of penmanship, -each hav- 
ing some merit, though a widely varying 
degree. Careful discussion is a good thing; 
reckb ss discussion will do little less than 
blind fools and puzzle the best. 

Resolved, That we have and do appre- 
ciate and respect, defend and honor the 
pioneers of modes, methods and systems in 
our business or profession. We will, also, 
judge liberally of new ideas and new men. 

Resolved, That in our Conventions hith- 
erto we have, through excess i f good feel- 
ing, perhaps, or friendliness, seemed to tol- 
erate impracticable methods, both new and 

Resolved, That we absolutely and un- 
qualifiedly ignore the idea of irresponsibili- 
ties, irresponsible agents, aiithors, editors, 
or teachers. The men of the new innova- 
tion Imve not shouldered their respon- 
sibilities, and met the hardships of pioneers, 
who have thus vindicated their methods. 

Resolved, That while they cheerfully unj 
dertake the tutorship of the young, they 
hope to receive in charge the hope and prom- 
ise of the country — properly disciplined, in 
all things,for acceptance and training. Home 
and public school training will be expected 
to have dune their part. What we under- 
take is on the hypothesis that this is true. 

Resolved, That, inasmuch as the Ameri- 
can people have reached a development and 
proficiency superior to most, if not all, 
other people in this branch, and that this 
superiority is acknowledged widely abroad, 
it is to be hoped that the boards of educa- 
tion and the teachers of the public schools 
all over tbe country will, in all jiossii-lo 
ways, support and aid the teachers of this 
branch, in future, and for such a labor they 
should receive the thanks of the counirv. 

Sample copies of tbe Jodhnal, 10 » 

The King Club 

For this mouth numbers fyty eight, and 
Comes from the " banner-town," and is sent 
by E. K. Isaacs, principal of tbe penman- 
ship department of the Northern Indiana 
Normal Sch<)ol and Business Institute, Val- 
paraiso, Ind. We do not know the popu- 
lation of Valparaiso, but over 2,000 stib- 
soriptions have been received from there 
during a period of a little more than two 
years. We imagine, however, that if sub- 
scriptions were received pro rata through- 
out the United States, we should be mail- 
ing about i,00(t,000 Journals monthly. 
And why nott We believe the Journal 
to be a good investment to every learner 
and teacher of writiug in the land, and we 
believe that the chief difference between the 
large proportionate number sent from Val- 
paraiso is duo to the manner in which the 
merits of the Journal have been pre- 
sented, and that with like influence at work, 
proportionately large clubs might he se- 
cured in every scliool and town in the 
United States and Canada. We also be- 
lieve that the teacher who induces a pupil 
or acquaintance to subscribe is a benefactor 
to that pupil ; the teacher puts into the 
pupil's hand, at noniiual cost, an agency 
that will teud largely to interest and en- 
courage tbe pupil, thereby supplementing 
to a powerful degree the teacher's work. 
Teachers, try it ! 

The second club in si^e jmmhecs thirteen, 
and comes from C. E. Baird, A.B., man- 
ager of the biisineaa department of the E. I. 
Normal School, Portland, Me. 

Clubs of ten each come from P. R. Cleary, 
Fowlerville, Mich., and L. B. Lawson, 
Haywards, Cal. 

While this is not tbe time for large or 
numerous clubs, yet they have been more 
than usually active for the vacation season. 

Our Thanks and Sympathy, 

To Mr. M. D. Casey, of the Tieasuiy 
Department, Washington, wo tender our 
most sincere thanks for his kind and gener- 
ous hospitality while in Washington, and 
also express our most profound sympathy 
and condolence with him in the very sudden 
and unlooked-for bereavement with which 
he was stricken during the period of the 
Convention, iu tbe death of his dearly be- 
loved wife. We heg to tender him our 
kindest wishes, and to express to 'him a 
hope that we may yet have an opportunit 
to reciprocate his hospitality. 

Delay of the "JournaL" 

Owing to a combination of several ad- 
verse circumstances, the issue of the present 
number of the Journal has been delayed 
considerably beyond its usual time of issue. 
Wo shall endeavor to mail the August 
number on or before the 15th of that 

More Delegates. 

Tho Business Educators' Association, 
which recently held a Conventiiyi at the 
National Capital, has, under different names 
and auspices, been iu existence for the last 
fifteen years, and shows an enrollment dur- 
ing that time of several hundred member.';. 
It is important that the educational busi- 
ness houses, located at commercial centres, 
not represented in the last Convention, 
should send delegates to the next Conven- 
tion, which is to assemble at Rochester, 
N. Y. New Orleans, St. Louis, Atalanta, 
Louisville, San Francisco, Buffalo, Brook- 
lyn, Philadelphia, and quite a number of 
other principal cities, should not fail to be 
fully represented in the Convention of 1884. 

The Hand - book ( in paper ) is now 
offered free as a premiuifi to every person 
remitting $1 for one year's subscription to 
tbe Journal. Or, handsomely bound in 
sloth, for 25 cents additional. 



Striking Resemblance. 

Maoy of our readers are uadoubt«cl]y 
aware that H. C. and H. A. Speocer are 
twio brothers, and so closely reeenibliog 
each other as to orten be niistakeD one for 
the other by even their iotimate ac^^uatot- 
ance-*. (tf thnm the Wa.*hinfjton liepubU- 
can published, io connecliou with it« report 
or the CoDventioD, the fullon-ing anecdote: 

The sinking rMemblaiice of two roembera of 
the Convenlion has b«en the occasion ot ludi- 
crous coDfaaion more than once during the 
present meeting. The two gentlemen are Mr. 
II. C. Spencer, president of the Spenrerian 
Buainess college in this city, and Mr. H. A. 
Speiicer of New York. They are twin hrolh- 
era uf exactly the «ame sislure and build, the 
dame hair, complexion, eyea, and expreeston. 
When one gets np to vpeak theCouveulion has 
to be informed which it is. The vuicee are 
hUo the same. A delegate suggested that a 
blue ribbon should be tied around the arm of 
one to distinguish bim from the other. The 
morning H. A. Spencer arrived here from 
New York he went to the Holly Tree reslau- 
raut to take brenkfael. The colored waiter 
looked on in blank wonderment, and while 
Mr. Spencer wna paying bis hill was overheard 
to nay to a brolliur waiter, " Dat manV gut de 
most rav'aoUH appetite 1 ever see in my life. 
Why, look here, he was in here at 9 o'clock 
'v.actly, and had beefsteak, bam and eggs, fried 
potatoes, and coffee. Now it's a ([uarler to ten 
'/actly, and he's jus' had mutton chops, ham 

A New College Building. 

Cards of invitation an' is.supd to 
cercmoay of laying a cunier-stooe < 
new building for the Eastman Busi: 
College at Poiighkeepsie, N. Y. 

From the comments on the personnel of 
the ConveDtion by the Washington Repub- 
lican we abstract the follovriog: 

Among the delegates attending the meeting 
of the Association there are a number of noted 
bnaineSB educators. Prof. S. S. Packard, ot 
Packard's New York City Business college, is 
a famed teacher. Hie institution trains over 
l,Ol>0 Bludente per annum. He is i>7 years of 
age, but looks younger, as he ie slender and 
erect, and his face clearly ohaven. He has 
been in the business thirty years. He is the 
author of the well known Bryant and Strat- 
ton's Book-keepingt*. He has also bad a va- 
ried literary and newspaper experience. He 
first published the famous article of Oliver 
Dyer on John Allen— "The Wickedest Man 
in New York.' He edited Bryant and Strat- 
ton'i Magazine from IK^7 to 'CO; subsequently 
he was editor of Packard'a Monthly, a credita- 
ble literary venture. 

A prominent Rgure in the Association is the 
Hon. Ira Mahew, of Detroit. He was form- 
erly state superintendent of instruction in the 
state of Michigan, aud while holding this 
position saw the necessity of a more practical 
business education than that afforded hj the 


We nre deeply paiocd to learn of the 
very sudden death from hemorrbiigc, of 
C. W. Rice, which occurred on the 4th 
iDst., at Ecstes Park, Colorado, where he 
had Just gone to pass his vacation, and ap- 
parently in the full eujoyinent of health. 
Mr. K. was a youag penmaD of rare skill 
and proiniso, having taught in several of 
the leading business colleges of the West, 
and waa engaged aa teacher of writing in 
the Deiiver~{Col.) Business College at the 
time of his deccise. He was highly 
esteemed by all who knew him, alike for 
his fine social qualities and professional at- 
tainments. At a meeting of the Faculty 
and students of the Denver Business Col- 
lege, the following resolutions of respect to 
his worth and memory wero unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, I'he Divine Ruler of the uni- 
verse has removed from our midst our dear 
friend and teacher, Professor Cha'los W- 
Rice ; therefore, recognizing his worth and 
the loss sustained by his many friends 
throughout the United States and Canada, 
and bowing with humble tuhmissiou to the 
will of the Almighty, 

Resolved, That in his life aud character, 
as exemplified by his every word and act, 
we recognize a young gentleman of excel- 
lent moral character aud many talents. 

Resolved, By the death of the deceased 
the community sustains the loss of a good 

J. B. D., MiTuing Stm, Io«a.— Please 
answer the following questions through the 
JntTBNAL. 1st. Is professional penman- 
ship injurious to one with weak lungs T 2d. 
Can I Icam to teach penmanship {by rend- 
ing) wilhout going to school f 3d. Why 
are there so many failures m teaching pen-